Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The main objective of this research was to improve flood mitigation within Rwanda’s rapidly growing Kigali City using Geo-Information Technology (GIT) to identify flood hazard zones, analyze flood exposure and vulnerability, and suggest planning interventions. Multiple sources of data and methods were utilized including a very high resolution Quickbird image, Global Positioning Systems, interviews and a survey that aided flood hazard zone delineation, flood depth interpolation and mapping. The flood exposure analysis incorporated vulnerable infrastructure, buildings, population and economic activities and revealed that 27% of buildings were located in flood prone areas. Additionally, two sensitive sectors of infrastructure, four sensitive economic sectors and approximately 500 people were identified as vulnerable. The results influenced policy because Kiruhura’s major market was relocated to a new site and new urban developments were restricted from building within the flood way. The study developed a model for flood risk analysis adapted to the specificity of Kigali City, demonstrating the need to explicitly incorporate these risks into the recently developed Kigali City Master Plan. The research stresses the importance of the integration of flood risks (and natural risks, in general) into major national development strategies, policies and laws related to Rwanda’s urbanization.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Aibinu, A., 2001. GIS Application in Urban Planning and Urban Management: Utilizing GIS in Kigali Urban Planning and City Management, CORP 2001, Vienna University of Technology.
Alkema, D., 2003. Flood risk assessment for EIA: Environmental impact assessment, an example of a motorway near Trento, Italy. In: Studi Trentini di Scienze Naturali: Acta Geologica, 78: 147–154.
Bacic-Ivan, L.Z., Rossiter, D.G. and Bregt, A.K., 2006. Using spatial information to improve collective understanding of shared environmental problems at watershed level. Landscape and Urban Planning, 77: 54–66. CrossRef
Barredo, J.I., Lavalle, C. and Ad De Roo, 2005. European flood risk mapping; EC DG JRC – Weather Driven Natural Hazards, Joint Research Center, European Commussion.
Barroca, B., Bernardara, P., Mouchel, J.M. and Hubert, G., 2006. Indicators for identification of urban flood vulnerability. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 6: 553–561. CrossRef
Beerens, S.J.J., 2006. Facing disasters with geo-information and earth observation: the UNU – ITC programme for disaster geo-information management: Keynote. Presented at ICAST 2006: 17th International Conference on Advances in Space Technologies, 2–3 September 2006 Islamabad, Pakistan, P. 7.
Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., Davis, I. and Wisner, B., 1994. At Risk, Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability, and Disasters. Routledge, London.
Byers, A.C., 1992. Soil loss and sediment transport during the storms and landslides of May 1988 in Ruhengeri prefecture. Rwanda Natural Hazards, 5(3): 279–292. CrossRef
Davidson, R., 1997. A multidisciplinary urban earthquake disaster risk index: EERI annual student paper award. Earthquake Spectra, 13(2): 211–223. CrossRef
Duran Lasserve, A., 2005. Dealing with market eviction processes in the context of developing cities, Third World Bank Urban Research Symposium on Land Development, Urban Policy and Poverty Reduction, Brasilia, April 2005.
Etkin, D., Haque, E., Bellisario, L. and Burton, I., 2004. An Assessment of Natural Hazards and Disasters in Canada: A Report for Decision-Makers and Practitioners. The Canadian Natural Hazards Assessment Project.
Fedeski, M., and Gwilliam, J., 2007, Urban sustainability in the presence of flood and geological hazards: The development of a GIS-based vulnerability and risk assessment methodology. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83: 50–61. CrossRef
Goosby, S., Chiesa, C., Mielbrecht, S. and Bosse, T., 2005. Assessing and reducing the impacts of disasters in the Asia Pacific Region, Pacific Disaster Center, First International Conference on Urban Disaster Reduction, Kobe, Japan.
Guarin, G.P., Westen, C.J. and Montoya, L., 2004. Community-Based Flood Risk Assessment Using GIS for the Town of San Sebastián, Guatemala. International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC).
Gupta, T.N., 1994. Vulnerability of Houses in hazard Prone Areas, The World Conference on the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), Yokohama, Japan; May 23–27, 1994.
Hengl, T., Gruber, S. and Shrestha, D.P., 2004. Reduction of error in digital terrain parameters used in soil-landscape modelling. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 5: 97–112. CrossRef
Islam, M.M. and Sado, K., 2002. Development priority map for flood countermeasures by remote sensing data with geographic information system. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 7(5): 346–355. CrossRef
MacKinnon, E., 2004. Three Dimensional Flood Modeling with High Resolution LIDAR; Applied Geomatics Research Group/Center of Geographic Sciences. Nova Scotia Community College (NSCC), Middleton, NS.
McEwen, L., Hall, T., Hunt, J., Dempsey, M. and Harrison, M., 2002. Flood warning, warning response and planning control issues associated with caravan parks: the April 1998 floods on the lower Avon floodplain, Midlands region, UK. Applied Geography, 22: 271–305. CrossRef
Mendel, G., 2006. Climate Change, Urban Flooding and the Rights of the Urban Poor in Africa: Key Findings from Six African Cities, Action Aid International, London -Johannesburg.
