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01.11.2017 | Original Article | Ausgabe 21/2017

Environmental Earth Sciences 21/2017

Geochemical characteristics and controlling factors of chemical composition of groundwater in a part of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India

Zeitschrift:
Environmental Earth Sciences > Ausgabe 21/2017
Autoren:
N. Subba Rao, Deepali Marghade, A. Dinakar, I. Chandana, B. Sunitha, B. Ravindra, T. Balaji

Abstract

A survey on quality of groundwater was carried out for assessing the geochemical characteristics and controlling factors of chemical composition of groundwater in a part of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India, where the area is underlain by Peninsular Gneissic Complex. The results of the groundwater chemistry show a variation in pH, EC, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 , Cl, SO4 2−, NO3 and F. The chemical composition of groundwater is mainly characterized by Na+−HCO3 facies. Hydrogeochemical type transits from Na+–Cl–HCO3 to Na+–HCO3 –Cl along the flow path. Graphical and binary diagrams, correlation coefficients and saturation indices clearly explain that the chemical composition of groundwater is mainly controlled by geogenic processes (rock weathering, mineral dissolution, ion exchange and evaporation) and anthropogenic sources (irrigation return flow, wastewater, agrochemicals and constructional activities). The principal component (PC) analysis transforms the chemical variables into four PCs, which account for 87% of the total variance of the groundwater chemistry. The PC I has high positive loadings of pH, HCO3 , NO3 , K+, Mg2+ and F, attributing to mineral weathering and dissolution, and agrochemicals (nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers). The PC II loadings are highly positive for Na+, TDS, Cl and F, representing the rock weathering, mineral dissolution, ion exchange, evaporation, irrigation return flow and phosphate fertilizers. The PC III shows high loading of Ca2+, which is caused by mineral weathering and dissolution, and constructional activities. The PC IV has high positive loading of Mg2+ and SO4 2−, measuring the mineral weathering and dissolution, and soil amendments. The spatial distribution of PC scores explains that the geogenic processes are the primary contributors and man-made activities are the secondary factors responsible for modifications of groundwater chemistry. Further, geochemical modeling of groundwater also clearly confirms the water–rock interactions with respect to the phases of calcite, dolomite, fluorite, halite, gypsum, K-feldspar, albite and CO2, which are the prime factors controlling the chemistry of groundwater, while the rate of reaction and intensity are influenced by climate and anthropogenic activities. The study helps as baseline information to assess the sources of factors controlling the chemical composition of groundwater and also in enhancing the groundwater quality management.

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