main-content

## Über dieses Buch

As information technology (IT) becomes specialized and fragmented, it is easy to lose sight that many topics have common threads and because of this, advances in one s- discipline may transmit to another. The presentation of results between different s- disciplines encourages this interchange for the advancement of IT as a whole. This volume comprises the selection of papers presented at the Second International Mega-Conference on Future Generation Information Technology (FGIT 2010), composed of the following 11 international conferences: Advanced Software Engineering and Its Applications (ASEA 2010), Bio-Science and Bio- Technology (BSBT 2010), Control and Automation (CA 2010), Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity (DRBC 2010), Database Theory and Application (DTA 2010), Future Generation Communication and Networking (FGCN 2010), Grid and Distributed Computing (GDC 2010), Multimedia, Computer Graphics and Broadcasting (MulGraB 2010), Security Technology (SecTech 2010), Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition (SIP 2010), as well as u- and e-Service, Science and Technology (UNESST 2010). In total, 1,630 papers were submitted to FGIT 2010 from 30 countries. The submitted papers went through a rigorous reviewing process and 395 papers were accepted. Of these 395 papers, 60 were assigned to this volume. In addition, this volume contains 7 invited papers and abstracts. Of the remaining accepted papers, 269 were distributed among 8 volumes of proceedings published by Springer in the CCIS series. 66 papers were withdrawn due to technical reasons.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### Wavelet-Chaos-Neural Network Models for EEG-Based Diagnosis of Neurological Disorders

In this Keynote Lecture an overview of the author’s research for automated electroencephalogram (EEG)-based diagnosis of neurological disorders is presented. Sample research and wavelet-chaos-neural network models developed by the author and his research associates in recent years for diagnosis of epilepsy, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and the Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are reviewed briefly. The significant impact of this research on the future of neurology practice and its ramification are discussed.

### An Introduction to Perception Based Computing

We discuss basic notions of Perception Based Computing (PBC). Perception is characterized by sensory measurements and ability to apply them to reason about satisfiability of complex vague concepts used, e.g., as guards for actions or invariants to be preserved by agents. Such reasoning is often referred as adaptive judgment. Vague concepts can be approximated on the basis of sensory attributes rather than defined exactly. Approximations usually need to be induced by using hierarchical modeling. Computations require interactions between granules of different complexity, such as elementary sensory granules, granules representing components of agent states, or complex granules representing classifiers that approximate concepts. We base our approach to interactive computations on generalized information systems and rough sets. We show that such systems can be used for modeling advanced forms of interactions in hierarchical modeling. Unfortunately, discovery of structures for hierarchical modeling is still a challenge. On the other hand, it is often possible to acquire or approximate them from domain knowledge. Given appropriate hierarchical structures, it becomes feasible to perform adaptive judgment, starting from sensory measurements and ending with conclusions about satisfiability degrees of vague target guards. Thus, our main claim is that PBC should enable users (experts, researchers, students) to submit domain knowledge, by means of a dialog. It should be also possible to submit hypotheses about domain knowledge to be checked semi-automatically. PBC should be designed more like laboratories helping users in their research rather than fully automatic data mining or knowledge discovery toolkit. In particular, further progress in understanding visual perception – as a special area of PBC – will be possible, if it becomes more open for cooperation with experts from neuroscience, psychology or cognitive science. In general, we believe that PBC will soon become necessity in many research areas.

Andrzej Skowron, Piotr Wasilewski

### Social Networks: Research and Applications

On September 5, 2010, an opinion article in the Washington Post titled "Facebook and social media offer the potential of peace" appeared. The peace refers to the situation in Mideast. When young generations socialize between themselves using Facebook, MySpace, and/or Tweeter, war is less likely and peace may be possible.

Social media or social networks are changing the world, from how people make friends to how information is disseminated. More than 500 million people use Facebook alone. Of those, 70 percent are outside the United States. MySpace has 122 million monthly active users, and Twitter reports 145 million registered users. With their many users and vast amount of data produced each moment, social networks offer many research challenges in computer science.

For example, different from conventional data types, social media data are multi-model in nature, including content such as images, audio, videos, discussion topics, tags, annotations, hyperlinks, profiles, timestamps, click-throughs, etc. How to make meanings out of these data determines if intelligent applications can be devised.

The omnipresence of Internet makes social networks popular and easily accessible. Will social networks in turn affect the future network architecture? With the advancement of handheld mobile devices, social networks on the move are becoming common. Will mobile and pervasive social networks be any different?

Then there are trust, security, and privacy issues. As you can see, the list of related problems can go on and on and on. In this talk, we will identify some key issues in social network research and present some applications of social networks.

Ruay-Shiung Chang

### The Roadmap for Sharing Electronic Health Records: The Emerging Ubiquity and Cloud Computing Trends

Sabah Mohammed, Jinan Fiaidhi

### Compound Analytics of Compound Data within RDBMS Framework – Infobright’s Perspective

The relational model has been present in research and applications for decades, inspiring a number of RDBMS products based on entirely different architectures, but sharing the same way of understanding and representing the data [4]. Given 40 years of history, it is clear that the relational paradigms should not be blindly followed in all situations [1]. On the other hand, given its popularity, the relational framework is usually the easiest one to accept by database users and the most convenient for interfacing with other tools.

Dominik Ślęzak

### From Grid Computing to Cloud Computing: Experiences on Virtualization Technology

In recent years, we see a great change from grid computing to cloud computing. Cloud computing is among the most popular words in computing today. As technology foundation, virtualization technology (VT) becomes a re-emerging technology. It is a decoupling technique that separates system software from hardware platform, while making applications to run pervasively. Many academic institutes and research labs from industries have devoted great efforts in various related aspects. In 2007, Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology initialized a basic research project (the 973 project) with 6 universities and 2 research institutes, aimed at various topics related to VT-based computing systems, such as VT architecture design philosophy, VT design for a single computing system, VT design for multiple computing systems, user environment for VT, security, reliability and trust issues related to VT, as well as performance evaluation and benchmarking for VT-based computing systems. In this talk, we will give insight for this project. Our experiences on VT research are discussed in detail, including power management, virtual machine live migration, memory/IO virtualization, and desktop virtualization.

Hai Jin

### Recursive Queries Using Object Relational Mapping

Recent years witnessed continuous development of database query languages and object relational mappers. One of the research fields of interest are recursive queries. The first implementations of such queries for SQL has been introduced by Oracle in 1985. However, it was the introduction of recursive Common Table Expressions into the SQL:99 standard that made the research on this topic more popular. Currently most of the popular DBMS implements recursive queries, but there are no object relational mappers that support such queries. In this paper we propose extending existing ORMs with recursive CTE’s support. A prototype of such an extension has been implemented in SQLObject mapper for the Python language. Tests have been conducted with PostgreSQL 8.4 database. Furthermore, recursive queries written using CTEs amount to be too complex and hard to comprehend. Our proposal overcomes this problem by pushing the formulation of recursive queries to a higher abstraction level, which makes them significantly simpler to write and to read.

Marta Burzańska, Krzysztof Stencel, Patrycja Suchomska, Aneta Szumowska, Piotr Wiśniewski

### Agent Based Ontology Driven Virtual Meeting Assistant

It is widely recognized that much management time and effort is expended in attending meetings and being such a costly resource it is important that the decision to attend a meeting is not taken lightly. Because of this many busy executives are rejecting face-to-face meetings in favour of virtual meetings involving both high and low complexity technological solutions. This paper proposes an agent based, ontology driven meeting assistant designed to support virtual meetings. Situated on a graph database and operating over a peer-to-peer network the ontology will provide the basic vocabulary for the meeting and the semantics required to achieve a dialogue between the agents and the human interface used by the meeting assistant.

