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01.08.2013 | Original Article | Ausgabe 8/2013

Environmental Earth Sciences 8/2013

Geochemical patterns and origin of alkaline thermal waters in Central Greece (Platystomo and Smokovo areas)

Zeitschrift:
Environmental Earth Sciences > Ausgabe 8/2013
Autoren:
N. Lambrakis, E. Zagana, K. Katsanou

Abstract

This study investigates the origin and chemical composition of the thermal waters of Platystomo and Smokovo areas in Central Greece as well as any possible relationships of them to the neighboring geothermal fields located in the south-eastern part of Sperchios basin. The correlations between different dissolved salts and the temperature indicate that the chemical composition of thermal waters are controlled by, the mineral dissolution and the temperature, the reactions due to CO2 that originates possibly by diffusion from the geothermal fields of Sperchios basin and the mixing of thermal waters with fresh groundwater from karst or shallow aquifers. Two major groups of waters are recognized on the basis of their chemistry: thermal waters of Na–HCO3–Cl type and thermal waters mixed with fresh groundwater of Ca–Mg–Na–HCO3 type. All thermal waters of the study area are considered as modified by water–rock interaction rainwater, heated in depth and mixed in some cases with fresh groundwater when arriving to the surface. Trace elements present low concentrations. Lithium content suggests discrimination between the above two groups of waters. Boron geochemistry confirms all the above remarks. Boron concentration ranges from 60 μg L−1 to 10 mg L−1, while all samples’ constant isotopic composition (δ11B ≈ 10 ‰) indicates leaching from rocks. The positive correlation between the chemical elements and the temperature clearly indicates that much of the dissolved salts are derived from water–rock interactions. The application of geothermometers suggests that the reservoir temperature is around 100–110 °C. Chalcedony temperatures are similar to the emergent temperatures and this is typical of convective waters in fault systems in normal thermal gradient areas.

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