Many large-scale biometric systems operate in the identification mode and include multimodal information. While biometric fusion is a well-studied problem, most of the fusion schemes have been implicitly designed for the verification scenario and cannot account for missing data (missing modalities or incomplete score lists) that is commonly encountered in multibiometric identification systems. In this paper, we show that likelihood ratio-based score fusion, which was originally designed for verification systems, can be extended for fusion in the identification scenario under certain assumptions. We further propose a Bayesian approach for consolidating ranks and a hybrid scheme that utilizes both ranks and scores to perform fusion in identification systems. We also demonstrate that the proposed fusion rules can handle missing information without any ad-hoc modifications. We observe that the recognition performance of the simplest rank level fusion scheme, namely, the highest rank method, is comparable to the performance of complex fusion strategies, especially when the goal is not to obtain the best rank-1 accuracy but to just retrieve the top few matches.
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- Fusion in Multibiometric Identification Systems: What about the Missing Data?
Anil K. Jain
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
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