Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
This chapter addresses the historical and contemporary dimensions of corruption in Latin America. It opens with a brief overview of the long history of corruption in the region. Second, it focuses on the geography of corruption throughout Latin America, including maps, tables of bribery rates, and a statistical analysis. The third part offers brief summaries of corruption in various countries. Then, it offers case studies of corruption in Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil. It concludes with comments about corruption in light of the uneven geography of democracy.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Acemoglu, D., Johnson, S., & Robinson, J. (2001). The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation. American Economic Review, 91, 1369–1401. CrossRef
Adorno, S. (2013). Democracy in progress in contemporary Brazil: Corruption, organized crime, violence and new paths to the rule of law. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, 2, 409–425.
Ahmed, A. (2017, December 2). Mexico’s government is blocking its own anti-corruption drive, commissioners say. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/02/world/americas/mexico-corruption-commission.html.
Alesina, A., Devleeschauwer, A., Easterly, W., Kurlat, S., & Wacziarg, R. (2003). Fractionalization. Journal of Economic Growth, 8(2), 155–194. CrossRef
Alonso, A., & Mische, A. (2017). Changing repertoires and partisan ambivalence in the new Brazilian protests. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 36(2), 144–159. CrossRef
Ambraseys, N., & Bilham, R. (2011). Corruption kills. Nature, 469, 153–155. CrossRef
Anderson, J. (2016, June 29). Argentina’s culture of corruption. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/argentinas-culture-of-corruption.
Andrien, K. (1984). Corruption, inefficiency, and imperial decline in the seventeenth-century viceroyalty of Peru. The Americas, 41(1), 1–20. CrossRef
Andvig, J. C. (2006). Corruption and fast change. World Development, 34(2), 328–340. CrossRef
Astorga, P., Bergés, A., & FitzGerald, V. (2005). The standard of living in Latin America during the twentieth century. Economic History Review, 58(4), 765–796. CrossRef
Bailey, J., & Paras, P. (2006). Perceptions and attitudes about corruption and democracy in Mexico. Mexican Studies, 22(1), 57–82. CrossRef
Balán, M. (2011). Competition by denunciation: The political dynamics of corruption scandals in Argentina and Chile. Comparative Politics, 43(4), 459–478. CrossRef
Basch, F., & Jorge, G. (2016, August 18). Argentina’s quiet (giant) step against corruption. Americas Quarterly. http://www.americasquarterly.org/content/argentinas-quiet-giant-step-against-corruption.
Bases, D. (2018, March 12). U.S. house panel probes corruption allegations at Puerto Rico utility. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-puertorico-prepa-probe/u-s-house-panel-probes-corruption-allegations-at-puerto-rico-utility-idUSKCN1GP03P.
Bauman, Z. (1998). On glocalization: Or globalization for some, localization for some, localization for others. Thesis Eleven, 54(1), 37–49. CrossRef
Bobonis, L., Cámara Fuertes, L., & Schwabe, R. (2012). The dynamic effects of information on political corruption: Theory and evidence from Puerto Rico (Banco de Mexico Working Paper). https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/83736/1/732594995.pdf.
Bortoluci, J. H., & Jansen, R. S. (2013). Toward a postcolonial sociology: The view from Latin America. Political Power and Social Theory, 24, 199–229. CrossRef
Brands, H. (2010). Crime, violence, and the crisis in Guatemala: A case study in the erosion of the state. Washington, DC: Strategic Studies Institute.
Brunetti, A., & Weder, B. (2003). A free press is bad news for corruption. Journal of Public Economics, 87(7–8), 1801–1824. CrossRef
Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2003). The economic history of Latin America since independence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Bulte, E., Damania, R., & López, R. (2007). On the gains of committing to inefficiency: Corruption, deforestation and low land productivity in Latin America. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 54(3), 277–295. CrossRef
Buxton, J. (2001). The failure of political reform in Venezuela. New York: Routledge.
Calderón Navarro, N. (2006). Fighting corruption: The Peruvian experience. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 4, 488–509. CrossRef
Canache, D., & Allison, M. (2005). Perceptions of political corruption in Latin American democracies. Latin American Politics and Society, 47(3), 91–111. CrossRef
Chepesiuk, R. (2003). The bullet or the bribe: Taking down Colombia’s Cali drug cartel. New York: Praeger.
