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Über dieses Buch

This book offers a strong introduction to fundamental concepts on the basis of materials science. It conveys the central issue of materials science, distinguishing it from merely solid state physics and solid state chemistry, namely to develop models that provide the relation between the microstructure and the properties.
The book is meant to be used in the beginning of a materials science and engineering study as well as throughout an entire undergraduate and even graduate study as a solid background against which specialized texts can be studied. Topics dealt with are "crystallography", "lattice defects", "microstructural analysis", "phase equilibria and transformations" and "mechanical strength". After the basic chapters the coverage of topics occurs to an extent surpassing what can be offered in a freshman's course.

About the author
Prof. Mittemeijer is one of the top scientists in materials science, whose perceptiveness and insight have led to important achievements. This book witnesses of his knowledge and panoramic overview and profound understanding of the field. He is a director of the Max Planck Institute for Metals Research in Stuttgart.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
“Materials” can be said to emerge by human action: a material is a substance with a present or an expected future application for mankind.1 So not all substances are materials.
Eric J. Mittemeijer

Chapter 2. Electronic Structure of the Atom; the Periodic Table

Abstract
Atoms consist of a nucleus that is surrounded by a “cloud” of electrons. Protons, elementary particles carrying positive unit charge (e = 1.602 × 10–19 C), and neutrons, elementary particles carrying no charge, form together the nucleus of diameter of the order 10–14 m. Electrons, elementary particles carrying negative unit charge, have only about 1/1836 the mass of a proton, but are located within a relatively enormously large space of diameter of the order 10–10 m. Hence, with a view to mass distribution, the atom is largely “empty”.
Eric J. Mittemeijer

Chapter 3. Chemical Bonding in Solids; with Excursions to Material Properties

Abstract
Why do atoms stick together? And why do they gather in aggregates exhibiting specific types of three-dimensional (periodic) arrangements? Mankind, on its road to reveal the secrets of nature, time and again returns to these questions in order to develop an ever-growing insight on how matter is formed from its building units.
Eric J. Mittemeijer

Chapter 4. Crystallography

Abstract
Asking the laymen what a crystal is, reference most likely will be made to macroscopic solid bodies found in nature (often minerals, possibly presented as gems), more or less or not transparent for visible light, bounded by planar faces (facets) and, thereby, exhibiting regularity. Symmetry may for example be apparent as a rotation over a certain angle, e.g. 60°, 90° or 180°, about an axis through the object, leading to the same appearance. The observation of symmetry (not only possible as the result of a rotation as indicated above, but, for example, also as the outcome of a mirroring or an inversion operation) induces a strong emotional stir in human beings: occurrence of symmetry is experienced as beauty.1 This sensation may be primarily due to nature and not to nurture.
Eric J. Mittemeijer

Chapter 5. The Crystal Imperfection; Lattice Defects

Abstract
Idealized presentations of atomic arrangements exhibiting long-range translation symmetry, i.e. idealized crystal structures, have been presented and discussed in the previous chapter. Very many properties of crystalline materials cannot be understood merely on the basis of such perfect atomic arrangements. As a matter of fact, defects in the atomic arrangement, as compared to the idealized ordering, strongly determine material properties as mechanical strength, diffusion, electrical conductivity and so on.
Eric J. Mittemeijer

Chapter 6. Analysis of the Microstructure; Analysis of Lattice Imperfections: Light and Electron Microscopical and X-Ray Diffraction Methods

Abstract
Materials are substances that have now, or are expected to find in a not too distant future, practical use (see Chap. 1). The microstructure of a material (beautifully described by the untranslatable German word “Gefüge”) is a notion that comprises all aspects of the atomic arrangement in a material that should be known in order to understand its properties. Mostly we are concerned with crystalline materials. The conception microstructure then narrows to the description of the so-called crystal imperfection (cf. Chap. 5).
Eric J. Mittemeijer

Chapter 7. Phase Equilibria

Abstract
The appearance of a system can be homogeneous or heterogeneous. Even in equilibrium situations, involving that no further (net) changes in the system occur and are possible, provided the boundary conditions remain constant, heterogeneity can prevail: for example, in an Al–Si alloy at room temperature (and at 1 atm pressure), in equilibrium an Al-rich part of the system (f.c.c. crystals with very little Si dissolved) and a Si-rich part of the system (crystals of diamond-type structure with very little Al dissolved) can be distinguished. These, generally dispersed, parts of the system, which are in equilibrium with each other, will be called phases. Obviously there is a great scientific, fundamental interest and, even greater, practical/technological interest, to know and understand these “heterogeneous, phase equilibria”.
Eric J. Mittemeijer

Chapter 8. Diffusion

Abstract
Transport of material by migration of atoms or molecular entities, i.e. diffusion, is one of the most fundamental, elementary processes in materials and thus of great importance to the materials scientist and engineer. Firstly, a desired redistribution of the atoms of the elements in a solid/workpiece can be evoked by subjecting the material to a thermal treatment giving possibly rise to the development of new phases and microstructure (see Chap. 9), leading to optimum, desired properties. The rate (i.e. the kinetics) of such processes is, often next to nucleation processes, in many cases determined by the necessary diffusion processes. Obviously, reactions between a solid and a liquid and/or a gas involve diffusion processes as well. Secondly, restricting ourselves to diffusion in solids, understanding the mechanism of diffusion processes in solids can lead to deep insight into the nature and density of defects exhibited by the atomic arrangement, as in crystals (e.g. vacancies and dislocations; cf. Chap. 5).
Eric J. Mittemeijer

Chapter 9. Phase Transformations

Abstract
The manipulation of the microstructure of materials belongs to the heart of the realm of materials science. Often, but not always, non-equilibrium structures/states are produced purposely. The goal of the invoked microstructural changes is to bring about favourable values for the material properties of interest in the application of the material concerned. Mechanical treatments in combination with heat treatments, such as cold rolling followed by annealing to induce recrystallization, provide one example, which is discussed in Chap. 10. Very often the microstructure is changed by deliberately generated phase transformations, which are the focal point of interest in this chapter. A classical example involves (see Fig. 9.1 pertaining to a binary system, and see also Chap. 7)
Eric J. Mittemeijer

Chapter 10. Recovery, Recrystallization and Grain Growth

Abstract
Recrystallization has been identified as a process in metallic solids since the “old days” (last part of the nineteenth century), when it was supposed that cold working of a metallic workpiece destroyed its crystallinity and that subsequent heating restored the crystalline nature by a process then naturally coined with the name “recrystallization”. Nowadays we would define recrystallization as a process that leads to a change of the crystal orientation (distribution) for the whole polycrystalline specimen, in association with a release of the stored strain energy as could have been induced by preceding cold work: a new microstructure results (Fig. 10.1). Recrystallization restores the properties as they were before the cold deformation. Recrystallization (and recovery and grain growth) occurs in all types of crystalline materials, so not only in metals. However, metals are the only important class of materials capable of experiencing pronounced plastic deformation at relatively low temperatures (i.e. low with respect to the melting temperatures), which explains that most of the corresponding research has been and is performed on metallic materials.
Eric J. Mittemeijer

Chapter 11. Mechanical Strength of Materials

Abstract
The response of materials to applied forces concerns a field of material properties which has been of prime interest to human beings since the emergence of mankind. Even as a child, already, one gathers experiences about what we vaguely call the “strength” of a material, by feeling with our fingers how “hard” or “soft” a specific material is.
Eric J. Mittemeijer

Backmatter

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