Phil Thompson, Anne James, Emanuel Stanciu

### Topic Number Estimation by Consensus Soft Clustering with NMF

We propose here a novel method to estimate the number of topics in a document set using consensus clustering based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). It is useful to automatically estimate the number of topics from a document set since various approaches to extract topics can determine their number through heuristics. Consensus clustering makes it possible to obtain a consensus of multiple results of clustering so that robust clustering is achieved and the number of clusters is regarded as the optimized number. In this paper, we have proposed a novel consensus soft clustering algorithm based on NMF and estimated an optimized number of topics by searching through a robust classification of documents for the topics obtained.

Takeru Yokoi

### Infrastructure Aided Privacy Preserving-Authentication in VANETs

The paper presents a privacy preserving authentication protocol for vehicles in a VANET. The authentication process involves authentication of the vehicle and the corresponding RSU by a fixed infrastructure (CTA). Every RSU has a public key infrastructure and continuously broadcasts public key. The vehicle encrypts its identity, RSU Id and timestamp using its symmetric key. The encrypted bits along with the pseudonym of vehicle and timestamp are again encrypted by the public key of RSU and send to the RSU. RSU forwards the encrypted part to the CTA. CTA sends its verification to the RSU. The verification of the vehicle is encrypted by the vehicle symmetric key and sends along with authentication of the vehicle to the RSU. The encrypted portion is forwarded to the vehicle which confirms the authentication of the RSU after decryption. The CTA also sends a temporary short certificate to the vehicle for vehicle to vehicle communication. The whole process needs only one request and reply between different entities. Simulation results indicate the time taken (~ 223

ms

) for the whole process is small and constitutes only a small portion of the stay time of a vehicle within an RSU region.

Brijesh Kumar Chaurasia, Shekhar Verma, G. S. Tomar

### Computational Analysis of a Power Distribution System with Petri Nets

Petri nets provide a simple yet very intuitive graphical model for processes such as concurrency, parallelism and synchronization. Furthermore, they have a solid mathematical foundation and a number of analysis methods available. Due to these reasons, Petri nets are especially suited for the analysis of large and complex systems. In this paper we apply the Petri nets formalism to represent and analyze a power distribution system. To this aim, we report briefly a Mathematica package developed by the authors to deal with Petri nets. The package is subsequently applied to determine the possible scenarios of a failure of the system and some associated behaviors.

Andrés Iglesias, Akemi Gálvez

### Analysis of Effect of Different Factors on Burst Dropping Probability in Optical Burst Switching Network

With an explosive growth of the Internet, optical network seems to be the candidate solution for future high-speed backbone networks. Optical burst switching (OBS) has been proposed as promising switching technology for the next generation wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) based network. The main issue in OBS based network is to reduce burst dropping probability. We classify different factors that affect burst dropping probability based on the schemes in which they are used. Schemes are like scheduling algorithm, burst assembly and burst reservation and factors are void filling and non-void filling scheduling algorithm, burst size, burst assembly schemes, offset time and different classes of traffic. This paper studies an impact of all above mention factors on to burst dropping probability with the help of extensive simulation on NS2. Simulation results shows that, different parameter must be properly used in the network.

Laxman D. Netak, Sandeep S. Udmale, Girish V. Chowdhary, Rupali Tajanpure

### An Optimization of Fundamental Frequency and Length of Syllables for Rule-Based Speech Synthesis

In this paper an optimization method has been proposed to minimize the differences of fundamental frequency (

F

0

) and the differences of length among the speakers and the phonemes. Within tone languages use pitch variation to construct meaning of the words, we need to define the optimized fundamental

F

0

and length to obtain the naturalness of synthetic sound. Large variability exists in the

F

0

and the length uttered by deferent speakers and different syllables. Hence for speech synthesis normalization of

F

0

and lengths are important to discriminate tones. Here, we implement tone rule by using two parameters; optimized

F

0

and length. As an advantage in the proposed method, the optimized parameters can be separated to male and female group. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by the distribution of

F

0

and length. Listening tests with high correct rates approve intelligibility of synthetic sound.

kyawt Yin Win, Tomio Takara

### Grid Smoothing for Image Enhancement

The present paper focuses on sharpness enhancement and noise removal in two dimensional gray scale images. In the grid smoothing approach, the image is represented by a graph in which the nodes represent the pixels and the edges reflect the connectivity. A cost function is defined using the spatial coordinates of the nodes and the gray levels present in the image. The minimisation of the cost function leads to new spatial coordinates for each node. Using an adequate cost function, the grid is compressed in the regions with large gradient values and relaxed in the other regions. The result is a grid which fits accurately the objects in the image. In the presented framework, the noise in the initial image is removed using a mesh smoothing approach. The edges are then enhanced using the grid smoothing. If the level of noise is low, the grid smoothing is applied directly to the image. The mathematical framework of the method is introduced in the paper. The processing chain is tested on natural images.

Guillaume Noel, Karim Djouani, Yskandar Hamam

### Suppressing False Nagatives in Skin Segmentation

Human skin segmentation in colored images is closely related to face detection and recognition systems as preliminary required step. False negative errors degrade segmentation accuracy and therefore considered as critical problem in image segmentation. A general innovative approach for human skin segmentation that substantially suppresses false negative errors has been developed. This approach employed multi-skin models using HSV color space. Four skin color clustering models were used, namely: standard-skin model, shadow-skin model, light-skin model, and redness-skin model. The color information was used to segment skin-like regions by transforming the 3-D color space to 2-D subspace. A rule-based classifier produces four skin-maps layers. Each layer reflects its skin model. Pixel-based segmentation and region-based segmentation approaches has been combined to enhance the accuracy. The inspiring results obtained show that the suppression of false negatives is substantial and leads to better detection and recognition.

Roziati Zainuddin, Sinan Naji, Jubair Al-Jaafar

### Steady State Analysis of an Energy Efficient Mobility Management Scheme in IP-Based Wireless Networks

An energy efficient mobility management scheme in IP-based wireless networks was proposed to reduce the battery power consumption of mobile hosts (MHs). In order to efficiently manage battery power, radio resources, and network load, the proposed scheme controls six MH states: communicating, attention/cell-connected, attention/paging area-connected, idle, off/attached, and detached states. We derive the stationary probabilities and steady state probabilities of the MH states for the proposed scheme in IP-based wireless networks in compact form. The effects of input parameters on the steady state probabilities and the power consumption of MHs are investigated in the proposed scheme and conventional scheme based on Erlang and Gamma distributions. The analytical results provide guideline for proper selection of system parameters and can be utilized to analyze the performance of mobility management schemes in IP-based wireless networks.

Ho Young Hwang, Sun-Jong Kwon, Yun Won Chung, Dan Keun Sung, Suwon Park

### Performance Comparison of Handoff Modes in Terms of Energy

Energy consumption becomes a critical issue within all industries. Especially, mobile communication systems is expected to be a major component of the world energy consumption budget. Handoff can highly affects the overall energy consumption of mobile communication systems. So it is important to taken into account energy consumption of handoff. In this paper, the transmission power to an MS during handoff is analyzed taking into account the macroscopic diversity. It is calculated for both hard handoff mode and soft handoff mode. The result shows that soft handoff mode is more efficient in view of energy consumption.