Clutterbuck, R. (1995). Peru: Cocaine, terrorism, and corruption. International Relations, 12(5), 77–92. CrossRef
Coatsworth, J. (2008). Inequality, institutions and economic growth in Latin America. Journal of Latin American Studies, 40(3), 545–569. CrossRef
Collier, M. (2005). Political corruption in the Caribbean Basin: Constructing a theory to combat corruption. London: Routledge.
Collins, R. (2011). Patrimonial alliances and failures of state penetration: A historical dynamic of crime, corruption, gangs, and mafias. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 636(1), 16–31. CrossRef
Conaghan, C. (2002). Cashing in on authoritarianism: Media collusion in Fujimori’s Peru. Press/Politics, 7(1), 115–125. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1081180x0200700108.
Conaghan, C. (2005). Fujimori’s Peru: Deception in the public sphere. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Coronel, G. (2006). Corruption, mismanagement, and abuse of power in Hugo Chávez’s Venezuela. Cato Institute. www.recivex.org/ens-2006-11-27-EN.pdf.
Corrales, J., & Penfold, M. (2007). Venezuela: Crowding out the opposition. Journal of Democracy, 18(2), 99–113. CrossRef
Dada, C. (2015, September 4). Corruption charges turn Guatemala upside down. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/corruption-charges-turn-guatemala-upside-down.
Davis, C., Camp, R., & Coleman, K. (2004). The influence of party systems on citizens’ perceptions of corruption and electoral response in Latin America. Comparative Political Studies, 37, 677–703. CrossRef
de Michele, R. (2001). The role of the anti-corruption office in Argentina. Journal of Public Inquiry, Fall/Winter, 17–20. http://www.acauthorities.org/sites/aca/files/countrydoc/The%20Role%20of%20the%20Anti-Corruption%20Office%20in%20Argentina.pdf.
Di John, J. (2007). Oil abundance and violent political conflict: A critical assessment. Journal of Development Studies, 43(6), 961–986. CrossRef
Di John, J. (2010a). From windfall to curse? Oil and industrialization in Venezuela, 1920 to the present. College Station, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Di John, J. (2010b). The concept, causes, and consequences of failed states: A critical review of the literature and agenda for research with specific reference to sub-Saharan Africa. European Journal of Development Research, 22, 10–30. CrossRef
Díaz-Briquets, S., & Pérez-López, J. (2006). Corruption in Cuba: Castro and beyond. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Dietz, H., & Myers, D. (2007). From thaw to deluge: Party system collapse in Venezuela and Peru. Latin American Politics and Society, 49(2), 59–86. CrossRef
Drori, G. S., Jang, S.-Y., & Meyer, J. W. (2006). Sources of rationalized governance: Cross-national longitudinal analyses, 1985–2002. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51(2), 205–229. CrossRef
Dugas, J. (2001). Drugs, lies and audiotape: The Samper crisis in Colombia. Latin American Research Review, 36(2), 157–174.
Dussauge Laguna, M. (2011). The challenges of implementing merit-based personnel policies in Latin America: Mexico’s civil service reform experience. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 13(1), 51–73. CrossRef
Ferraz, C., & Finan, F. (2008). Exposing corrupt politicians: The effects of Brazil’s publicly released audits on electoral outcomes. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 123(2), 703–745. CrossRef
Fleischer, D. (1996). Political corruption in Brazil. Crime, Law and Social Change, 25(4), 297–321. CrossRef
Flynn, P. (2005). Brazil and Lula, 2005: Crisis, corruption and change in political perspective. Third World Quarterly, 26(8), 1221–1267. CrossRef
Freeman, L. (2006). State of siege: Drug-related violence and corruption in Mexico: Unintended consequences of the war on drugs (WOLA Special Report). https://www.wola.org/sites/default/files/downloadable/Mexico/past/state_of_siege_06.06.pdf.
