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Über dieses Buch

This two-volume-set constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Future Information Technology, FutureTech 2011, held in Crete, Greece, in June 2011. The 123 revised full papers presented in both volumes were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on future information technology, IT service and cloud computing; social computing, network, and services; forensics for future generation communication environments; intelligent transportation systems and applications; multimedia and semantic technologies; information science and technology.



Future Information Technology (24 Papers)

Whom to Convince? It Really Matters in BGP Prefix Hijacking Attack and Defense

BGP prefix hijacking is one serious security threat to the Internet. In a hijacking attack, the attacker tries to convince as many ASes as possible to become infectors for redirecting data traffic to him instead of the victim. It is important to understand why the impact degree of prefix hijacking differs a lot in different attacks. In this paper, we present a trust propagation model to understand how ASes choose and propagate routes in the Internet; define AS Criticality to describe the ability of an AS for transmitting routing information; and evaluate impact of prefix hijacking attacks based on this metric. From the results of a large amount of simulations and analysis of real prefix hijacking incidents that occurred in the Internet, we find that only a few ASes have very high AS Criticality, and numerous ASes have very low Criticality. There is a tight relationship between the impact of attacks and the Criticality of infectors. For prefix hijacking attack, it is impactful to convince the most critical ASes to trust the false route forged by the attacker. And for prefix hijacking defense, it is effective to convince the most critical ASes to stick to the origin route announced by the victim.

Yujing Liu, Bin Dai, Peidong Zhu, Jinshu Su

Future Trends of Intelligent Decision Support Systems and Models

The aim of this paper is to investigate, formulate, and analyse the general rules and principles that govern the evolution of key factors that influence the development of decision support systems (DSS) and models. In order to ela borate a model suitable for medium-term forecasts and recommendations, we have defined eight major elements of Information Society that characterise the evolution of the corresponding digital economy. The evolution of the overall system is described by a discrete-continuous-event system, where the mutual impacts of each of the elements are represented within state-space models. Technological trends and external economic decisions form inputs, while feedback loops allow us to model the influence of technological demand on IT, R&D, production, and supply of DSS. The technological characteristics of the product line evolution modelled in this way can provide clues to software providers about future demand. They can also give R&D and educational institutions some idea on the most likely directions of develop¬ment and demand for IT professionals. As an example, we will model the evolution of decision-support systems and recommenders for 3D-internet-based e-commerce, and their impact on technological progress, consumption patterns and social behaviour. The re sults presented here have been obtained during an IS/IT foresight project carried out in Poland since 2010 and financed by the ERDF.

Andrzej M. J. Skulimowski

Relation Extraction from Documents for the Automatic Construction of Ontologies

The Semantic Web relies on domain ontologies that structure underlying data enabling comprehensive and transportable machine understanding. It takes so much time and efforts to construct domain ontologies because these ontologies have to be manually made by domain experts and knowledge engineers. To solve this problem, there have been some researches to semi-automatically construct ontologies. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method to extract relations from domain documents which combines a named relation approach and an unnamed relation approach. Our named relation approach is based on the Snowball system. We add the generalized pattern method to their methods. In our unnamed relation approach, we extract unnamed relations using association rules and clustering method. We also recommend candidate names of unnamed relations. We experiment and evaluate the proposed method by using Ziff documents set offered by TREC.

Ikkyu Choi, Seungmin Rho, Young-Sik Jeong, Minkoo Kim

Proactive Detection of Botnets with Intended Forceful Infections from Multiple Malware Collecting Channels

As the major role of Internet Service Providers becomes shifted from caring for their legitimate x-DSL subscribers and enterprise leased line users to protecting them from outside attacks, botnet detection is currently a hot issue in the telecommunications industry. Through this paper, we introduce efficient botnet pre-detection methods utilizing Honeynets with intended forceful infections based on different multiple channel sources. We applied our methods to a major Internet Service Provider in Korea, making use of multiple channel sources: Payloads from Spam Cut services, Intrusion Detection Systems, and Abuse emails. With our proposed method, we can detect 40% of real C&C server IPs and URLs before they are proven to be malicious sites in public. Also, we could find the C&C servers before they caused many victims during their propagation periods and, eventually, we will be able to shut them down proactively.

Young Hoon Moon, Huy Kang Kim

Solving English Questions through Applying Collective Intelligence

Many researchers have been using n-gram statistics which is providing statistical information about cohesion among words to extract semantic information in web documents. Also, the n-gram has been applied in spell checking system, prediction of user interest and so on. This paper is a fundamental research to estimate lexical cohesion in documents using trigram, 4gram and 5gram offered by Google. The main purpose of this paper is estimating possibilities of Google n-gram using TOEIC question data sets.

Dongjin Choi, Myunggwon Hwang, Byeongkyu Ko, Pankoo Kim

Automatic Documents Annotation by Keyphrase Extraction in Digital Libraries Using Taxonomy

Keyphrases are useful for variety of purposes including: text clustering, classification, content-based retrieval, and automatic text summarization. A small amount of documents have author-assigned keyphrases. Manual assignment of the keyphrases to existing documents is a tedious task, therefore, automatic keyphrase extraction has been extensively used to organize documents. Existing automatic keyphrase extraction algorithms are limited in assigning semantically relevant keyphrases to documents. In this paper we have proposed a methodology to assign keyphrases to digital documents. Our approach exploits semantic relationships and hierarchical structure of the classification scheme to filter out irrelevant keyphrases suggested by Keyphrase Extraction Algorithm (KEA++). Experiments demonstrate that the refinement improves the precision of extracted keyphrases from 0.19% to 0.38% while maintains the same recall.

Iram Fatima, Asad Masood Khattak, Young-Koo Lee, Sungyoung Lee

IO-Aware Custom Instruction Exploration for Customizing Embedded Processors

This paper describes a methodology for identifying custom instructions for critical code segments of embedded applications, considering the available data bandwidth constraint between custom logic and the base processor. Our approach enables designers to optionally constrain the number of input and output operands for custom instructions to reach the acceptable performance. We describe a design flow to establish the desired performance. We study the effects of input/output constraints and registerfile read/write ports on overall speedup of the system. Our experiments show that, in most cases, the solutions with the highest merit are not identified with relaxed input/output constraints. Results for packet-processing benchmarks covering cryptography, lookup, and classification show speed-up up to 40%.