Young-Uk Chung, Hyukjoon Lee, Suwon Park

### Energy Efficient Coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX Systems Sharing Frequency Band

Various wireless communication systems in a shared frequency band such as 2.4GHz ISM band are operating. This causes the mutual interference among the wireless communication systems, and makes worse the performance of each of them. They should use more energy to achieve the desired quality of service. Many studies have been carried out to solve the mutual interference problem, called the coexistence problem. In this paper, we quantitatively analyze the effect of the mutual interference between Wi-Fi and WiMAX systems, and propose a method to solve the problem and evaluate its performance by simulation.

Jongwoo Kim, Suwon Park, Seung Hyong Rhee, Yong-Hoon Choi, HoYoung Hwang

### IP Mobility Performance Enhancement Using Link-Layer Prediction

In this paper, a prediction-based

L2 Trigger

approach is proposed for enhancing the performance of IP mobility in an integrated mobile Internet (e.g., Mobile WiMAX) and fast mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) environment. The time series model of auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) is used to make short-term forecasting of mobile user’s signal strength. Through the forecast of the signal strength, layer-3 handover activities occur prior to the start of layer-2 handover process, and therefore, total handover latency as well as service disruption time can be reduced.

Jun-Hui Lee, Hyun-Woo Kim, Yong-Hoon Choi, Young-Uk Chung, Seung-Hyong Rhee

### Header Compression for Resource and Energy Efficient IP over Tactical Data Link

Yongkoo Yoon, Suwon Park, Hyungkeun Lee, Jong Sung Kim, Seung Bae Jee

### A Frequency-Based Algorithm for Workflow Outlier Mining

The concept of workflow is critical in the ERP (Enterprise Resources Planning) system. Any workflow that is irrationally and irregularly designed will not only lead to an ineffective operation of enterprise but also limit the implementation of an effective business strategy. The research proposes an algorithm which makes use of the workflow’s executed frequency, the concept of distance-based outlier detection, empirical rules and Method of Exhaustion to mine three types of workflow outliers, including less-occurring workflow outliers of each process (abnormal workflow of each process), less-occurring workflow outliers of all processes (abnormal workflow of all processes) and never-occurring workflow outliers (redundant workflow). In addition, this research adopts real data to evaluate workflow mining feasibility. In terms of the management, it will assist managers and consultants in (1) controlling exceptions in the process of enterprise auditing, and (2) simplifying the business process management by the integration of relevant processes.

Yu-Cheng Chuang, PingYu Hsu, MinTzu Wang, Sin-Cheng Chen

### A Framework to Describe and Search for Virtual Resource Objects

This paper presents a preliminary work on the development of a metalist-based description framework to efficiently describe and search for virtualized network resources for virtual network provisioning. Virtual resources are perceived as objects that can be described using metadata and semantically searched according to a set of criteria. The virtual resource objects are described by Infrastructure Providers that should advertise and offer their virtual resource descriptions to virtual network providers. These virtual network providers discover and match user queries for VNs with the virtual resources offered by the infrastructure providers. This work introduces the concept of metalist which is a simple and efficient way to specify sets of metadata for objects and explores how it is used to efficiently support virtual resource description.

Éric Renault, Wajdi Louati, Ines Houidi, Houssem Medhioub

### Developer Toolkit for Embedded Fuzzy System Based on E-Fuzz

In this work, we propose a development toolkit, called E-Fuzz-Wizard to help fuzzy system designers for designing embedded fuzzy systems. The toolkit composes of software and hardware that enables creating the rapid prototype. It contains the examples which use the hardware and code generated to produce a prototype. The software has a visual interface which allows the user to specify the requirement of fuzzy systems in terms of the fuzzy set characteristics, inference methods, rules and defuzzification method. It generates the code in C that is runable in the chosen microcontroller platform. E-Fuzz Wizard also integrates unique features such as concurrent and real-time fuzzy system design as well as hardware mapping and customization. The generated code will facilitate the embedded fuzzy system development process. The toolkit is easy to use and facilitate the beginners to develop a fuzzy system.

C. Chantrapornchai, K. Sripanomwan, O. Chaowalit, J. Pipatpaisarn

### A Quadsection Algorithm for Grammar-Based Image Compression

Grammar-based compression is to find a small grammar that generates a given data and has been well-studied in text compression. In this paper, we apply this methodology to compression of rectangular image data. We first define a context-free rectangular image grammar (CFRIG) by extending the context-free grammar. Then we propose a quadsection type algorithm by extending a bisection type algorithm for grammar-based compression of text data. We show that our proposed algorithm approximates in polynomial time the smallest CFRIG within a factor of

O

(

n

4/3

), where an input image data is of size

O

(

n

) ×

O

(

n

). We also present results on computational experiments on the proposed algorithm.

Morihiro Hayashida, Peiying Ruan, Tatsuya Akutsu

### Effective Storage Structure for Multi-version XML Documents

Office applications such as OpenOffice.org and Microsoft office are widely used to do everything you expect from your needs. Because of more and more requirements of information exchange and retrieve, XML becomes a standard in doing this way. With the adoption of using XML in both office application groups, the abilities for efficient storing historical office documents are become a growing issue. This paper introduces an efficient way to process multi-version XML documents. It is not only effective storage space need but also keeping the integral of original documents. It minimizes the change of data values or structures transmutation of historical XML documents. The purpose is to well-managed electronic documents for enterprises and all the messages were involved in should be preserved.

Chang Chih-Chun, Cheng Ming-Shien, Hsu Ping-Yu

### An Ontology-Based Platform for Scientific Writing and Publishing

Writing scientific discourses and publishing academic results are integral parts of a researcher’s daily professional life. Although tremendous magic have been brought by advancement of digital library technologies and social networking services, there are still no off-the-shelf utilities for strategic writing, reading and even publishing. In this paper, we propose an ontology-based platform for scientific writing and publishing featured with its semi-automatic metadata generation and semantic-linked composition, aiming to facilitate the efficient creation, dissemination and reuse of scientific knowledge.

Hao Xu, Changhai Zhang, Yang Ai, Ziwen Wang, Zhanshan Li

Web content contains valuable information on the semantic structure of a site, which can be used to access and navigate the pages through ubiquitous computing environments. Semantic web approaches normally aim at modeling semantic relations and utilizing these models to provide enhanced functionality for humans or machines. In this paper we present an approach which focuses on using embedded semantics in order to achieve enhanced web access and navigation for the ubiquitous environments. Precisely we propose specifying and extracting microformat-based information within the web server and delivering it along the semantic structure of the site. We also describe our first prototype, the Semantic Web Component (SWC), and report on first experiences which evidence benefits in terms of less internet traffic and reducing the delivery of irrelevant information thus increasing the web accessibility as well as the navigability in ubiquitous environments.

Ahmet Soylu, Felix Mödritscher, Patrick De Causmaecker

### New Format and Framework for Managing Scientific Knowledge

Only few models or frameworks of making situated use of advanced technology in scientific publication scenarios are available. Moreover, most of the existing prototypes and applications lack specific expertises and semantics. The approach we proposed in our project is based on some fundamental theories especially specified for managing scientific knowledge. In this paper, we concisely address our conceptual model and methodology defined for ubiquitous scientific publications, along with the pattern approach to systematically and semantically solve the problems in the current age of scientific publishing.

Hao Xu

### A General Bayesian Network-Assisted Ensemble System for Context Prediction: An Emphasis on Location Prediction

Context prediction, highlighted by accurate location prediction, has been at the heart of ubiquitous decision support systems. To improve the prediction accuracy of such systems, various methods have been proposed and tested; these include Bayesian networks, decision classifiers, and SVMs. Still, greater accuracy may be achieved when individual classifiers are integrated into an ensemble system. Meanwhile, General Bayesian Network (GBN) classifier possesses a great potential as an accurate decision support engine for context prediction. To leverage the power of both the GBN and the ensemble system, we propose a GBN-assisted ensemble system for location prediction. The proposed ensemble system uses variables extracted from Markov blanket of the GBN’s class node to integrate GBN, decision tree, and SVM. The proposed system was applied to a real-world location prediction dataset, and promising results were obtained. Practical implications are discussed.

