The inertia power generated by the rotating mass (rotor) of a synchronous generator plays a significant role in slowing down the frequency oscillation and has an active role in the system frequency stability during a disturbance. Lower system inertia could lead to a significantly faster change in the system frequency, resulting in the degradation of system frequency stability. A rapid frequency deviation can lead to system instability, collapse, and power blackout. Thus, by understanding the concept of inertia and its role in the power system, it would give a better insight on how to deal with the frequency problem caused by low system inertia. To give a clear understanding of the inertia compensation and frequency control, this chapter elaborates on the subject of active power-based inertia compensation regarding power system frequency control, including its basic concept and definition. Afterward, the primary, secondary, tertiary, and emergency control loops for power system frequency control are discussed in detail. A frequency response model is provided and its utilization for the sake of dynamic analysis and simulation regarding virtual inertia is elaborated. Finally, the past achievements regarding the inertia power compensation for system frequency control are discussed.
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