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Due to their CO 2 reduction potential and their high knock resistance, gas fuels such as LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) are well suited for the operation of modern spark ignition engines. For a wider use of LPG fuels, it is, however, necessary to update the European LPG fuel standard EN 589 with regard to modern engine concepts. For this to happen, knowledge must be gained about the impact of fuel properties and the gas composition on the engine combustion behaviour of these gas fuels. Experimental tests with four LPG fuel mixtures that meet the existing standard formed the basis of an FVV project. Tests were conducted on a 1.6-l turbocharged direct fuel injection gasoline engine, a one-cylinder research aggregate, a high-pressure pump/injector test stand as well as a test vehicle with a 1.6-l gasoline engine with direct fuel injection. A detailed analysis of the influence of the substance properties of LPG near the critical point on the direct injection was the focus of the tests. This also included a comparison of the injection behaviour of the different LPG aggregate states (subcritical – supercritical). It is useful to restrict the propane content of future LPG fuels to a maximum of 70 % (m/m) for any LPG direct injection concepts with a conventionally designed high-pressure fuel pump. For LPG fuels with a maximum propane content of 70 % (m/m), it could be shown that the function of the high-pressure fuel pump with an inlet pressure of 45 bar can be guaranteed – even at fuel temperatures near the critical point, and thus at greater compressibility. The C3 content should, nevertheless, be as high as possible, as corresponding LPG fuels have proven to be extremely robust against pre-ignition and glow ignition. Significant injector wear was shown only in operation with supercritical LPG. Compared with liquid operation, the high-pressure fuel pump showed greater pump piston wear in both subcritical and supercritical LPG. The findings of the project may significantly contribute to the LPG standardisation process in Germany (DIN) and Europe (CEN).
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