Kun Chang Lee, Heeryon Cho

### Bayesian Network Approach to Predict Mobile Churn Motivations: Emphasis on General Bayesian Network, Markov Blanket, and What-If Simulation

As mobile telecommunication service becomes indispensable to our daily life, predicting the reasons of mobile churn seems essential from the perspective of mobile service providers. Previous studies have been focused on mobile churn prediction itself, not churn motivations which can play as a good indicator to forecasting real churn. Therefore, main focus of this study is placed on predicting mobile churn motivations, instead of mobile churn prediction. We propose BN approach to predict mobile churn motivation, adopting three types of BN models such as Naïve BN (NBN), Tree Augmented NBN (TAN), and General BN (GBN). To prove its validity in predicting mobile churn motivations, benchmarking classifiers were adopted and their performance was compared with BN classifiers. Through analyzing the empirical results, we found three advantages of GBN-(1) GBN performance is competitive compared with other benchmarking classifiers, (2) Markov Blanket (MB) variables are considerably small in number and make it handy for decision makers, and (3) what-if simulation is possible, which is not possible in other benchmarking classifiers. Practical implications of empirical results were addressed.

Kun Chang Lee, Nam Yong Jo

### Logical Mechanism for Allocating Resources to Exploitation and Exploration to Achieve Ambidexterity: Team Level Analysis

Despite the rise of studies on knowledge creation in the perspective of exploitation and exploration in organizational learning, previous studies are rare which suggested a concrete mechanism regarding how to allocate limited resources to exploitation and exploration to remain ambidextrous. Main purposes of this paper are to make logical argument on how teams create creativity through knowledge creation by balancing exploitation and exploration, and to present a new logical mechanism by which teams allocate their limited resources to exploitation and exploration to achieve balance between them. Time-dependent simulations were conducted to prove the validity of the proposed logical mechanism for sustaining the balance between exploitation and exploration.

Kun Chang Lee, Do Young Choi

### Analyzing Economic Impact of Disruptive Technology Using Multi-Agent Simulation: Smart Payment Case

Disruptive technology creates disruptive impacts, although it takes time to identify radical technological change and analyze its subsequent economic impacts in the industry. Despite the characteristics of disruptive technology, empirical research in this area has focused on case studies and has not attempted time-variant simulation to investigate its long-time effects. To address this research void, this study adopts a multi-agent simulation technique to analyze long-time effects of a smart payment method which is regarded as a disruptive technology. Experimental results via the multi-agent simulation are meaningful and robust, and their practical implications are discussed.

Kun Chang Lee, Young Wook Seo, Min Hee Hahn

### Research on Mobile Payment Technology and Business Models in China under e-Commerce Environment

Mobile payment is one rapidly-adopting alternative payment method especially in Asia such as Japan, Korea. As 3G service gets increasingly popularized in China, Mobile payment business has evolved into its growth period. Contactless mobile payment characterized by RFID will impact e-commerce market greatly. Payment technology and business model are certain to determine the success of mobile payment. In this paper, mobile payment key enabling technology in China is analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are compared. We also discuss four popular mobile business models and give some typical examples implemented in China. Finally current problems and development trends in Chinese mobile payment are pointed out.

Gu Ruijun, Yao Juan, Wang Jiacai

### Fusion of Gaussian Mixture Densities for Face and Ear Biometrics Using Support Vector Machines

This paper presents a multimodal biometric system for face and ear biometrics which convolves face and ear images with Gabor wavelet filters for extracting enhanced Gabor features from the corresponding images which are characterized by spatial frequency, spatial locality and orientation. Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is applied to the Gabor responses for measurements and Expectation Maximization algorithm is used to estimate density parameters in GMM. It produces two sets of feature sets which are fused using Support Vector Machines. Experiments on two different databases reveal its usefulness towards robust multimodal fusion.

Dakshina Ranjan Kisku, Phalguni Gupta, Jamuna Kanta Sing, Mita Nasipuri

### Benchmarking Query Complexity between RDB and OWL

This paper describes how to benchmark relational database; RDB and web ontology language; OWL using query complexity concept on two difference speed machines. The domain was based on Hua Hin tourism. The purpose of this experiment was to benchmarking Semantic Web Knowledge Base Systems on relational perspective of query complexity. We use our tool to run on different speed machines to measure data complexity factors and the time of each activity. As a result, we conclude that if there is more data size and joined variables, the query complexity of RDB will increase but the ontology will reduce one. The advantage, the approach has been implemented and evaluated on improving the search engine of semantic web and reducing the expression complexity on a real archive.

Chidchanok Choksuchat, Chantana Chantrapornchai

### FEDTIC: A Security Design for Embedded Systems with Insecure External Memory

This paper presents a security design for embedded systems that have a secure on-chip computing environment and an insecure off-chip memory. The design protects the confidentiality and integrity of data at a low cost on performance and memory consumption. We implemented the design based on the SimpleScalar simulation software. Our simulation on a set of benchmarks shows that very little overhead is incurred for on-chip memory, and the average overheads on performance and off-chip memory, are only 7.6% and 6.25%, respectively.

Mei Hong, Hui Guo

### Enhanced Technique for Secure Wireless Sensor Routing with Respect to Energy Conservation

This paper presents a routing protocol architecture based on recursive group algorithm. This algorithm apply Group Verification Tree approach which makes the sensor network secure and make it safer from malicious intrusions and illegitimate users. The proposed approach will give a new dimension to the fast and secure routing in the sensor networks with less energy to be consumed. Based on the analysis and simulation the proposed strategies yield better results than the existing results.

Maqsood Mahmud, Abdulrahman Abdulkarim Mirza, Ihsan Ullah, Naveed Khan, Abdul Hanan Bin Abdullah, Mohammad Yazid Bin Idris

### End-to-End Security Methods for UDT Data Transmissions

UDT (UDP-based data transfer protocol) is one of the most promising network protocols developed for high data speed data transfer. It does not, however, have any inherent security mechanisms, and thus relies on other transport protocols to provide them. Towards its implementation in high speed networks, security and privacy are critical factors and important challenges that need to be addressed. There were substantial research efforts we carried out so far to address these challenges. We introduced security mechanisms through the application layer using UDT’s API and presented DTLS, GSS-API, and CGA, in transport and IP layers. In this paper, we make the following contributions: we out line security requirements for UDT implementation and propose practical encryption methods for securing UDT within the network layer.

Danilo Valeros Bernardo, Doan B. Hoang

### Evading Virus Detection Using Code Obfuscation

The conflict between malware authors and analysts is heating up as both are coming up with new armaments in their armory. Malware authors are employing novel sophisticated techniques like metamorphosis to thwart detection mechanisms while security professionals are budding new ways to confront them. In this paper we formally treat diverse mechanisms of making malware undetectable in general and code mutation techniques in particular. We also supported our argument where possible, through different tools and have revealed their outcome. In the end we give our methodology to make any virus undetectable using amalgamation of hex editing and metamorphic techniques.

