The area of electromechanical energy conversion having the longest history of technical implementation is that exploiting
. Today, with numerous variations and sophisticated solution approaches, such transducers are present in everyday life, particularly in the macro-mechatronic domain in the form of
switching, drive, and generator devices, as well as in well-established sensor types. Current areas of research deal with questions of functional integration, e.g.
solutions. Due to the specialized materials required to realize electromagnetic principles, application in the micro-mechatronic world is limited to specialized areas, though showing great potential where applicable. For all such applications and extensions of current functionality, a thorough understanding of the inherent electromagnetic