Amir Yazdanbakhsh, Mostafa E. Salehi

TSorter: A Conflict-Aware Transaction Processing System for Clouds

The high scalability feature of cloud storage systems benefits many companies and organizations. However, most available cloud storage systems lack for providing a full transaction processing support that is really needed by many daily-use applications such as on-line ticket booking. Although a few cloud-based transaction processing systems have been proposed, they achieve barely satisfactory throughput when the conflict-intensive workload is performed. In this context, this paper presents a cloud-based transaction processing system called "TSorter" that uses a conflict-aware scheduling scheme for achieving the high throughput when the conflict-intensive workload is performed. Moreover, Tsorter uses a data caching and an affinity-based scheduling schemes to improve the per-node performance. The experiment results indicate that Tsorter achieves the high throughput, irrespective of the workload types (i.e. the conflict-intensive workload or the conflict-free workload).

Po-Cheng Chen, Yen-Liang Su, Jyh-Biau Chang, Ce-Kuen Shieh

New Secure Storage Architecture for Cloud Computing

The rapid development of technology has resulted in an increase in the need for computing assets and many organizations are moving in the direction of outsourcing their storage and computing needs. This new trend of outsourcing resources and processes has been called “Cloud Computing”. The challenge is to provide security for data stored in public cloud, where users have reduced control of their own information. In this paper, we are going to propose a new security architecture for customers to ensure that their data is secured by deploying both symmetric and asymmetric encryption in an environment that allows for lawful interception.

Sameera Abdulrahman Almulla, Chan Yeob Yeun

An Adaptive WiFi Rate Selection Algorithm for Moving Vehicles with Motion Prediction

With the proliferation of Wi-Fi devices, many cities have been covered by Wi-Fi network; it is increasingly important for people in moving vehicles to be able to access the Internet using Wi-Fi devices. Since the signal strength varies dramatically for WiFi devices in moving Vehicles, it is necessary for the data-rate of Wi-Fi devices to be adjusted dynamically. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Wi-Fi Data-rate Selection (AWDS) algorithm based on motion predication. By detecting the signal strength of APs, Wi-Fi devices on the move are able to predicate the motion model of vehicles, and to select data rate of Wi-Fi devices accordingly. In this way, Wi-Fi rate selection will be more consistent with its wireless surroundings in the future period of time. Experiment results demonstrate that the AWDS algorithm outperforms the rate selection algorithm built in Android G1.

Jianwei Niu, Yuhang Gao, Shaohui Guo, Chao Tong, Guoping Du

A Radio Channel Sharing Method Using a Bargaining Game Model

Network sharing between MNO (Mobile Network Operator) and MVNO (Mobile Virtual Network Operator) imposes a new design challenge on devising a fair and efficient radio channel allocation method. Partitioning the amount of radio channels statically between MNO and MVNO is a simple way to share radio resources. However, since input loads of the operators are usually asymmetric, the resource utilization and the system capacity in terms of the number of accepted users are limited if the resources are not dynamically shared between MNO and MVNO. In this paper, we employ a bargaining game theory to provide a framework for radio channel sharing strategy between these two types of operators. In the proposed scheme, the operators bargain the radio channels so as to increase the resource utilization by allocating unused channels of an operator to the other operator needing more channels. Furthermore, the proposed scheme allocates radio resources in a fair manner according to the number of services of operators so as to prevent an operator from monopolizing radio channels.

Jaesung Park, Yong-Hoon Choi, Kilhung Lee

Load Balancing with Fair Scheduling for Multiclass Priority Traffic in Wireless Mesh Networks

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are emerging as a key technology for providing cost effective, resilient and adaptive services for the next generation networks. WMNs provide a number of applications to end users such as Video on demand (VoD), Voice over IP (VoIP), high speed internet access, video conferencing etc. To provide Quality of Service (QoS) to these applications, load balancing and fair scheduling are important metrics. In this paper, we propose a novel strict priority based fair load balancing (SPFLB) algorithm for multi class priority traffic in WMNs. The available capacity (AC) and Load Index (LI) of the link is calculated and based upon these values cost evaluation function (CEF) is defined. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using simulations on ns-2 with respect to various metrics. The results obtained show that the proposed algorithm is quite effective for balancing the load of multiclass traffic flows.

Neeraj Kumar, Naveen Chilamkurti, Jong Hyuk Park, Doo-Soon Park

A Dependable and Efficient Scheduling Model and Fault Tolerance Service for Critical Applications on Grid Systems

The grid system is a framework with heterogeneous remote resources and a hazardous environment. Hence, the reliability and performance must be considered as a major criterion to execute the safety-critical applications in the grid. This paper proposes a model for job scheduling and fault tolerance service in the grid to improve dependability with respect economic efficiency. Dynamic architecture of the scheduling model leads to reduce resource consumption. The proposed fault tolerance service consists of failure detection and failure recovery. A three layered detection service is proposed to improve failure coverage and reduce the probability of false negative and false positive states. Checkpointing technique with an appropriate graining size is proposed as recovery service to attain a tradeoff between failure detection latency and performance overhead. Analytical approach (Markov approach) is used to analyze the reliability, safety and economic efficiency of proposed model in the presence of permanent and transient faults.

Bahman Arasteh, Mohammad Javad Hosseini

The Performance Evaluation of Heuristic Information-Based Wireless Sensor Network Routing Method

With recent technological advance, wireless sensor networks are often used in data collection and surveillance. One of the objectives of research on routing methods in wireless sensor networks is maximizing the energy life of sensor nodes that have limited energy. Among basic routing methods, the method using location information is efficient because it requires less information for calculation in route setting than flat routing and hierarchical routing. Because it utilizes distance, however, sensor nodes’ energy utility may go down. In this study, we tried to even energy use in a wireless sensor network by giving a weight to the transition probability of ACS(Ant Colony System), which is commonly used to find the optimal path, based on the amount of energy in a sensor and the distance of the sensor from the sink. The proposed method showed improvement by 46.80% on the average in energy utility in comparison with representative routing method GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing), and its residual energy after operation for a specific length of time was 6.7% more on the average than that in ACS

Hyekyoung Jeon, Seungjin Han, Keewook Rim, Junghyun Lee

A Study on the Spectral and Energy Efficient-Path Selection Scheme in Two-Hop Cellular Systems

In this paper, a spectral and energy efficient-path selection scheme is proposed to enhance downlink system throughput and reduce transmission energy consumption in two-hop cellular systems. In the proposed scheme a

base station

(BS) determines either a single-hop or two-hop path that uses less resource. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms a conventional path selection scheme which uses high

Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio

(SINR) strength based path selection in terms of system throughput and energy consumption and provides an insight into choosing the appropriate RS position and optimal frequency reuse factor.