Khurram Murad, Syed Noor-ul-Hassan Shirazi, Yousaf Bin Zikria, Nassar Ikram

### High Flexible Sanitizing Signature Scheme Based on Bilinear Maps

A sanitizable signature scheme allows the sanitizer to alter the signed document using a disclosed policy that does not break the signing protocol. However, existing sanitizable signature schemes do not restrict the sanitizer, which leads to dishonest sanitizer and additional sanitizing problems. In this paper, a high flexible sanitizing signature scheme based on the bilinear mapping method that uses an arbiter to resolve the security problem is proposed. A security analysis shows that the proposed scheme retains the security requirement of sanitizable signatures and mitigates the disadvantages of related schemes.

Wen-Chung Kuo, Jiin-Chiou Cheng, Yen-Hung Lin, Lih-Chyau Wuu

### An Access Control Framework of Federated IPTV Providers for Mobile IPTV Services

M-IPTV service provision depends on different administrative domains to deliver individualized service and timely/on-demand and forces service providers to use effective mechanisms and strategies of resource management in order for them to be able to guarantee the quality levels their customers’ demands during service provisioning. This paper, proposes a protocol for secure M-IPTV service provision delegation to support IPTV provider’ SLAs through access control extension to different IPTV provider’ security domains using Single Sign-On (SSO) technique along with handling individualized policies helping to improve communication and collaboration in B2B environment and providing users with a more consistent unified experience and seamless logon.

María Elizabeth Aldana Díaz, Eui-Nam Huh

### A Novel Scheme for PMIPv6 Based Wireless Sensor Network

IP based Wireless Sensor Network (IP-WSN) is gaining tremendous importance because of its broad range of commercial applications in health care, building & home automation, asset management, environmental monitoring, security & safety and industrial automation. A network-based mobility management protocol called Proxy Mobile IPv6 has been standardized by the IETF NETLMM working group, and is starting to pay close attention among the telecommunication and Internet communities. Since host based IP mobility protocol is not feasible for the low power and low cost sensor node, network based mobility management protocol will be well suited for IP-WSN. In this paper we propose SPMIPv6 architecture, respective message formats and analyze the signaling cost and finally evaluate its performance. The result shows that the SPMIPv6 has lower signaling cost and packet delivery cost and it can improve the handover performance of UDP and TCP than the other mobility management protocol.

Md. Motaharul Islam, Sang-Ho Na, Seung-Jin Lee, Eui-Nam Huh

### Mobile Partial Identity Management: The Non-repudiable Minimal Mobile Identity Model

Due to the personal nature of a mobile device, it is seen as a suitable medium for storing personal information and credentials. As a result, the mobile device becomes the owner’s identity-on-the-move. There are many situations in which a mobile user must offer a partial set of his identity to be able to use a service. However, only a minimal set of attributes is required by an Identity Verifier to identify a person or to correctly establish the person’s role, position or status should be used. Furthermore, the verifier must be sure that the user cannot repudiate his identity later, and the offered identity is valid. In this paper, we proposed, developed and analyzed a mobile partial identity management model that the mobile user can generate his non-repudiable minimal set of his identity. The user can be sure that the verifier cannot obtain any other identity attributes, and the verifier can be sure that this identity profile is valid and the user cannot repudiate it later. The presented model, the NRMI model, is a secure and efficient mobile partial identity management. It can be used in several scenarios and use cases as well as step-by-step identification scenarios and managing identity social groups.

### A Privacy Preserving Service Broker Architecture for Data Sharing

The problem addressed in this paper is how to ensure data privacy concerns when data is shared between multiple organisations. In domains such as healthcare, there is a need to share privacy-sensitive data among autonomous but cooperating organisations. However, security concerns and compliance to privacy regulations requiring confidentiality of the data renders unrestricted access to organisational data by others undesirable. The challenge is how to guarantee privacy preservations for the owners of the information that are willing to share information with other organisations while keeping some other information secret. Therefore, there is a need for privacy preserving database operations for querying data residing at different parties. To address this challenge, we propose a new computationally efficient framework that enables organisations to share privacy-sensitive data. The proposed framework is able to answer queries without revealing any useful information to the data sources or to the third parties.

### Checking the Paths to Identify Mutant Application on Embedded Systems

The resistance of Java Card against attack is based on software and hardware countermeasures, and the ability of the Java platform to check the correct behaviour of Java code (by using bytecode verification for instance). Recently, the idea to combine logical attacks with a physical attack in order to bypass bytecode verification has emerged. For instance, correct and legitimate Java Card applications can be dynamically modified on-card using laser beam. Such applications become mutant applications, with a different control flow from the original expected behaviour. This internal change could lead to bypass control and protection and thus offer illegal access to secret data and operation inside the chip. This paper presents an evaluation of the ability of an application to become mutant and a new countermeasure based on the runtime check of the application control flow to detect the deviant mutations....

Ahmadou Al Khary Séré, Julien Iguchi-Cartigny, Jean-Louis Lanet

### Enhanced Sinkhole System by Improving Post-processing Mechanism

Cybercrime is threatening our lives more seriously. In particular, the botnet technology is leading most of cybercrime such as distribute denial of service attack, spamming, critical information disclosure. To cope with this problem, various security techniques have been proposed. Especially, DNS-Sinkhole is known as the most effective approach to detect botnet activities. It has various advantages such as low cost, easy establishment and high effect. However, botnet response is more difficult because botnet technology is constantly evolving. In particular, legacy sinkhole system has revealed a variety of limitations such as low accuracy and limited information. Therefore, additional research is required to overcome these limitations. In this paper, we propose an enhanced sinkhole system that utilizes DNS-Sinkhole. Especially, we focus on the improving of post-processing mechanism based on packet analysis.

Haeng-Gon Lee, Sang-Soo Choi, Youn-Su Lee, Hark-Soo Park

### A Practical Methodology and Framework for Comprehensive Incident Handling Focused on Bot Response

Cybercrime has emerged as a major social problem. Especially, widely distributed bots are being used as a main tool for conducting cybercrime. Therefore, the needs for enhanced incident handling have increased to detect, analyze and respond to bots and botnets. DNS-Sinkhole is known as the most effective way to respond to bot activity. Incident handling is a very complex set of security activities including technical and managerial part. Especially, the concept of incident handling is higher than DNS-Sinkhole technique which only focuses on the technical part. Therefore, additional studies to integrate incident handling with DNS-Sinkhole technique are required. We propose systematic approach for comprehensive incident handling focused on the bot response. In particular, we propose comprehensive incident handling methodology based on DNS-Sinkhole technique, and practical incident handling framework for central incident handling team.

Snag-Soo Choi, Myung-Jin Chun, Youn-Su Lee, Hyeak-Ro Lee

### Real Time Watermarking and Encryption Method for DMB Contents Protection

Watermarking and Encryption are commonly technique for data protection. DMB contents are utilized widely without protection procedure. To solve the problems, we propose real-time watermarking and encryption method for DMB contents protection in this paper. To implement watermarking, we hide key information on a redundant space of program association table (PAT) and program mapped table (PMT) of T-DMB stream and hidden parts is encrypted by a stream encryption cipher. We implements encryption method without additional information in digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) contents using AES (advanced encryption standard) encryption algorithm. In experimental result, when we implemented a play control on PMP which have built-in DSP device to get 100Mhz processing speed, almost had not a time delay and the hiding information in T-DMB stream was possible to do a play control. Additionally, we confirmed that the saved contents in a PMP were not played in other devices without decryption key. The proposed methods can be useful in real-time applications requiring contents protection service such as video on demand, IPTV and digital TV.

