Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
This paper examines gender diversity in sport governance globally. Theoretically, the study draws on gender dynamics in organisations, in particular on Kanter’s concepts of gender ratios and critical mass. An audit of the gender ratio on boards of National Sport Organisations (n = 1,600) was conducted in 45 countries. Data were collected through the Sydney Scoreboard, an interactive website that tracks women’s presence on sport boards internationally. Findings show that women remain under-represented on three key indicators: as board directors (global mean 19.7 %), board chairs (10.8 %) and chief executives (16.3 %). Few countries have achieved a critical mass of 30 % representation and no continent has achieved the critical mass on any of the three indicators. Women’s under-representation in sport governance is due to complex gender dynamics. Gender diversity on sport boards is associated with four interwoven dimensions of gender relations: production, power, emotion and symbolism. The combination of the four dimensions produces an environment that may or may not be conducive to gender diversity.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Adriaanse, J. A., & Schofield, T. (2013). Analysing gender dynamics in sport governance: A new regimes-based approach. Sport Management Review,16, 498–513. CrossRef
Adriaanse, J. A., & Schofield, T. (2014). The impact of gender quotas on gender equality in sport governance. Journal of Sport Management,28, 485–497. CrossRef
Australian Human Rights Commission. (2010). Gender Equality Blueprint. Sydney: Australian Human Rights Commission.
Branson, D. M. (2007). No seat at the table: How corporate governance and law keep women out of the boardroom. New York: New York University Press.
Burton, L. J., Grappendorf, H., & Henderson, A. (2011). Perceptions of gender in athletic administration: Utilizing the congruity to examine (potential) prejudice against women. Journal of Sport Management,25, 36–45.
Cameron, J. (1996). Trailblazers: Women who manage New Zealand sport. Christchurch, New Zealand: Sports Inclined.
Claringbould, I., & Knoppers, A. (2007). Finding a ‘normal’ woman: Selection processes for board membership. Sex Roles,56, 495–507. CrossRef
Claringbould, I., & Knoppers, A. (2008). Doing and undoing gender in sport governance. Sex Roles,58, 81–92. CrossRef
Claringbould, I., & Knoppers, A. (2012). Paradoxical practices of gender in sport-related organisations. Journal of Sport Management,26, 404–416.
Connell, R. (2006). Glass ceilings or gendered institutions? Mapping the gender regimes of public sector worksites. Public Administration Review,66, 837–849. CrossRef
Connell, R. (2009). Gender. Cambridge: Polity.
de Coubertin, P. (2000). Olympism. Selected writings. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee.
Doll-Tepper, G., Pfister, G., & Radtke, S. (2006). Progress towards leadership: Biographies and career paths of male and female leaders in German Sport Organisations. Koln: Sportverlag Strauss.
Donnelly, P., & Donnelly, M. K. (2013). The London 2012 Olympics: A gender equality audit. Toronto: Centre for Sport Policy Studies, University of Toronto.
Erhardt, N. L., Werbel, J. D., & Shrader, C. B. (2003). Board of director diversity and firm financial performance. Corporate Governance,11, 102–111. CrossRef
Fasting, K. (2000). Women’s role in national and international sport governing bodies. In B. L. Drinkwater (Ed.), Women in sport: Volume XIII of the Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine. An IOC Medical Committee Publication (pp. 441–451). Oxford: Blackwell Science. CrossRef
Hall, M. A., Cullen, D., & Slack, T. (1989). Organisational elites recreating themselves: The gender structure of National Sports Organisations. Quest,41, 28–45. CrossRef
Hartmann-Tews, I., & Pfister, G. (2003). Sport and women: Social issues in international perspective. London: Routledge.
Henry, I., Radzi, W., Rich, E., et al. (2004). Women, leadership and the Olympic Movement. Loughborough: Institute of Sport & Leisure Policy, Loughborough University and the International Olympic Committee.
Henry, I., & Robinson, L. (2010). Gender equity and leadership in Olympic bodies. Loughborough: Centre for Olympic Studies and Research, Loughborough University and International Olympic Committee.
Hovden, J. (2000). “Heavyweight” men and younger women? The gendering of selection processes in Norwegian sports organistions. NORA,8, 17–32.