Merson, M.E., Montoya, L. and Paresi, C., 2004. Manage data – manage hazards: development of urban hazard information infrastructure for the city of Windhoek Namibia. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 15(3): 276–293. CrossRef
Messner, F. and Meyer, V., 2006. Flood damage, vulnerability and risk perception-challenges of damage research. In: Schanze, J., Zeman, E. and Marsalek, J. (Editors), Flood Risk Management-Hazards Vulnerability and Mitigation Measures, Leipzig.
MINECOFIN, 2002. The 3rd General Census of Population and Housing in Rwanda, Kigali.
MININFRA, 2006. Document de politique nationale d’urbanisation, Kigali, Rwanda.
MININFRA/Rwanda, 2004b. Generation and Application of Climate Information, Products and Services for Disaster Preparedness and Sustainable Development in Rwanda; Ministry of Infrastructure. Rwanda Meteorological Service.
MININFRA/Rwanda, 2006. Kigali City Master Plan: Existing Condition Analysis; Prepared by the Master Plan Team for the Ministry of Infrastructure; Kigali.
MININFRAST, 2004. National Human Settlement Policy in Rwanda, Ministry of Infrastructure, Kigali.
MINITERE/Rwanda, 2004. Sectorial Policy on Water and Sanitation; Ministry of Lands, Environment, Forestry, Water and Mines; Kigali.
Montoya, A., 2003. Geo-data acquisition through mobile GIS and digital video: an urban disaster management perspective. Environmental Modeling & Software, 18: 869–876. CrossRef
Montoya, L., 2006. Disaster Management. In: Hofstee;P (ed.), GIS for urban planning in developing world, International Institute for Geo-Information Science for Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede, Lecture Note.
Nelson, S.A., 2006. River Systems and Causes of Flooding. http://www.tulane.edu/˜sanelson/geol204/riversystems.pdf.Last updated on 27 March 2006.
Noson, L., 2002. Hazard mapping and risk assessment, Regional Workshop on Best Practices in Disaster Mitigation, Bali, Indonesia; 24–26 September 2002.
Prathumcha, K. and Samarakoon, L., 2005. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Flood Vulnerability and Mitigation Planning in Munshiganj District of Bangladesh. http://www.geoinfo.ait.ac.th/publications/ACRS2005_Prathumchai_K.pdf
Primature-Rwanda, 2005. Organic law determining the modalities of protection, conservation and promotion of environment in Rwanda. Official gazette of the Republic of Rwanda, 44(9): 22–42.
Sanyal, J. and Lu, X.X., 2005. Remote sensing and GIS-based flood vulnerability assessment of human settlement, A case study of Gangetic West Bengal, India. Hydrological Processes, 19(18): 3699–3716. CrossRef
Sirven, P., Gotanegre, J.F. and Prioul, C., 1974. Geographie du Rwanda, Editions A. De Boeck., Bruxelles.
Tennakoon, K.B.M., 2004. Parameterization of 2D Hydrodynamic Models and Flood Hazard Mapping for Naga City, Philippines, ITC, Enschede, 101pp.
UN-Habitat and UNEP, 2001. Vulnerability Assessment: Tools to Support Participatory Urban Decision Making Process. United Nations Human Settlements Programme and United Nations Environment Programme.
UN/ISDR, 2004a. Terminology: Basic terms for disaster risk reduction. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR), Palais des Nations, Switzerland. http://www.unisdr.org/eng/library/lib-terminology-eng%20home.htm.Updated 31 March 2004.
UNCHS-Habitat, 2001. Assessment of vulnerability to flood impacts and damages, Disaster Management Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.
University of Dartmouth, 2006. Global Active Archive of Large Flood Events, Dartmouth Flood Observatory.
UNEP, 2004, Reducing Disaster Risk: A Challenge for Development, United Nations Development Programme, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, New York, NY 10017, USA http://www.undp.org/bcpr.
UNU-IEHS and NNSUACE, 2006. Indicator design for flood vulnerability assessment; United Nations University-Institute for Environment and Human Security, Germany/Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Russia. http://www.cabri-volga.org/DOC/D3CaseStudies/CaseStudyIndicatorDesign.doc. Last accessed 23 January 2007.
USAID, 2001. Monthly Report on Food Security in Rwanda; PASAR-SISA Project, Agricultural Engineering Department of MINAGRI, Famine Early Warning System Network, November 7, 2001.
Verdoodt, A., 2003. Elaboration and Application of an Adjusted Agricultural Land Evaluation Model for Rwanda, PhD Thesis, University of Gent, Belgium.
Wamsler, C., 2004. Managing Urban Risk: Perceptions of Housing and Planning as a Tool for Reducing Disaster Risk. GBER, 4(2): 11–28.
Zeigler, D.J., Jonhson, J.H. and Brunn, S.D. 1983. Technological Hazards. Association of American Geographers; Washington, D.C.
- Geo-Information Technology for Infrastructural Flood Risk Analysis in Unplanned Settlements: A Case Study of Informal Settlement Flood Risk in the Nyabugogo Flood Plain, Kigali City, Rwanda
Jean Pierre Bizimana
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 6
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA, Best Practices für die Mitarbeiter-Partizipation in der Produktentwicklung/© astrosystem | stock.adobe.com