Won-Hee Kim, Jong-Nam Kim

### A Study on Data Transmission Performance of Sensor Networks for Livestock Feedlot

Recent development of versatile small size and multifunctional wireless sensor nodes enables the research on various applications to improve human life with rich information and automation. In this study, we virtually simulated the efficiency of the livestock feedlot sensor network by utilizing the propagation model, as one of the different methods of collecting data regarding livestock in feedlot is researched. As indicated in the conclusion of the study, the differences in terms of the methods make a difference to the amount of dropped data packets. It is believed that the observations made in this study could prompt the development of more effective methods of collecting data regarding livestock in feedlots by adopting additional devices or alternative routing manner.

Ji-woong Lee, Hyun-joong Kang, Jeong-hwan Hwang, Meong-hun Lee, Hyun Yoe

### Development of an MPEG-4 Scene Converter for Rich Media Services in Mobile Environments

MPEG-4 BIFS is a major rich media standard that has been selected as the standard technology for data broadcasts and interactive contents on DMB. BIFS defines various audio/visual nodes and two- and three-dimensional graphic nodes, as well s the interactions of many users, but it is not appropriate for the mobile environment with limited performance. Therefore, this study proposes a method of converting MPEG-4 BIFS to an MPEG-4 LASeR format that is appropriate to the mobile environment, to service rich media in a mobile environment. First, the scene structure and nodes of MPEG-4 BIFS and LASeR were comparatively analyzed. It is not difficult to convert BIFS to LASeR for most 2D nodes. Since LASeR does not support 3D, however, it is difficult to convert 3D nodes to LASeR. To solve this problem, this study extracted the coordinate characteristic values of BIFS 3D nodes and converts them to 2D coordinates to express LASeR as SVG. To test this method of conversion, a system that converts BIFS to LASeR was created. This allowed the provision of diverse rich media services, including 2D and 3D services, from a mobile device.

Hee-Sun Kim, Ilgun Ko

### Dynamic Profiling for Efficiency Searching System in Distributed Computing

RFID technology that identifies objects on request of dynamic linking and tracking is composed of application components supporting information infrastructure. Despite their many advantages, existing applications, which do not consider elements related to real-time data communication among remote devices, cannot support connections among heterogeneous devices effectively. As different network devices are installed in applications separately and go through different query analysis processes, there happen the delays of monitoring or errors in data conversion. This paper proposes recommendation service that can update and reflect personalized profiles dynamically in Distributed Computing environment for integrated management of information extracted from RFID tags regardless of application. The advanced personalized module helps the service recommendation server make regular synchronization with the personalized profile. The proposed system can speed and easily extend the matching of services to user profiles and matching between user profiles or between services. Finally dynamic profiling help to reduce the development investment, improve the system’s reliability, make progress in the standardization of real-time data processing in matching searching system.

Chang-Woo Song, Tae-Gan Kim, Kyung-Yong Chung, Kee-Wook Rim, Jung-Hyun Lee

### Evaluating the Intention to Use the Use Case Precedence Diagram in Software Development Projects

The Use Case Precedence Diagram (UCPD) is a technique that addresses the problem of determining a software’s scope and construction sequence from the developer’s perspective. This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of the UCPD based on the Method Adoption Model (MAM), where the intention to use a method is determined by the users’ perceptions. The results show that the intentions to use UCPD exist in undergraduate students and practitioners with at least 2 years of experience in the industry, but the relationships defined by the MAM are only confirmed with the results obtained with practitioners.

José Antonio Pow-Sang

### A Simple Method Using Multi-Core and Multiple GbE Ports for Improving Parallel Performance in Commodity PC Cluster

Due to advent of powerful and easily available Multi-Core PC clusters, the computation performance of each node is dramatically increased and this trend will probably continue in the future. On the other hand, the use of powerful network systems (Myrinet, Infiniband, etc.) is expensive and tends to increase the difficulty of programming and degrades portability because they need dedicated libraries and protocol stacks. This paper proposes portable method to improve bandwidth-oriented parallel applications by improving the bandwidth performance without the above dedicated hardware, libraries, protocol stacks and IEEE802.3ad (LACP). Since the proposed method is introduced only by loading the proposed driver without modifying TCP/IP protocol stacks and existing applications, it has advantages in both high portability and stability. The proposed method also performs better than IEEE802.3ad without LACP switches and LACP drivers. Moreover LACP performance is influenced by the network parameters (MAC addresses, IP addresses, VLAN id, etc.) because its distribution algorithm uses these parameters. On the other hand, the proposed method shows the stable effect regardless of these parameters.

Kei Shimada, Miku Kai, Tsuyoshi Yoshioka, Takafumi Fukunaga

### Proposal for Sophisticated Periodic Execution Control in Embedded Systems

In embedded systems, the types of processings to be executed are limited, and many processes are executed periodically. In such systems, we need to reduce the overhead of periodic execution control and the dispersion of the processing time. ART-Linux has been proposed as a conventional real-time operating system that can be used for this purpose in various devices such as robots. In this paper, we discuss the periodic execution control of ART-Linux and clarify several problems. Next, we propose a design for sophisticated periodic execution control in order to solve these problems. Finally, we discuss the realization of periodic execution control, the effect of this control, and the result of the evaluation.

Yuuki Furukawa, Toshihiro Yamauchi, Hideo Taniguchi

### Videogames and Virtual Reality as Effective Edutainment Tools

This paper describes a new edutainment-based teaching approach aimed at fostering students’ engagement in the classroom at university and college levels. The approach, designed to comply with Bologna declaration’s regulations and requirements, relies on the intensive use of multimedia computer tools, notably videogames and virtual reality technology, as the appropriate means to motivate students and make the courses amusing and engaging. The paper presents and analyzes a case study: the application of our approach to an introductory Computer Graphics course for junior Computer Science students at the University of Cantabria, discussing some important educational issues related to our approach and showing several examples of typical projects carried out during the course.

Akemi Gálvez, Andrés Iglesias

### An SMS Spam Filtering System Using Support Vector Machine

This paper describes a powerful and adaptive spam filtering system for SMS (Short Messaging Service) that uses SVM (Support Vector Machine) and a thesaurus. The system isolates words from sample data using a pre-processing device and integrates meanings of isolated words using a thesaurus, generates features of integrated words through chi-square statistics, and studies these features. The system is realized in a Windows environment and its performance is experimentally confirmed.

Inwhee Joe, Hyetaek Shim

### Telecommunications User Behaviors Analysis Based on Fuzzy C-Means Clustering

As the number of telecommunication user close to saturation, operators turn their focus from how to increase the subscriber to how to maintain the existing ones, which need more in-depth analysis of user character. In this paper we modeling user communication behavior based on the incoming/outgoing call holding time and then use fuzz c-means clustering algorithm to classify every level in user pyramidal model. For each level we get 3 classifications. We analyze the proportion and communication trend of each classification to help operators know their subscribers better. The method and conclusion of this paper can be used as the base of precision marketing for telecommunications industry.

Zhe Guo, Furong Wang

### Performance Evaluation of a Hybrid TOA/AOA Based IR-UWB Positioning System

In this paper, we evaluate performance of IR-UWB positioning system, which is based on the angle-of-arrival (AOA) and time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation techniques, with different IR-UWB waveforms, such as root raised cosine pulse, 5th order Gaussian mono-pulse, 4th modified Hermite pulse (MHP), and sine-type prolate shperoidal pulse. For ranging performance evaluation, the minimum mean square error (MMSE) technique is employed to resolve the multipath components, and the ranging performance is evaluated with various waveforms. For high precision angle estimation, the multiple signal identification and classification (MUSIC) method is employed. Simulation results show that the MHP pulse outperforms other considered waveforms in a hybrid TOA/AOA based IR-UWB positioning system.