Freille, S., Haque, M. E., & Kneller, R. (2007). A contribution to the empirics of press freedom and corruption. European Journal of Political Economy, 23(4), 838–862. CrossRef
Gates, L. (2014). Interest groups in Venezuela: Lessons from the failure of a ‘model democracy’ and the rise of a Bolivarian democracy. Journal of Public Affairs, 14(3–4), 240–253. CrossRef
Gavigan, P. (2009). Organized crime, illicit power structures and Guatemala’s threatened peace process. International Peacekeeping, 16(1), 62–76. CrossRef
Gaviria, A. (2002). Assessing the effects of corruption and crime on firm performance: Evidence from Latin America. Emerging Markets Review, 3(1), 245–268. CrossRef
Geddes, B., & Neto, A. (1992). Institutional sources of corruption in Brazil. Third World Quarterly, 13(4), 641–661. CrossRef
Gerring, J., & Thacker, S. (2005). Do neoliberal policies deter political corruption? International Organization, 59(1), 233–254. CrossRef
Gilbert, J. (2014, June 28). Argentina’s vice president charged in corruption case. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/29/world/americas/argentine-official-charged-with-bribery.html.
Gill, T. (2016). Whither Venezuelan Bolivarianism? NACLA Report on the Americas, 48(4), 367–370. CrossRef
Grandin, G. (2016, December 16). Christmas in Caracas? Worse than the grinch! Amid today’s crisis, what is salvageable from the Bolivarian revolution? A conversation with Alejandro Velasco. The Nation. https://www.thenation.com/article/christmas-in-caracas-worse-than-the-grinch.
Granovetter, M. (2007). The social construction of corruption. In V. Nee & R. Swedberg (Eds.), On capitalism (pp. 152–172). Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Grayson, G. (2010). Mexico: Narco-violence and a failed state? New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Hallin, D., & Papathanassopoulos, S. (2002). Political clientelism and the media: Southern Europe and Latin America in comparative perspective. Media, Culture and Society, 24(2), 175–195. CrossRef
Hammond, J. (2011). The resource curse and oil revenues in Angola and Venezuela. Science & Society, 75(3), 348–378. CrossRef
Hinton, M. (2005). A distant reality: Democratic policing in Argentina and Brazil. Criminal Justice, 5(1), 75–100. CrossRef
Hoggard, S. (2004). Preventing corruption in Colombia: The need for an enhanced state-level approach. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law, 21, 577–619.
Hunt, J. (2005). Why are some public officials more corrupt than others? (William Davidson Institute Working Paper Number 790). https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/40176/wp790.pdf?sequence=3.
Hunt, J. (2007). Bribery in health care in Peru and Uganda (National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 13034). Washington, DC.
Huntington, S. (1991). Democracy’s third wave. Journal of Democracy, 2(2), 12–34. CrossRef
Ionescu, L. (2011). Mexico’s pervasive culture of corruption. Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 2, 182–187.
Ioris, A. (2016). “La plata llega sola” [The money arrives on its own]: Reflections on corruption trends in Peru. Diálogos Latinoamericanos, 25. http://www.redalyc.org/comocitar.oa?id=16249406007.
Isaacs, A. (2010). Guatemala on the brink. Journal of Democracy, 21(2), 108–122. CrossRef
Joseph, M., & Phillips, N. (2016). Judicial corruption in Haiti: The need for discipline and civil society participation. Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, 39, 183–210.
Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Zoido-Labatón, P. (2000, June). Governance matters: From measurement to action. Finance & Development, 10–13.
Kott, A. (2012). Assessing whether oil dependency in Venezuela contributes to national instability. Journal of Strategic Security, 5(3), 69–86. CrossRef
Langbein, L., & Sanabria, P. (2013). The shape of corruption: Colombia as a case study. Journal of Development Studies, 49(11), 1500–1513. CrossRef
Lavena, C. (2013). What determines permissiveness toward corruption? A study of attitudes in Latin America. Public Integrity, 15(4), 345–366. CrossRef
Li, H., Xu, L.-C., & Zou, H.-F. (2000). Corruption, income distribution, and growth. Economics and Politics, 12(2), 155–182. CrossRef
Licht, A., Goldschmidt, C., & Schwartz, S. (2007). Culture rules: The foundations of the rule of law and other norms of governance. Journal of Comparative Economics, 35(4), 659–688. CrossRef
Lindsey, B. (2002). How Argentina got into this mess. Cato Institute. https://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/how-argentina-got-mess.
Little, W. (1996). Corruption and democracy in Latin America. IDS Bulletin, 27(2), 64–70. CrossRef
Maingot, A. (1995). Haiti: The political rot within. Current History, 94(589), 59–64.
