Electrostatics represents the most ancient known manifestation of electricity, but it has only been since the end of the 20th century that this principle has achieved true engineering significance as a key component of
). Due to the physically-constrained, micro-scale force generation available from this principle, its many possible sensor and actuator applications can also only be realized at the micro- scale. Electrostatic transducers are particularly attractive due to the relative ease of their construction. All they require is some conductive materials for the electrodes.