Se-Han Kim, Se-Jin Kim, Byung-Chul Kim, Jae-Yong Lee

The Construction of Remote Microcontroller Laboratory Using Open Software

A microcontroller can be considered a self-contained system with a processor, memory and peripherals. It is used in automatically controlled products and devices by programming. Therefore it is adopting with the essential subject in our department. We implemented a remote laboratory for 80196KC microcontroller. The remote laboratory provides functions with which learners can perform experiments by remote-controlling circuits and equipment related to experiments and practices on the Web and gets data and image information, so through it learners can make realistic experiments at any time and in any place. Although student can not physically touch any equipment, they can confirm the operation process of the 80196KC microcontroller by observing the result of experiment transferred through the web camera. The remote laboratory module based on Internet open sources such as JAVA Web start technology, FTP technology and Telnet technology in server-client environment can be implemented at low cost. It has the object of introducing remote experimentation, offering to students the opportunity to run a C code for 80196 KC microcontroller. Our remote Lab, therefore, is a useful tool that allows students to make real experiments with 80196 KC microcontroller. It will be used an auxiliary lab for teaching and learning microcontroller.

Kwansun Choi, Saeron Han, Dongsik Kim, Changwan Jeon, Jongsik Lim, Sunheum Lee, Doo-soon Park, Heunggu Jeon

LAPSE+ Static Analysis Security Software: Vulnerabilities Detection in Java EE Applications

This paper presents the study and enhancement of LAPSE, a security software based on the static analysis of code for detecting security vulnerabilities in Java EE Applications. LAPSE was developed by the SUIF Compiler Group of Stanford University as a plugin for Eclipse Java IDE. The latest stable release of the plugin, LAPSE 2.5.6, dates from 2006, and it is obsolete in terms of the number of vulnerabilities detected and its integration with new versions of Eclipse. This paper focuses on introducing LAPSE+, an enhanced version of LAPSE 2.5.6. This new version of the plugin extends the functionality of the previous one, being updated to work with Eclipse Helios, providing a wider catalog of vulnerabilities and improvements for code analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a command-line version of LAPSE+ to make this tool independent of Eclipse Java IDE. This command-line version features the generation of XML reports of the potential vulnerabilities detected in the application.

Pablo Martín Pérez, Joanna Filipiak, José María Sierra

A Low-Power Wakeup-On-Demand Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

This paper proposes a wakeup-on-demand scheme based on the idea that a device should be woken just when it has to receive a packet from a neighboring device. To prove this scheme, this paper proposes a mathematical model based on the busy cycle of M/G/1 queuing systems to obtain a battery lifetime of one-hop cluster-topology shaped W-WSN. Also, we estimate the performance based on a more realistic log-normal shadowing channel model to prove the correctness of the mathematical analysis of the W-WSN with parameters such as the number of devices, the value of the wakeup period and communication distance variations.

Byung-Bog Lee, Se-Jin Kim, Choong-Ho Cho

The Improved Space-Time Trellis Codes with Proportional Mapping on Fast Fading Channels

The use of multiple antennas in most future mobile communication systems seems to be inevitable. Today, the main question is how to include multiple antennas and what are the appropriate methods for specific applications. In this paper, a space-time trellis code (STTC) with proportional mapping is proposed in order to improve the bit error rate (BER) performance. The core of proportional mapping assigns information bits with a Hamming distance in proportion to the sum of the Euclidean distance to each trellis branch of STTC. Following these rules, we can construct 8-state 8-PSK STTC with proportional mapping. To the best knowledge, this combination has not been considered yet. The BER performance is examined with simulations and the performance of proportional mapping is compared to that of well known natural mapping and Gray mapping on both fast Rayleigh as well as fast Rician fading channels. It is shown that in case of 8-state 8-PSK STTC, proportional mapping outperforms Gray mapping and natural mapping by about 0.5 dB and about 0.7 dB at a BER of 10

− 5

, respectively, over fast Rician fading channels, without any additional loss.

Ik Soo Jin

Strategies for IT Convergence Services in Rural Areas

The digital divide refers to the gap between people with effective access to digital and information technology and those with very limited or no access at all. The inequality of accessing information could cause the inequality of opportunity between different social groups. This inevitably results in social problems. The Korea government has been conducting a project resolving the digital divide between urban areas and rural areas since 2010. In this paper, we introduce the rural BcN project of the Korea government with the motivation and development plans. After that, we propose the strategies for boosting broadcast-communication services and the strategies for enhancing user experience.

Hyongsoon Kim, Kwang-Taek Ryu, Sang-Yong Ha, Eunyoung Lee

Enlarging Instruction Window through Separated Reorder Buffers for High Performance Computing

Modern microprocessors achieve high application performance at the acceptable level of power dissipation. In terms of power to performance trade-off, the instruction window is particularly important. This is because enlarging the window size achieves high performance but naive scaling of the conventional instruction window can severely increase the complexity and power consumption. In this paper, we propose low-power instruction window techniques for contemporary microprocessors. First, the separated reorder buffer (SROB) reduces power dissipation by deferred allocation and early release. The deferred allocation delays the SROB allocation of instructions until their all data dependencies are resolved. Then, the instructions are executed in program order and they are released faster from the SROB. This results in higher resource utilization and low power consumption.

Min Choi, Jonghyuk Park, Young-Sik Jeong

Smart Mobile Banking and Its Security Issues: From the Perspectives of the Legal Liability and Security Investment

As the Internet prevails, financial transactions using mobile handsets increase with electronic fraudulent transactions at the same time. To prevent fraudulent transactions, security liability rules are needed as well as more security protection techniques. In comparison with the amount of research on technical approach, little research on legal approach has been done. This paper analyzes how a legal approach can contribute to fraudulent transaction protection and investigates how this is related to banks’ investment in security.

Se-Hak Chun

Future Green Technologies and Performances: A Case Study of the Korean Stock Market

Nowadays, for sustainable economic development, many countries or companies are investing in green technologies to reduce CO


and create new revenue streams. This paper evaluates the performances of the green technologies comparing them with those of other technologies using the Korean stock market. Using a regression framework, we also investigate how the performances of green technologies are related to some factors such as types of technology, price competitiveness and investment timing.

