Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Few studies have investigated gendered patterns in IT patenting or authorship, but understanding female participation in these areas is important if we are to increase women’s meaningful participation in recognized and rewarded aspects of IT innovation. This chapter reports findings from two studies: one on female rates of patenting and one on female authorship of computing conference papers. In short, we demonstrate that while women’s participation remains low, especially in terms of patenting, important increases have been made over time. We also examine variation in these rates of patenting and authorship across companies and across conferences, ultimately identifying some important implications for increasing women’s meaningful participation in key commercial and intellectual aspects of computing.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Ashcraft, Catherine, Brad McLain, and Elizabeth Eger. 2016. Women in IT: The facts. Boulder, CO: National Center for Women & IT. www.ncwit.org/thefacts.
Ashcraft, Catherine, and Anthony Breitzman. 2012. Who invents IT?: Women’s participation in information technology patenting. Boulder, CO: National Center for Women & Information Technology.
Abramo, Giovanni, Ciriaco Andrea D’Angelo, and Alessandro Caprasecca. 2009. Gender differences in research productivity: A bibliometric analysis of the Italian academic system. Scientometrics 79 (3): 517–539. CrossRef
Breitzman, Anthony, and Francis Narin. 1999. US 6175824: Method and apparatus for choosing a stock portfolio, based on patent indicators (Patent Application US1999/353613, July 14).
Bunker Whittington, Kjersten, and Laurel Smith-Doerr. 2008. Women inventors in context: Disparities in patenting across academia and industry. Gender & Society 22 (2): 194–218. CrossRef
Cheryan, Sapna, and Victoria Plaut. 2010. Explaining underrepresentation: A theory of precluded interest. Sex Roles 63 (7–8): 475–488. CrossRef
Cohoon, Joanne McGrath, Sergey Nigai, and Joseph Kaye. 2010. Gender and computing conference papers. Communications of the ACM 54 (8): 72–80. CrossRef
Correll, Shelley. 2001. Gender and the career choice process: The role of biased self-assessments. The American Journal of Sociology 106 (6): 1691–1730. CrossRef
Ding, Waverly, Fiona Murray, and Toby Stuart. 2006. Gender difference in patenting in the academic life science. Science 313: 665–667. CrossRef
Faulkner, Wendy. 2000. The power and the pleasure? A research agenda for “making gender stick” to engineers. Science, Technology and Human Values 25 (1): 87–119. CrossRef
Fox, Mary Frank. 2005. Gender, family characteristics, and publication productivity among scientists. Social Studies of Science 35 (1): 131–150. CrossRef
Fox, Mary Frank, and Sushanta Mohapatra. 2007. Social-organizational characteristics of work and publication productivity among academic scientists in doctoral-granting departments. Journal of Higher Education 78 (5): 543–571. CrossRef
Gratton, Lynda, Elisabeth Kelan, Andreas Voigt, Lamia Walker, and Joachim Wolfram. 2007. Innovative potential: Men and women in teams. London: London Business School.
Guzdial, Mark, Barbara Ericson, Tom McKlin, and Shelly Engleman. 2013. A statewide survey on computing education pathways and influences: Factors in broadening participation in computing. In Proceedings of the ACM International Computing Education Research Conference, 143–150.
Hewlett, Sylvia Ann, Carol Buck Luce, Lisa Servon, Laura Sherbin, Peggy Shiller, Eytan Sosnovich, and Karen Sumberg. 2008. The Athena factor: Reversing the brain drain in science, engineering, and technology. New York: Center for Work-Life Policy.
Kenney, Martin. 1986. Biotechnology: The university-industrial complex. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Kleinman, Daniel Lee, and Steven P. Vallas. 2001. Science, capitalism, and the rise of the ‘knowledge worker’: The changing structure of knowledge production in the United States. Theory and Society 30: 451–492. CrossRef
Lasen, Michelle. 2010. Education and career pathways in information communication technology: What are schoolgirls saying? Computers & Education 54 (4): 1117–1126.
Narin, Francis, Elliot Noma, and Ross Perry. 1987. Patents as indicators of corporate technological strength. Research Policy 16: 143–155. CrossRef
Owen-Smith, Jason. 2005. Trends and transitions in the institutional environment for public and private science. Journal of Higher Education 49: 91–117. CrossRef
Owen-Smith, Jason. 2003. “From separate systems to a hybrid order: Accumulative advantage across public and private science at research one universities. Research Policy 32: 1091–1104.
Owen-Smith, Jason, and Walter W. Powell. 2001. To patent or not: Faculty decisions and institutional success at technology transfer. The Journal of Technology Transfer 26: 99–114. CrossRef
Page, Scott. 2008. The difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Simard, Caroline, Andrea Davies Henderson, S. Gilmartin, L. Schiebinger, and Telle Whitney. 2008. Climbing the technical ladder: Obstacles and solutions for mid-level women in technology. Palo Alto, CA: Anita Borg Institute and Clayman Institute, Stanford University.
Slaughter, Sheila, and Larry L. Leslie. 1997. Academic capitalism: Politics, policies, and the entrepreneurial university. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
U.S. Department of Labor. 2010. Current population surveys, detailed occupations by sex and race. Bureau of labor statistics, 1990–2010.
U.S. Department of Education. 2014. National center for education statistics, integrated post-secondary education data System.
U.S. Department of Labor. 2015. Current population survey, Detailed occupations by sex and race. Bureau of labor statistics, 2015
Wajcman, Judy. 2004. TechnoFeminism. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Woolley, Anita, Christopher Chabris, Hashmi Pentland, and Malone. 2010. Evidence for a collective intelligence factor in the performance of human groups. Science 330: 686–688. CrossRef
- Gender, Commercialization and Thought Leadership in Computing: Examining Women’s Participation in Information Technology Patenting and Conference Paper Authorship
Joanne McGrath Cohoon
- Chapter 7
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA, Best Practices für die Mitarbeiter-Partizipation in der Produktentwicklung/© astrosystem | stock.adobe.com