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Über dieses Buch

Amperometric sensors, biosensors included, particularly rely on suitable electrode materials. Progress in material science has led to a wide variety of options that are available today. For the first time, these novel functional electrode coating materials are reviewed in this monograph, written by and for electroanalytical chemists. This includes intrinsically conducting, redox and ion-exchange polymers, metal and carbon nanostructures, silica based materials. Monolayers and relatively thick films are considered. The authors critically discuss preparation methods, in addition to chemical and physical characteristics of these new materials. They present various examples of emerging applications in electroanalysis. Due to its comprehensive coverage, the book will become an indispensable source for researchers working on the development and even proper use of new amperometric sensor systems.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Importance of Modified Electrodes in Amperometric Sensing

Abstract
It seems prudent to spend some time giving the reader a basic guide, illuminating some points to hopefully clarify, as much as possible, the aim and the language of the present monograph.
Renato Seeber, Fabio Terzi, Chiara Zanardi

Chapter 2. Intrinsically Conducting Polymers

Abstract
Thanks to the presence of a π–electron conjugated system, a few organic polymers, such as polypyrrole (PPy), polyaniline (PANI), polythiophene (PTh), and relevant derivatives, are classified as semiconductors that become well conductive by partial oxidation or reduction. By following an improper analogy with inorganic semi-conductors this process has been called ‘doping’. For this peculiar characteristic, similar materials are called ‘intrinsically conducting polymers’ (ICPs). The structures of the most meaningful ICPs are displayed in Fig. 2.1.
Renato Seeber, Fabio Terzi, Chiara Zanardi

Chapter 3. Redox Polymers and Metallopolymers

Abstract
Redox polymers (RPs) constitute a class of electrically conductive macromolecules covalently bound to a number of organic or inorganic redox centers typically equal to one another. Nitro-substituted styrene, quinone, viologen, and dopamine residues exhibit reversible redox behavior and should be considered pioneering organic redox centers in the frame of RPs. On the other hand, the redox centers of RPs more often consist of metal ions surrounded by different sets of co-ordinating ligands, thus opening, in principle, to a huge variety of different derivatives: various complexes of Ir, Co, Re, Ru, and Os have been proposed. Significant examples of RPs used in electroanalytical applications are sketched in Fig. 3.1.
Renato Seeber, Fabio Terzi, Chiara Zanardi

Chapter 4. Ion Exchange Polymers

Abstract
This chapter deals with a number of non-conducting polymers possessing net positive or negative charge. They impart the electrode a specific reactivity toward charged species in solution, exploitable in many electroanalytical contexts, as detailed in the following. Table 4.1 reports the most common anionic and cationic polymers used in electroanalysis; they are, for the most part, commercially available.
Renato Seeber, Fabio Terzi, Chiara Zanardi

Chapter 5. Monolayers

Abstract
One of the most common methods employed to tune the properties of a surface consists of the formation of a monomolecular layer of organic species, possessing a thickness of up to a few nanometers [1–13]. Molecules that form monolayers are normally more or less strongly adsorbed or even covalently bound to a surface. In fact, the adsorption of species on surfaces is a spontaneous phenomenon, since clean electrode surfaces are frequently thermodynamically unstable in a real environment, due to the presence of dangling bonds. Adsorption of molecules leading to mono- and multilayers reduces the overall energy of the system consisting of not interacting substrate and adsorbed species.
Renato Seeber, Fabio Terzi, Chiara Zanardi

Chapter 6. Nanosized Materials

Abstract
Novel nanosized materials have been proposed at an increasing rate over the past two decades, and have influenced many different scientific and technological fields as soon as the community revealed and developed their particular characteristics [1–5]. Their use in electroanalysis has become so widespread that electrode modifications based on these materials are often the preferred solution to the realization of effective amperometric sensors.
Renato Seeber, Fabio Terzi, Chiara Zanardi

Chapter 7. Silica-Based Materials and Derivatives

Abstract
This chapter describes a variety of silica-based inorganic materials, mainly consisting of clays, zeolites, and pure SiO2. The driving force for the use of these materials as an electrode coating was their abundance on the earth crust, although the outlook has been enriched by the development of a wide number of synthetic derivatives. Pure silica-based materials only consist of Si-O groups; different inorganic units are also present in clays and zeolites, particularly based on Al. Furthermore, the class of clays also includes a variety of different derivatives, e.g., Mg/Al anionic clays, conferring the electrode quite interesting and specific physico-chemical properties of interest in electroanalytical applications. Common features of all these materials are the good stability in high temperatures and extremely oxidative conditions, which increases the possibility of reaching extremely positive and useful electrode potentials.
Renato Seeber, Fabio Terzi, Chiara Zanardi

Backmatter

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