Se-Hak Chun, Seonmin Kim

Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Performances: Application to SRI (Socially Responsible Investing) Mutual Funds

We compare the performance of the SRI (Socially Responsible Investing) mutual funds and that of regular mutual funds in Korea. We find that the SRI funds show higher Sharpe ratios and Treynor’s measure compared to regular mutual funds. We also show that return measures are sensitive to weighting scheme; since SRI funds outperform regular funds by 1.2 times in terms of equal-weighted portfolio, but outperform by 62 times in terms of value-weighted portfolio. Finally, using a regression framework controlling for factors such as fund age, risk, and size, we confirm that SRI funds perform better than regular mutual funds.

Joon Ho Hwang, Dong Han Kim, Se-Hak Chun

IT Service and Cloud Computing (43 Papers)

Mobile Cloud e-Gov Design and Implementation Using WebSockets API

As the pan-government computational resources integrated building project of Korea in 2010, computational resources integrated building and use plan for 139 systems of 34 government departments using Cloud Computing are under way. Therefore, in this paper, we design Mobile Cloud Computing e-Gov using central government Cloud cluster by using WebSockets API newly added to HTML5. We build UCS performing Mobile Cloud Computing service directly and communicate Full Duplex with each organization WAS in Mobile Web of UCS directly. As a result, the model presented in this paper enables data push from the server of true meaning that was not fully realized in HTTP until now and materalizes interactive communiation in which real time performance of Web Application improves greatly.

Young-Hyuk Kim, Il-Kown Lim, Seung-Gu Kang, Jae-Kwang Lee

Noise Reduction in Image Using Directional Modified Sigma Filter

In this paper, we propose a new method using a modified sigma filter. The sigma filter among many algorithms is one of the simplest de-noising methods. The threshold of the sigma filter uses the estimated standard deviation of the noise by block-based noise estimation using the adaptive Gaussian filtering. In the proposed method, an input image is first decomposed into two components according to direction features. Then, two components are applied; HPF and LPF. By applying a conventional sigma filter separately on each of them, the output image is reconstructed from the filtered components. Comparative results from experiments show that the proposed algorithm achieves higher gains than the sigma filter and modified sigma filter, which are 2.6 dB PSNR on average and 0.5 dB PSNR, respectively. When relatively high levels of noise are added, the proposed algorithm shows better performance than the two conventional filters.

Hye-Youn Lim, Mi-Ran Gu, Dae-Seong Kang

An Approach to Real-Time Region Detection Algorithm Using Background Modeling and Covariance Descriptor

In this paper, we present a region detection algorithm using robust image descriptor. It abstracts objects from moving picture using Gaussian mixture background modeling on a moving object. And feature image is comprised of spatial properties and statistical properties on abstracted objects, and covariance matrices are formatted using region variance magnitudes. By using it to detection region, this paper puts a proposal for outstanding real-time region detection algorithm to diverse situations with strong noise, rotation and illumination. To estimate performance evaluation of proposed algorithm, we conduct an experiment on region detection in diverse traffic circumstance moving picture. And then we get a great performance result on interested region detection.

Jong-Dae Park, Hye-Youn Lim, Dae-Seong Kang

Optimization and Generation of Knowledge Model for Supporting Technology Innovation

In information society, there are now worldwide economic network that are expanding prodigiously. There could be argued that social structure is in dire need of supporting technology innovation. This paper seeks to analysis and how to generate of knowledge model that supporting policy making of technology innovation. We let the user focus on some interested parts a whole decision making and to analysis using case and how to generate knowledge model and network through advanced semantic mining and formal language. Knowledge model is created to topic network that compositing driven keyword through text mining from natural language in document. And we show that the way of analyzing knowledge model and automatically generating feature keyword and relation properties into topic networks. In order that we analyze the semantic relationship and knowledge properties using CTL(Computational Tree Logic) on organized topic map and Kripke structure.

Seungsu Jun, Seungryong Lee, Munbong Shin

An Application of SCORM Based CAT for E-Learning

Many CATs(Computerized Adaptive Testing) focus on analysis and evaluation of the results of learning. Because tests are based on learning materials, however, it is required to develop the learning process in which the learning materials are interlinked with the questions. For this purpose, this study suggests the CAT system which interfaces with SCORM. In this system, LMS processes and operates the learning materials, and LCMS manages the learning contents. The CAT system interlinked with SCORM provided the learners with the learning contents and items through a separate e-learning server.

HwaYoung Jeong, BongHwa Hong

Research of the Solar Orbit Compute Algorithm for Improving the Efficiency of Solar Cell

In the solar industry, the development of tracking photovoltaic power generation devices is underway. So accurate and low-priced solar position tracking devices are very important to improve the economical efficiency and lower the invest price. This research is concerned with solar position algorithm.

Sang-Bong Byun, Eun-Kyung Kim, Yong-Hwan Lee

A Learning System Using User Preference in Ubiquitous Computing Environment

In this article, a learning system in ubiquitous computing environment is proposed that considers the preference of each student. The system provides information about the learner’s preferred learning unit and their score, thus allowing learners to set up an optimized learning environment. A topic preference vector was applied to calculate the learner’s preferences, and the learning units were used as each vector value in the system. For experiment of the proposed system, we applied it to English learning system. And we could show the system is useful for learning and convenient for using to learner.

HwaYoung Jeong, BongHwa Hong

Introduction of the Art of Korean Traditional Culture: Multimedia Based Pansori

This research shows Pasori that is an art of traditional culture in Korea. Pasori is too able to call the one of convergent art. Because the actor has to play an active part with sound and sing the story in the Pasori. The research is aimed to introduce Pasori exactly.

Dong-Keon Kim

A Study on Model Transformation Mechanism Using Graph Comparison Algorithms and Software Model Property Information

In order to easily port mobile applications suitable for each platform, that have been developed under diverse development environment for individual wireless communication service providers, or redevelop them on a specific platform, it is required to reuse them at software model level that is a software development paradigm for MDA (Model Driven Architecture). The existing model verification approaches have focused on using graph comparison between input model and target model or applying graph pattern by simple version tree types. The graph model transformation mechanism proposed on this paper generates prediction model by defining test Oracle as model transformation rules that may conduct verification test of the generated transformation model, in order to support verification on verification of the converted model through MDA based model transformation mechanism. By comparing this prediction model with the target model, it is possible to execute verification test using graph comparison algorithms on the converted model. we supported verification mechanism of transformation model with model property information,dynamic analysis in this paper. Therefore, by increasing reliability of model transformation and further applying test issues on the software development process to the software mode at software design phase. A case study in AGG tool is presented to illustrate the feasibility of the model transformation verification with model property information.