Nammoon Kim, Junho Gal, Eunyoung Lee, Inho Jeon, Youngok Kim

### All-Optical RZ-to-NRZ Converted Data Transmission at 10 Gb/s

This paper proposes and demonstrates a novel all-optical return-to-zero (RZ) to nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) data format conversion using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) loop mirror. The format conversion has been performed between the most widely used data formats—NRZ and RZ formats. The format conversion scheme is based on gain variation by an intensity-dependent phase change in an SOA-loop mirror. 10 Gb/s error-free fiber transmission up to 78 km for the converted NRZ format data is achieved. Further, the proposed method shows improved transmission performance than the conventional Mach-Zehnder modulation technique.

Hyuek Jae Lee, Ik Soo Jin, Hae Geun Kim

### Improved Location Aided Cluster Based Routing Protocol for GPS Enabled Manets

Routing has been the main challenge for ad hoc networks due to dynamic topology as well as resource constraints. Completely GPS free as well as GPS scarce positioning systems for wireless, mobile, ad-hoc networks has been proposed recently by many authors. High computational overhead and high mobility of the nodes typically require completely GPS enabled MANETs for higher performance. In this paper, Improved Location aided Cluster based Routing Protocol (ILCRP) for GPS enabled MANETs has been evaluated for performance metrics such as end to end delay, control overhead, and packet delivery ratio. Use of cluster based routing as well as exact location information of the nodes in ILCRP reduces the control overhead resulting in higher packet delivery ratio. GPS utility in nodes reduces the end to end delay even during its high mobility. Simulations are performed using NS2 varying the mobility (speed) of nodes as well as number of the nodes. Results illustrate that the ILCRP performs better compared to other protocols.

S. Mangai, A. Tamilarasi

### State of the Art in Wireless Sensor Networks Operating Systems: A Survey

This paper, presents a survey on current state of the art in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Operating Systems (OSs). WSN is composed of miniature senor and resource constraint devices. WSN is highly dynamic network because nodes die out due to severe environmental conditions and battery power depletion. Stated characteristics of WSN impose additional challenges on OS design for WSN. Therefore; OS design for WSN deviates from traditional OS design. The purpose of this survey is to point out strengths and weaknesses of contemporary OS for WSNs, keeping in view the requirements of emerging WSNs applications. State of the art, in operating systems for WSNs has been examined in terms of Architecture, Scheduling, Threading Model, Synchronization, Memory Management, and Communication Protocol support. The examination of these features is performed for both real time and non real time operating systems for WSNs. We believe that this survey will help the network designers and programmers to choose the right OS for their network and applications. Moreover, pros and cons of different operating systems will help the researchers to design more robust OSs for WSNs.

### A Study on the Implementation of Pigpen Management System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

The wireless sensor networks (WSN) technology based on low power consumption is one of the important technologies in the realization of ubiquitous society. When the technology would be applied to the agricultural field, it can give big change in the existing agricultural environment such as livestock growth environment, cultivation and harvest of agricultural crops. This research paper proposes the ‘Pigpen Management System’ using WSN technology, which will establish the ubiquitous agricultural environment and improve the productivity of pig-raising farmers. The proposed system has WSN environmental sensors and CCTV at inside/outside of pigpen. These devices collect the growth-environment related information of pigs, such as luminosity, temperature, humidity and CO2 status. The system collects and monitors the environmental information and video information of pigpen. In addition to the remote-control and monitoring of the pigpen facilities, this system realizes the most optimum pig-raising environment based on the growth environmental data accumulated for a long time.

Jeonghwan Hwang, Jiwoong Lee, Hochul Lee, Hyun Yoe

### A Study on Energy Efficient MAC Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network for Ubiquitous Agriculture

Various technologies are used in the agricultural sites now. Especially, the recent application of sensor network related technology is quite notable. Considering the efficiency of MAC protocol of WSN is being researched in various aspects, it is believed that a research on how to apply the MAC protocol to agriculture would be also required. This research is based on the sensor node developed by Sunchon University ITRC. Once the sensor nodes are effectively located in the farm, they operate for a long time and they are rarely relocated once installed. The concentration of multiple sensor nodes in a narrow area is another characteristic the sensor node. The purpose of this research is to select a sensor network MAC protocol, which would be most proper to agricultural site with good energy efficiency and excellent transmission delay performance. The applicable protocols such as S-MAC and X-MAC were set up for the installation environment. They were compared and a methodology to select the most optimum protocol to agricultural site is suggested.

Ho-chul Lee, Ji-woong Lee, Jeong-hwan Hwang, Hyun Yoe

### Design and Implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks Based Paprika Green House System

This research paper suggests the ‘Paprika green house system’ (PGHS), which collects paprika growth information and greenhouse information to control the paprika growth at optimum condition. The temperature variation range of domestic paprika cultivation facilities are relatively quite big and the facility internal is kept at relatively dry condition. In addition, the concentration of CO2 is not uniform, giving bad impact on the growth of paprika. In order to cope with these issues, the ‘Paprika green house system’ (PGHS) based on wireless technology was designed and implemented for the paprika cultivating farmers. The system provides with the ‘growth environment monitoring service’, which is monitoring the paprika growth environment data using sensors measuring temperature, humidity, illuminance, leaf wetness and fruit condition, the ‘artificial light-source control service’, which is installed to improve the energy efficiency inside greenhouse, and ‘growth environment control service’, controlling the greenhouse by analyzing and processing of collected data.

Ji-woong Lee, Ho-chul Lee, Jeong-hwan Hwang, Yongyun Cho, Changsun Shin, Hyun Yoe

### A Smart Service Model Using Smart Devices

Recently, in smart places or ubiquitous computing environments, there are many researches for smart services using smart devices with sensors, interactive I/O, and convenient UI. This paper propose an smart service model based on smart devices, especially smart phones, in various smart spaces, including urban computing and ubiquitous computing environments. The suggested service model offers an editing UI based on a context-aware workflow model to develop smart services. And, with the suggested model, users can easily uses real data from USN/RFID in various smart spaces as contexts for smart services according to a pre-designed ontology. So, in the smart spaces, anyone who is with smart devices can easily make a smart service or application by using the suggested service model.

Yongyun Cho, Hyun Yoe

### An Implementation of the Salt-Farm Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Network

In producing solar salt, natural environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind direction, wind speed and rain are essential elements which influence on the productivity and quality of salt. If we can manage the above mentioned environmental elements efficiently, we could achieve improved results in production of salt with good quality. To monitor and manage the natural environments, this paper suggests the Salt-Farm Monitoring System (SFMS) which is operated with renewable energy power. The system collects environmental factors directly from the environmental measure sensors and the sensor nodes. To implement a stand-alone system, we applied solar cell and wind generator to operate this system. Finally, we showed that the SFMS could monitor the salt-farm environments by using wireless sensor nodes and operate correctly without external power supply.

JongGil Ju, InGon Park, YongWoong Lee, JongSik Cho, HyunWook Cho, Hyun Yoe, ChangSun Shin

### Mobile Business Agents Model and Architecture

Agent-component technology and agent-oriented software engineering have the potential to be more powerful than traditional. Most agent and e-service systems offer several capacities that work together to provide unprecedented flexibility and promise to be more effective at handling the resulting software’s evolution and distribution. Therefore, in order to support agent service or agent based business application and system there is the necessity of research about agent development based component. In this paper, we identify and classify the general and e-business oriented agent affecting CBD. We suggest the e-business agent oriented component reference architecture. We also propose systemical development process using AUML(Agent Unified Modeling Language) and design pattern technology to analysis, design and develop e-business agent. Finally we describe how these concepts may assist in increasing the efficiency and reusability in business application and e-business agent development.