Mainwaring, S., & Scully, T. (2008). Latin America: Eight lessons for governance. Journal of Democracy, 19(3), 113–127. CrossRef
Malkin, E. (2015, June 14). Wave of protests spreads to scandal-weary Honduras and Guatemala. New York Times, p. 9.
Manzetti, L. (2014). Accountability and corruption in Argentina during the Kirchners’ era. Latin American Research Review, 49(2), 173–195. CrossRef
Manzetti, L., & Blake, C. (1996). Market reforms and corruption in Latin America. Review of International Political Economy, 3, 671–682. CrossRef
Manzetti, L., & Wilson, C. (2006). Corruption, economic satisfaction, and confidence in government: Evidence from Argentina. The Latin Americanist, 49(2), 131–139. CrossRef
McGreal, C. (2010, December 27). What happened next? Jamaican crime and corruption. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2010/dec/27/jamaica-crime-and-corruption.
McMillan, J., & Zoido, P. (2004). How to subvert democracy: Montesinos in Peru. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(4), 69–92. CrossRef
Melo, M., Pereira, C., & Figueiredo, C. (2009). Political and institutional checks on corruption: Explaining the performance of Brazilian audit institutions. Comparative Political Studies, 42(9), 1217–1244. CrossRef
Michener, G., & Pereira, C. (2016). A great leap forward for democracy and the rule of law? Brazil’s Mensalão trial. Journal of Latin American Studies, 48(3), 477–507. CrossRef
Miroff, N. (2011, May 5). Cuba: Catching kleptocrats. GlobalPost. https://www.pri.org/stories/2011-05-05/cuba-catching-kleptocrats.
Morris, S. (1991). Corruption and politics in contemporary Mexico. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
Morris, S. (2008). Disaggregating corruption: A comparison of participation and perceptions in Latin America with a focus on Mexico. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 27(3), 388–409. CrossRef
Morris, S. (2009). Political corruption in Mexico: The impact of democratization. Boulder, CO: Lynn Reiner.
Morris, S. (2013). Drug trafficking, corruption, and violence in Mexico: Mapping the linkages. Trends in Organized Crime, 16(2), 195–220. CrossRef
Morris, S., & Blake, C. (Eds.). (2010). Corruption and politics in Latin America: National and regional dynamics. Boulder and London: Rienner.
Morris, S., & Klesner, J. (2010). Corruption and trust: Theoretical considerations and evidence from Mexico. Comparative Political Studies, 43(10), 1258–1285. CrossRef
Mungiu-Pippidi, A. (2006). Corruption: Diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Democracy, 17(3), 86–99. CrossRef
Navarro, N. (2006). Fighting corruption: The Peruvian experience. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 4(3), 488–509. CrossRef
Neuman, L. (ed.) (2002). Fostering transparency and preventing corruption in Jamaica. Atlanta: The Carter Center. https://www.cartercenter.org/documents/1038.pdf.
North, D., Summerhill, W., & Weingast, B. (2000). Order, disorder, and economic change: Latin America versus North America. In B. de Mesquita & H. Root (Eds.), Governing for prosperity (pp. 17–58). New Haven: Yale University Press.
Nugent, D. (2018). Corruption now and then: Managing threats to the nation in twentieth-century Peru. Current Anthropology, 59(sup. 18), S28–S36. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdfplus/10.1086/695830. CrossRef
O’Brien, M. (2016, May 19). There has never been a country that should have been so rich but ended up this poor. Washington Post, p. 1.
Oliver-Smith, A. (2010). Haiti and the historical construction of disasters. NACLA Report on the Americas, 43(4), 32–36. CrossRef
Perdomo, R. (1990). Corruption and business in present day Venezuela. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(7), 555–566. CrossRef
Pérez, O. (2017). Panama: Democracy under the shadow of corruption. Revista de ciencia política, 37(2). https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-090X2017000200519. CrossRef
Philpott, D. (2004). The Catholic wave. Journal of Democracy, 15(2), 32–46. CrossRef
Pinto, J. (2008). Muzzling the watchdog: The case of disappearing watchdog journalism from Argentine mainstream news. Journalism, 9(6), 750–774. CrossRef
Poseda, A. (2013). Corruption, economic development, and insecurity in Colombia. In I. Osman (Ed.), Handbook of research on strategic performance management and measurement using data envelopment analysis (pp. 373–387). New York: IGI Global Press.