Jong-won Ko, Hwa-young Jeong, Young-jae Song

Video Service Algorithm Using Web-Cached Technique in WLAN

This paper presents the strategy for video service using caching technique in WLAN. The environment of WLAN includes mobile nodes(MN) and an access point(AP) that have memory for store video clips transmitted from AP and video server, respectively. The operation for the proposed system has two modes, the 1


mode is AP mode that all MNs are serviced through AP, and the 2


mode is an ad-hoc mode that is serviced only through other MNs without AP connecting. The operation of ad-hoc mode is that the requesting MN is serviced directly from the video clip cached on other MN without the connection to AP or multimedia server(MS). Otherwise the proposed system uses AP mode that requesting MN is serviced under the control of AP, thus MN connects to AP’s cache or MS.

Iksoo Kim, Seoungyeol Lee, Yoseop Woo

A Design and Implementation of Mobile Puzzle Game

This study has actualized Beadz Puzzle, a beads puzzle game, on the mobile where everyone can enjoy regardless of the location and time. Beadz Puzzle, increases the children’s ability in spatial perception, patience, and concentration and allows them to develop cognitive ability in different situations and enhance their intellectual capacity. Moreover, adolescents and adults can develop their ability to process things quickly; the aged can maintain quick thinking and prevent Alzheimer disease. Each question has different ways to solve so that various solutions can be examined. This study suggests a Beadz Puzzle that has been modified and supplemented from the original beads puzzle game by adding layers of levels, a time limit and life system. That is, this game is constructed as interactive games using Beads Puzzle, therefore, it also can induce more participation and interest of elderly persons by using various configurations of games.

Seongsoo Cho, Bhanu Shrestha, Kwang Chul Son, Bonghwa Hong

Implementation of AUV Test-Bed

This study deals with the hardware architecture of developing autonomous underwater vehicle and an application software to test its test bed. Overall hardware consists of a main control processor, a sensor data gathering processor to give an accurate position and posture from IMU, GPS, depth sensor by using extended Kalman filter, and a actuator control processor to control a thruster and four rudder motors. An application program was also designed to test communication with a host computer and to test functions of each processor.

Soon T. Kwon, Woon Kyung Baek, Moon G. Joo

Communication and Computation Overlap through Task Synchronization in Multi-locale Chapel Environment

Parallel processing systems use data parallelism to achieve high performance data processing. Data parallelism is normally based on data arrays, which are distributed to separate nodes. Therefore, efficient communication between nodes is required to initialize the distribution. In this paper, we propose a computation and communication overlapping technique to reduce the overhead of communication during array distribution. Our overlapping technique uses task parallelism for the initiate task and the worker tasks, and also the synchronization mechanism supported by Chapel. To show our overlapping technique is effective, we design and develop a parallel version of the Mandelbrot set program, and then evaluate the benefit of overlapping against the execution time of Mandelbrot. From our comparison, the overlapping technique proposed in this paper is effective in that it reduces the impact of communication in the initial array distribution.

Bongen Gu, Weikuan Yu, Yoonsik Kwak

Compensation System for RF System-on-Chip

This paper presents a novel programmable compensation system (PCS) for a radio frequency (RF) System-on-Chip (SoC). The PCS is integrated with 0.18-


m BiCMOS SiGe process. It consists of RF Built-In Self-Test (BIST) circuit, Resistor Array Bank (RAB) and digital signal processor (DSP). To verify performance of the PCS we built a 5-GHz low noise amplifier (LNA) with an on-chip RAB using the same technology. Proposed system helps it to provide DC output voltages, hence, making the RF system chain automatic. The PCS also compensates abnormal operation due to the unusual PVT (Process, Voltage and Thermal) variations in RF circuits.

Sung-Woo Kim, Jee-Youl Ryu, Jae-Hwan Lim, Seung-Hun Park, Jung-Hoon Lee, Min Yoon

A Study on the SNS (Social Network Service) Based on Location Model Combining Mobile Context-Awareness and Real-Time AR (Augmented Reality) via Smartphone

The advent of the Internet heralded network age in the 1990s. I-Phone’s launch into the market in Korea in 2010 opened up the country to smartphone age in a mobile environment. smartphone provides such functions as GPS sensing module and navigation in a mobile environment. Handheld computers that are linked to web mobile platform on a real-time basis enables personalized user information such as location, mail address, mobile phone numbers of friends and call duration to be provided in mobile context-awareness system. In particular, context of personalized mobile context-awareness combines with AR technology, which fuses with cross media producing, storing, distributing, re-processing, spreading and disseminating various information based on personal context, to create a visual image. This study will suggest a model showing how a social network service (Facebook, Twitter, Gowalla, foursquare etc.) exploding like a volcano splits up into AR (Augmented Reality) technology and the model proposed will be demonstrated to the details via personalized location-based service.

Jang-Mook Kang, Bong-Hwa Hong

Design and Implementation MoIP Wall-Pad Platform for Home-Network

This paper is to implement MoIP platform to send and receive video and audio at the same time by using high-performance Dual Core Processor. Even if Wall-Pad key component of a home network system is released by using embedded processors, it’s lacking of performance in terms of multimedia processing and feature of video telephony through which video and voice are exchanged simultaneously. The main reason could be that embedded processors currently being used do not provide enough performance to support both MoIP call features and various home network features simultaneously. In order to solve these problems, Dual processor could be used, but in the other hands it brings another disadvantage of high cost. Therefore, this study is to solve the home automation features and video telephony features by using Dual Core Processor based on ARM 11 Processor and implement the MoIP Wall-Pad which can reduce the board design costs and component costs, and improve performance. The platform designed and implemented in this paper verified performance of MoIP to exchange the video and voice at the same time under the situation of Ethernet network.