Haeng Kon Kim

### Implementation of Greenhouse Monitoring System Using Ubiquitous Sensor Networks Based on WMN

The USN technology is one of the important technologies to implement the ubiquitous society, which has been used in applications of various fields, and in the agricultural sector, the value-added and productivity are increased by applying it to production management, distribution etc. as well as growing conditions. Particularly, in the greenhouse, the quality and productivity for crops are improved by monitoring and managing growth information for crops and environmental information etc. with the utilization of USN. However, the network topology is frequently changed since sensor nodes building a USN have limited energy resources, and it is not suitable to operate a network by construct a large-scale network through a network extension because packets could be lost during long-distance data transmission. This paper proposes a greenhouse monitoring system applying WMN technologies to a USN to solve problems mentioned above, and implements the system after analyzing the performance through a simulation. In the proposed system, a mesh coordinator is constructed on the data transmission path between sensor nodes and a gateway for monitoring greenhouse environment, and it could be found that this system has higher data transmission efficiency and energy efficiency than the system constructing with conventional USN.

Jeonghwan Hwang, Hyun Yoe

### A Study of the Energy Efficient MAC Protocol Apply to Ubiquitous Livestock Farming

The ubiquitous pig farm monitoring system is designed so that it can be applied to modern agriculture and attached MAC Protocol that the Link Quality based Transmit Power Control MAC(LPMAC) protocol, which is becoming bigger and more advanced. In the immediate previous research, a large scale ubiquitous pig farm monitoring system was designed and it was applied to actual pig farms. It was possible to realize the system, where the raising efficiency of pig was maximized by installing the temperature/humidity sensors and video camera, transmitting the measured information to caretaker in real time. When the measured environmental information values detected by the sensor would get out of optimum raising environment of pigs, the system transmitted the content to the caretaker. Simultaneously, the environment control facilities such as humidifier, air conditioner and window opener/closer were activated in order to maintain the environmental information at uniform and pleasant values. And, it was found that the LPMAC protocol is proper as the MAC to be applied to the livestock farming.

Hochul Lee, Jeonghwan Hwang, Hyun Yoe

### Design and Implementation of Middleware for GreenHouse Based on Ubiquitous Sensor Network

The USN middleware technology is used to filter lots of duplicate data collected from many sensor networks and convert the raw data into meaningful information for users to send it to applications, and provides services to make users could decide contextual information quickly and correctly through the data mining technique and analysis method. Even though it has been presently carried out the studies on such a USN middleware to apply it for various fields such as administration, medicine, science, transportation, and logistics etc., there are very few studies on the middleware suitable to agricultural environment which applications of IT technology have not been sufficient relatively comparing to other industries. In particular, for controlled agriculture, there are many difficulties on user’s decision-making for efficient crop production due to a number of environmental factors affecting crop production. In order to solve such problems, this paper is trying to propose a USN middleware suitable to agricultural environment, which could collect greenhouse’s environmental information and optimally manage crops through facility automation. The proposed middleware is composed of a sensor manager, context manager and control manager, which collects a variety of data from heterogeneous sensor networks, processes the collected data into information suitable to user’s demand, and sends it to controllers of controlled agriculture, so that it could support users to be provided various application services and make decisions adequate to conditions.

Ji-woong Lee, Jeong-hwan Hwang, Hyun Yoe

### A Context-Aware Streaming Agent Method for Optimal Seamless Service in a Vertical Handover Environment

We propose a novel context-aware streaming agent to achieve optimal high quality seamless streaming service in heterogeneous wireless networks and mobile terminals and to utilize high WLAN bandwidth in mobile phones. The major difference between our proposed method and existing methods is the use of mobile terminal oriented context-aware streaming adaptation. We outline a streaming network architecture among the streaming server, gateway, and mobile terminal, an extended RTSP protocol and a streaming quality level selection algorithm in the mobile terminal. We consider vertical handover between HSDPA and 802.11g/n and take advantage of H.264 Scalable Video Coding (SVC). Our new method makes optimal seamless streaming service possible for various network situations, terminal capabilities, and user preferences. Streaming agents first determine adequate quality level based on user preference, terminal constraints, dynamic network conditions and battery status. Then a gateway requests an adequate SVC layer to be sent to the server based on the agent’s requested quality level. Agent and gateway communicate using an extended RTSP protocol which enables content quality modification during streaming. Our novel streaming agent method improves user satisfaction. By selecting an ”optimal network condition” policy, we can improve content and maximize the potential of the 3.28 SVC layer. By minimizing power consumption, we can reduce power consumption by 13% by processing a different SVC layer.

Inwhee Joe, Jong-Yong Park

### A Message Priority Routing Protocol for Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) in Disaster Areas

A delay tolerant network (DTN) is a mobile wireless network that is characterized by frequent partitions and potentially long message delivery delays. Compared with conventional networks, the distinguishing feature is that there is no end-to-end connectivity between source and destination. In this paper, we assume that an earthquake has occurred in a city and roads and nodes have been damaged in the disaster. In this situation, we found performance degradation of existing DTN routing protocols due to damage. To address this problem, we propose a DTN message priority routing protocol. In a disaster situation, the proposed protocol was able to deliver more messages than existing DTN protocols, with a lower overhead ratio and lower latency.

Inwhee Joe, Sang-Bo Kim

### A Queue Management Algorithm for QoS Provisioning in WMSN

Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) is an advanced concept of general wireless sensor network with multimedia sensing function. The development of WMSN is getting realized in accordance with the increased demands to provide multimedia data transmission services based on wireless sensor networks. It requires a traffic control mechanism that can support Quality of Service(QoS) to handle different services efficiently. This paper classifies traffic in WMSN as periodic monitoring traffic, event traffic, multimedia traffic and query-based traffic. This paper proposes traffic control mechanism that guarantees differentiated QoS in regard to type and feature of WMSN traffic and conducts performance analysis for our mechanism.

Junghye Kim, Seongwon Myung, Yongjae Jang, Sungkeun Lee

### OLAP Data Cube Compression Techniques: A Ten-Year-Long History

OnLine Analytical Processing

(OLAP) is relevant for a plethora of

Intelligent Data Analysis and Mining Applications and Systems

, as it offers powerful tools for exploring, querying and mining massive amounts of data on the basis of fortunate and well-consolidated multidimensional and a multi-resolution metaphors over data. Applicative settings for which OLAP plays a critical role are manyfold, and span from

to

Complex Information Retrieval

and

Sensor and Stream Data Analysis

. Recently, the Database and Data Warehousing research community has experienced an explosion of OLAP-related methodologies and techniques aimed at improving the capabilities and the opportunities of complex mining processes over heterogeneous-in-nature, inter-related and massive data repositories. Despite this, open problems still arise, among which the so-called

curse of dimensionality problem

plays a major role. This problem refers to well-understood limitations of state-of-the-art OLAP data processing techniques in elaborating, querying and mining multidimensional data when data cubes grow in size and dimension number. This evidence has originated a large spectrum of research efforts in the context of

techniques, whose main idea consists in

compressing target data cubes in order to originate compressed data structures able of retrieving approximate answers to OLAP queries at a tolerable query error

. This research proposes an excerpt of a ten-year-long history of OLAP data cube compression techniques, by particularly focusing on three major results, namely Δ−

Syn

,

K

LSA

and

$\mathcal{LCS}-Hist$

.

Alfredo Cuzzocrea

### Backmatter

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