Hovden, J. (2006). The gender order as a policy issue in sport: A study of Norwegian Sport Organisations. Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research,14, 41–53. CrossRef
Hovden, J. (2010). Female top leaders—prisoners of gender? The gendering of leadership discourses in Norwegian sports organizations. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics,2, 189–203. CrossRef
Huse, M., & Solberg, A. G. (2006). Gender-related boardroom dynamics: How Scandinavian women make and can make contributions on corporate boards. Women in Management Review,21, 113–130. CrossRef
Inglis, S. (1997). Roles of the board in amateur sport organisations. Journal of Sport Management,11, 160–176.
International Olympic Committee. (2014). The International Olympic Committee. Available from http://www.olympic.org/ioc.
Joecks, J., Pull, K., & Vetter, K. (2013). Gender diversity in the boardroom and firm performance: What exactly constitutes a “critical mass”? Journal of Business Ethics,118, 61–72. CrossRef
Kanter, R. M. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.
Konrad, A. M., Kramer, V., & Erkut, S. (2008). Critical mass: The impact of three or more women on corporate boards. Organizational Dynamics,37, 145–164. CrossRef
Kvande, E. (2007). Doing gender in flexible organisations. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.
McKay, J. (1992). Why so few? Women executives in Australian Sport. Canberra: National Sports Research Centre.
McKay, J. (1997). Managing gender: Affirmative action and organisational power in Australian, Canadian and New Zealand sport. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Nielsen, S., & Huse, M. (2010). The contribution of women on boards of directors: Going beyond the surface. Corporate Governance: An International Review,18, 136–148. CrossRef
Pfister, G., & Radtke, S. (2009). Sport, women and leadership: Results of a project on executives in German sports organisations. European Journal of Sport Science,9, 229–243. CrossRef
Schull, V., Shaw, S., & Kihl, I. A. (2013). If a woman came in…she would have been eaten up alive: Analyzing gendered political processes in the search for an athletic director. Gender and Society,27, 56–81. CrossRef
Shaw, S. (2006). Gender suppression in New Zealand regional sports trusts. Women in Management Review,21, 554–566. CrossRef
Shaw, S., & Hoeber, L. (2003). “A strong man is direct and a direct woman is a bitch”: Gendered discourses and their influence on employment roles in sport organisations. Journal of Sport Management,17, 347–375.
Shaw, S., & Penney, D. (2003). Gender equity policies in national governing bodies: An oxymoron or a vehicle for change? European Sport Management Quarterly,3, 78–102. CrossRef
Shaw, S., & Slack, T. (2002). ‘It’s been like that for donkey’s years’: The construction of gender relations and the cultures of sports organisations. Culture, Sport, Society,5, 86–106. CrossRef
Sibson, R. (2010). “I was banging my head against a brick wall”: Exclusionary power and the gendering of sport organisations. Journal of Sport Management,24, 379–399.
Singh, V., & Vinnicombe, S. (2004). Why so few women directors in top UK boardrooms? Evidence and theoretical explanations. Corporate Governance: An International Review,12, 479–488. CrossRef
Skirstad, B. (2002). Shortage of females in local, national and international sport structures. In Belgium Olympic and Interfederal Committees Colloquium “La femme et les structures sportives”, Brussels.
Skirstad, B. (2009). Gender policy and organisational change: A contextual approach. Sport Management Review,12, 202–216. CrossRef
Terjesen, S., Sealy, R., & Singh, V. (2009). Women directors on corporate boards: A review and research agenda. Corporate Governance: An International Review,17, 320–337. CrossRef
Torchia, M., Calabro, A., & Huse, M. (2011). Women directors on corporate boards: From tokenism to critical mass. Journal of Business Ethics,102, 299–317. CrossRef
van der Walt, N., & Ingley, C. (2003). Board dynamics and the influence of professional background, gender and ethnic diversity of directors. Corporate Governance: An International Review,11, 218–234. CrossRef
Whelan, J., & Wood, R. (2012). Targets and quotas for women in leadership: A global review of policy, practice and psychological research. Melbourne: Centre for ethical leadership, Melbourne Business School.
White, A., & Brackenridge, C. (1985). Who rules sport? Gender divisions in the power structure of British sports organisations from 1960. International Review for the Sociology of Sport,20, 95–106. CrossRef
- Gender Diversity in the Governance of Sport Associations: The Sydney Scoreboard Global Index of Participation
- Springer Netherlands
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Neuer Inhalt/© julien tromeur | Fotolia