Yong-kuk Jung, Min-Su Kweon, Kwang-Seon Heo, Dae-Sung Kim, Young-Gyu Choi

Outlier Rejection Methods for Robust Kalman Filtering

In this paper we discuss efficient methods of the state estimation which are robust against unknown outlier measurements. Unlike existing Kalman filters, we relax the Gaussian assumption of noises to allow sparse outliers. By doing so spikes in channels, sensor failures, or intentional jamming can be effectively avoided in practical applications. Two approaches are suggested: median absolute deviation (MAD) and L


-norm regularized least squares (L


-LS). Through a numerical example two methods are tested and compared.

Du Yong Kim, Sang-Goog Lee, Moongu Jeon

A Study on Receiving Performance Improvement of LTE Communication Network Using Multi-hop Relay Techniques

This paper made research to boost reception performance in link-down transmission method of LTE system, which is the next-generation mobile communication technology standard underway in 3GPP. To this end, it proposed installing relay (RS) in between station(BS) and terminal(MS), set the distance between BS and RS at 500m and 1,000m, each, and chose OFDMA and SC-FDMA as transmission method of RS. The paper found SC-FDMA to be better choice in RS when it is closer to BS and OFDMA to be a better choice in RS when the distance between BS and RS is farther. The system’s reception performance improved when the most appropriate transmission method fitting the circumstances was used in the middle between BS and MS.

Chan-Hong Park, Yong-Seok Choi, Young-Hwan Han, Hyeon-Kyeong Seong

Implementation of Linux Server System Monitoring and Control Solution for Administrator

Linux server offers various kinds of service including web, FTP, and SSH. The users of these kinds of service are trying to hack by making use of it. That’s why some countermeasures are required for the security of the server. In this thesis, each type of service log of multiple Linux server was analyzed, and a solution was developed to monitor and control the multiple Linux server system not based on Linux but based on Windows.

Sung-Won Jang, Byeong-Ho Park, Sang-Ju Park, Hyeon-Kyeong Seong

A Smart Personal Activity Monitoring System Based on Wireless Device Management Methods

Lack of physical activity can cause obesity, diabetes, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. To prevent these diseases, experts recommend regular physical exercise. In this paper, a Smart Personal Activity Monitoring System (SPAMS) is proposed in order to enhance the effectiveness of physical activities. The proposed system consists of a Physical Activity Measurement Device (PAMD), a Physical Activity Computation Device (PACD) and a Device Management Server (DMS). The proposed system offers personalized exercise programs based on individual body characteristics, and a remote device management service operated by system administrators, using a wireless device management method, specifically Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Device Management (DM), as it is the international de facto standard for mobile device management. In this paper, we present a practical method for using OMA DM to personalize and manage the SPAMS and also present the implementation results.

Jugeon Pak, Keehyun Park

A Study on Demodulation System Design of the VOR Receiver

In this paper, we studied VOR receiver system designed for digital communication system. A VOR provides the user with a bearing to the station. Digital hardware was used to determine the phase relationship between the two 30Hz signal. The design in this paper acquires the phase of the 30Hz variable and reference signals from the composite audio output of a VOR receiver using DSP and FPGA methods implemented in software. VOR signal generator using a frequency 108MHz, -70dBm to receive input power to the system, the developed system was verified by operation.

Jeong IL Park, Hwa Se Park

China’s Electronic Information Policy

Through its reform and opening policy since early 1980s, China has achieved rapid economic growths. Ever since the reform and opening policy, the electronic information technology has been advanced and national IT infrastructure was constructed. Since 1995, the electronic information industry in China has grown at the fastest pace and secured its position as a major industry. Since 2006, China became the largest IT devices producer in the world. In particular, the electronic information technologies were applied vigorously in the fields of finance, automobile, medical treatment and military. In China, the development of electronic information technology and industry will play a key role in the enhancement of its national power.

Won-bong Lee

3D Content Industry in Korea : Present Conditions and Future Development Strategies

The purpose of this study is to formulate a direction of development for acquisition of global competitiveness by understanding the status of Korea’s 3D content industry and to diagnose problems. For this, the study has collected and analyzed literature related to 3D content industry and grafted them onto Porter’s Diamond model. As a result, the study has suggested key success factors such as the fostering of professional 3D personnel from a long term perspective, networking of industry and academia, consolidating skilled technology able to lead 3D project, acquiring government support for reducing high investment risk, etc. Also, the study has revealed a necessity for the government, businesses, and schools to formulate an integrated developmental strategy by cooperating with each other to solve such issues.

Yunkyung Lee, Youngsik Kwak

A Study of Mobile Application Usage in after Service Management for Consumer Electronics Industry

This motive of this study was to introduce how an influence Mobile STS can be; with a vision of advanced technology brought to simple everyday business use. Interviews with major companies’ ASC managers were set up, to verify the problems at hand and to accurately help change the current situation. A prior variable in all this was the test trial we ran; study showed the new adjustment in the ASCs had a high ratio of success. Each situation solved in a significant short amount of time, thus proving the Mobile STS will be an important element in businesses.

Wonkyu Ji, Xu Wang

A Study on the Mechanical Properties Analysis of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Using Polymer Impregnated

This study aims at comapring and analyzing the mechanical properties of concrete when the recycled coarse aggregate impregnated. Water-soluble polymer is used to solve the problems of recycled coarse aggregate, because when recycled coarse aggregate is produced. The amount of air in the unhardened concrete was biggest when it was inpregnated for one hour in all replacement rate of 40% and 60% of W/C, and when the smallest amount of air was impregnated for 24 hours. Its per unit capacity mass was bigger than that of plain with 40% of W/C in case of 1 hour and 6 hours, and was generally smaller than that of plain at 60% of W/C. This is because when polymer is impregnated, it plays the role to fill in the gap for a short time, but after a certain amount time, it makes small but more gaps with solid powder, which lowers the adherence strength.

Hyun-gi Ryu, Jung-sik Kim

A Study on the Strength Improvement of Recycled Aggregates Using Industrial Waste

Objective of this study is to identify properties on strength increase of hardened concrete and fluidization of non-hardened concrete using waste ceramics generated by construction waste. Determine length change ration caused by drying shrinkage during substitution of recycle aggregate and waste ceramics, and whether they can be used as concrete compounds. Slump of non-hardened concrete exhibited the best fluidization and formability at recycled aggregate’s replacement ration of 60% driven by higher substitution ration of recycled aggregate and waste ceramics while air content met the KS requirement when substitution ration of waste ceramics was 4,000cm2/g. Compressive strength of hardened concrete exceeded the requrements at early age and standard age and temperature dropped by roughly 6~10°C less than the standard at maximum temperature in adiabatic temperature increase.

Jung-sik Kim, Hyun-gi Ryu

Design and Analysis of Optimizing Single-Element Microstrip Patch Antenna for Dual-Band Operations

A novel frequency selectable microstrip patch antennas for dual-band WLAN is presented. The proposed design is based on the shorting pin antennas, which have ten shorting pins at a distance from the radiating edges on patch. The designed antennas can perform in IEEE 802.11.a/b and be adopted for a near region RF wireless network systems. As a result, this paper presents possibility for the design of optimizing to select the required frequency as controlling the number of shorting pins.

Dong-Hee Park, Yoonsik Kwak

An Analysis of U-Healthcare Business Models and Business Strategies: Focused on Life Insurance Industry

Recently major developed countries such as U.S. and EU selected U-Health as future growth engine industry, and concentrated their capabilities. Major companies all around the world also entered this U-Health business. Most of the researchers in this field confined their research focus mainly on the elementary technologies for infrastructure buildings. This research systematically investigates U-Health business models with various objectives in diverse sub-areas. For this purpose, the value chain of U-Health industry is analyzed, and then various business models were explored all around the world. Finally, the future changes possible to occur in the life insurance industry were analyzed.

Dong-Hwan Cho, Jin-Hyuk Hong

Outage Probability Evaluation of DSF-Relaying Equipped CDD Schemes for MC-CDMA Systems

In this paper, CDD(Cyclic Delay Diversity)-DSF(decode-andselectively forward) relay schemes are proposed for MC-CDMA(multicarriercode division multiple access) systems over multipath Rayleigh fading channels. On the contrary to general DSF schemes, multiple relays equipped CDD scheme can transmit on single channel. The cooperative diversity of relay networks can be obtained as the frequency diversity for MC-CDMA systems with proposed CDD schemes. Furthermore, a semi-analytical approach for the outage probability is proposed for general DSF-Relay schemes and proposed CDD-DSF-Relay schemes. By simulation and numerical results, it is confirmed that the proposed one can be a possible solution to achieve cooperative diversity gain without a reduction of spectral efficiency.

Kyunbyoung Ko, Choongchae Woo

On BER Performance of CDD-DF-Relay Scheme for MC-CDMA Systems

In this paper, CDD (Cyclic Delay Diversity)-DF (Decode-and-Forward)-Relay scheme is proposed for MC-CDMA (Multicarrier-Code Division Multiple Access) systems over multipath Rayleigh fading channels. The advantages of general DF schemes come at the expense of the spectral efficiency since the source and all the relays must transmit on orthogonal channels. In order to mitigate this disadvantage of general DF schemes, we have applied CDD techniques to each relays so that all the relays can transmit on single channel. It means that all R-D link channels can be considered as a single channel which is widely delay spread. By simulations, we have compared proposed one with general DF scheme. Therefore, it is confirmed that the proposed one can be a possible solution to achieve cooperative diversity gain without a reduction of spectral efficiency.

Jeanyeung Jang, Choongchae Woo, Kyunbyoung Ko

The Effect of Corporate Strategy and IT Role on the Intent for IT Outsourcing Decision

The Intent for IT outsourcing is commonly categorized as IS Improvement, Business Impact, and Commercial Exploitation. The decision factors for these IT outsourcing include corporate strategy types, IT role, and interaction between these two. Firm size and IT maturity are selected as moderating factors to add the credibility to the research of the effect of IT outsourcing decision making. Analyzing collected data revealed that corporate strategy rather than IT role is more significant factor affecting the intent for IT outsourcing decision. Defenders tend to use IT outsourcing more as a means to improve information systems, compared to analyzers and reactors. Prospectors tend to use IT outsourcing more as a commercial exploitation, compared to analyzers and reactors. Unlike previous researches, the hypothesis that IT role determines outsourcing intent was rejected. It was also rejected that the interaction between corporate strategy types and IT role determines outsourcing intent.

Dong-Hwan Cho, Jin-Sung Kim

A Study on IT Organization Redesign with IT Governance: Focusing on K Public Corporation in Korea

This study investigated the redesign methods and procedures of IT organization with specific focus on K public corporation. Job analysis was carried out so as to redesign IT organization in K public corporation. Task redesign was also performed and IT organization as well as personnel was assessed. (1) In task analysis, core activities were identified and 96 standard tasks were drawn. (2) IT support, IT delivery, IT operation teams were the target for organization redesign. Bukyoung and Jeju teams were also separated. (3) Previous job organization was restructured.

Dong Hwan Cho, Hyoung Seop Shim

MF-SNOOP for Handover Performance Enhancement

Wireless network has high BERs because of its path losses, fading, noises and interferences. Particularly, in the TCP and MIP environments, the network is often disconnected because of the handover. To solve such problem, the Freeze-TCP mechanism is proposed, but during the handover in the Network layer, the mobile node can’t receive packets. In addition, it cannot handle traffic with high BERs. SNOOP hides packet losses for Fixed Host(FH) and retransmit lost packets in wireless network. However, SNOOP has a weakness for bust errors in wireless network. This paper proposes the MF-SNOOP that loads Enhanced SNOOP modules on the MAP and maintains TCP connectivity during network layer handovers. The Enhanced SNOOP module performs multiple local retransmission for bust errors. By buffering in MAP, MF-SNOOP uses Zero Window Advertisement(ZWA) Messages of Freeze-TCP. Thereafter, MN finishes the handover immediately, and receives its packets.

Chi-Hyun Ahn, Hyoungchul Kim, Jongjung Woo

The Influences of On-line Fashion Community Network Features on the Acceptance of Fashion Information

The purpose of this study is to determine the major influential factors, including network, in the acceptance of fashion information in the on-line fashion community. Communities that actively exchange fashion information among their members were selected for social network analysis and hypothesis verification. In the results, it was determined that the network features of the fashion community were concentrated on a few information activists that appeared to influence most of the information acceptors. Moreover, in the results of verifying the hypothesis through surveys on the influential factors for verbal acceptance, it was found that the informational characteristic variables, individual characteristic variables as well as the network characteristic variables, have a significant influence on the verbal acceptance which verified the importance of the network characteristic variables in the study on the word of mouth advertising on the internet.

Kieun Song, Sunjin Hwang, Yunsik Kim, Youngsik Kwak

Exact Closed-form Outage Probability Analysis Using PDF Approach for Fixed-DF and Adaptive-DF Relay Systems over Rayleigh Fading Channels

In this paper, we derive the closed-form outage probability for decode-and-forward (DF) relay systems over Rayleigh fading channels. At first, our focus is on fixed-DF (FDF) relay schemes in which the probability density function (PDF) is derived based on error-event at relay nodes. It is confirmed that an erroneous detection and re-transmission at relay nodes affects both the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the outage probability. In addition, the developed analytical method is extended to adaptive-DF (ADF) schemes and the exact outage probability expression is derived. Simulation results are finally presented to validate the analysis.

Jeanyeung Jang, Kyunbyoung Ko

From Trading Volume to Trading Number-Based Pricing at Home Trading System on Korean Stock Market

The new n-block tariff can outperforms, in terms of profit, two-part tariff, all unit discount price schedule, and uniform pricing for a given service and product. This research objectives are to develop new pricing unit and to determine the optimal price break points for n-block tariff on the new pricing unit. Although the merits of developing new pricing unit and non-linear pricing are well documented, the attempt to practice the new pricing unit development and non-linear pricing in online market has been relatively rare. The researchers found that transaction log file analysis using mixture model can be the feasible methodology for developing the new pricing unit and determining the optimal break points number of n-block tariff. The researchers empirically demonstrate the feasibility and the superiority of the mixture model by applying it to the log file on Home Trading System (HTS) for futures and option transaction at a stock company in Korea. The empirical results showed that the stock company had an opportunity to set new pricing unit from trading volume-based pricing to trading number-based pricing a given time horizon.

Youngsik Kwak, Yunkyung Lee, Jaeweon Hong, Wanwoo Cho, Ho Jang, Daehyun Park

Design and Implementation of the Application Service System Based on Sensor Networks

In this paper, we will take about the design and implementation of application service system based on sensor networks. As the components of application service system, we will take about middleware and its application services. There are 4 catalogues of module that consist of middleware, on the other hand, query processing module to deal with the requests from application service system, control module to control and manage meta data, module to connect with sensor nodes, and API solution to support user’s service. Based on the implemented middleware, in the high level of system, it is implemented service of system management, control service, and query processing service corresponding to happened events, and management and store service for sensing data.

Yoonsik Kwak, Donghee Park

Software RAID 5 for OLTP Applications with Frequent Small Writes

In this paper, we propose a DDR-SSD conscious software RAID system for OLTP applications. The proposed software RAID employs a logging based method to improve the performance of software RAID 5. Small writes that are frequently occurred in OLTP applications are the main factor to degrade the performance of RAID systems. Several methods for a hard disk based software RAID system are proposed to solve the small write problems. It is straightforward to apply the existing methods to a DDR-SSD based software RAID system. However, DDR-SSDs have unique characteristics which are different from hard disks. If the unique characteristics are taken into account carefully when designing the software RAID system, its overall performance will be improved. In this paper, we propose a differential-logging method considering the DDR-SSD to solve the small write problem. We show that our proposed method outperforms the existing software RAID through simulations.

Kijeong Khil, Dongho Kwak, Seokil Song, Yunsik Kwak, Seungkook Cheong

The Effects of Project, Customer and Vendor Properties on the Conflict of IS Outsourcing Development

This study aims to investigate the major causes of conflict between clients and vendors in the outsourced IS development. A research model is established based on the prior research of IS outsourcing, system development and conflict. An empirical study was executed using 214 survey questionnaires of project teams composed of client and vendor with PASW 18.0. Research results using multiple regressions show that contract concreteness, requirement constancy, accordance of goals and Technology of Knowledge have negative effects on conflict.

Dong-Hwan Cho, Haeng-Nam Sung

A Study on the Split Algorithm of URL LIST Collected by Web Crawler

The development of cloud technology and the web-based technology and serching technology is becoming important. About the web crawler technology which collects URL for serching, one of issues of the distributed crawler system is the effective URL split. Therefore, this study designed algorithm to split the URL LIST effectively collected by the web crawler and the split algorithm environment of URL LIST collected by web crawler was composed by implementing depositary in Hadoop environment.

IL-Kwon Lim, Young-Hyuk Kim, Seung-Gu Kang, Jae-Kwang Lee

A Study on Authentication System Using QR Code for Mobile Cloud Computing Environment

In cloud computing environment, users use authentication system for being provided the whole or the part of needed resources directly from servers, and for authentication, thousands of suatus bit are necessary. The problems is that thousands of status bit information should be searched under the centural authority, and the searching process causes high network bandwidth, delay, and network congestion. This paper suggests authentication system appropriate for mobile cloud computing environment using QR code, a typical 2-dimensional code, and QR code is a technology suitable to display information needed for user authentication through its strengths such as high data integration, compressibility and error correction capability. Then, it suggests a technology to authorize users with totally new information vs information through new type of data set having 3 kinds of QR code by converting user information to different 3 versions of QR code and by storing each QR code in distributed server system of cloud computing environment in a circulation-loop way.

Dong-Sik Oh, Bong-Han Kim, Jae-Kwang Lee

Research on the I/O Performance Advancement of a Low Speed HDD Using DDR-SSD

In this paper, we proposed Hot/Cold File Management Algorithm to maximize performance to environment combining a low speed I/O property HDD with a high speed I/O SSD. As a result to test by applying that algorithm, we confirm that performance get better multiples of 11.36(in case of block size=4k), multiples of 12.79(in case of block size=8k) and that performance is unrelated to a type of second disk (HDD, Flash-SSD, DRAM-SSD).

Seung-Kook Cheong, Jae-Jin Jeong, Yong-Wan Jeong, Dae-Sik Ko, Young-Hoon Lee

Neighborhood Evolution in MANET Experiments

Many algorithms and protocols in Ad-Hoc Networks are based on the use of neighborhood information. It is usually accepted that one-hop neighbors in static networks are stable. However, based on intensive sets of experiments, it appears that wireless links both in indoors or outdoors contexts are very sensitive to conditions. During two years we have recorded sets of measures and draw today some conclusions about the stability of links between wireless-enable small communicating objects like smartphones and PDAs.

Julien Franzolini, Frédéric Guinand, Damien Olivier


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