Poveda, A. (2015). Corruption, economic development, and insecurity in Colombia. In A. Poveda (Ed.), Business law and ethics: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications (pp. 572–284). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Praça, S., & Taylor, M. (2014). Inching toward accountability: The evolution of Brazil’s anticorruption institutions, 1985–2010. Latin American Politics and Society, 56(2), 27–48. CrossRef
Przeworski, A., & Limongi, F. (1997). Modernization: Theories and facts. World Politics, 49(2), 155–183. CrossRef
Quiroz, A. (2003). Implicit costs of empire: Bureaucratic corruption in nineteenth-century Cuba. Journal of Latin American Studies, 35(3), 473–511. CrossRef
Quiroz, A. (2008). Corrupt circles: A history of unbound graft in Peru. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
Ramachandran, V., & Walz, J. (2012). Haiti: Where has all the money gone? (CGD Policy Paper 004). Washington, DC: Center for Global Development. http://www.cgdev.org/content/publications/detail/1426185.
Richard, M. (2014). Brazil’s landmark anti-corruption law. Law and Business Review of the Americas, 20, 141–147.
Robles, F. (2015, March 16). Haitian leader’s power grows as scandals swirl. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/17/world/americas/haitian-president-tightens-grip-as-scandal-engulfs-circle-of-friends.html?_r=1.
Rock, M. (2009). Corruption and democracy. Journal of Development Studies, 45(1), 55–75. CrossRef
Romero, S. (2015, August 13). An anticorruption drive throws Brazil’s leadership into disarray. New York Times, p. 1, 7.
Rothstein, B., & Teorell, J. (2008). What is quality of government? A theory of impartial government institutions. Governance, 21(2), 165–190. CrossRef
Ruhl, J. M. (2011). Political corruption in Central America: Assessment and explanation. Latin American Politics and Society, 53(1), 33–58. CrossRef
Saba, R., & Manzetti, L. (1996). Privatization in Argentina: The implications for corruption. Crime, Law and Social Change, 25(4), 353–369. CrossRef
Sáenz Rovner, E. (2008). The Cuban connection: Drug trafficking, smuggling, and gambling in Cuba from the 1920s to the revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Sampson, S. (2010). The anti-corruption industry: From movement to institution. Global Crime, 11(2), 261–278. CrossRef
Schamis, H. E. (1991). Reconceptualizing Latin American authoritarianism in the 1970s: From bureaucratic-authoritarianism to neoconservatism. Comparative Politics, 23(2), 201–220. CrossRef
Schulte-Bockholt, A. (2013). Corruption as power: Criminal governance in Peru during the Fujimori era (1990–2000). New York: Peter Lang. CrossRef
Seligson, M. (2002). The impact of corruption on regime legitimacy: A comparative study of four Latin American countries. Journal of Politics, 64(2), 408–433. CrossRef
Seligson, M. (2006). The measurement and impact of corruption victimization: Survey evidence from Latin America. World Development, 34(2), 381–404. CrossRef
Sives, A. (2002). Changing patrons, from politician to drug don: Clientelism in downtown Kingston, Jamaica. Latin American Perspectives, 126(5), 66–89. CrossRef
Smith, J., Colan, V., Sabogal, C., & Snook, L. (2006). Why policy reforms fail to improve logging practices: The role of governance and norms in Peru. Forest Policy and Economics, 8(4), 458–469. CrossRef
Sokoloff, K., & Engerman, S. (2000). History lessons: Institutions, factors endowments, and paths of development in the new world. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(3), 217–232. CrossRef
Taylor, L. (2000). Patterns of electoral corruption in Peru: The April 2000 general election. Crime, Law and Social Change, 34(4), 391–415. CrossRef
Taylor, M., & Buranelli, V. (2007). Ending up in pizza: Accountability as a problem of institutional arrangement in Brazil. Latin American Politics and Society, 49, 59–87. CrossRef
Thies, C. (2005). War, rivalry, and state building in Latin America. American Journal of Political Science, 49(3), 451–465. CrossRef
Thoumi F. (2012). Colombian organized crime: From drug trafficking to parastatal bands and widespread corruption. In D. Siegel & H. van de Bunt (Eds.), Traditional organized crime in the modern world: Studies of organized crime (Vol. 11, pp. 131–148). Boston: Springer.
Timmons, J., & Garfias, F. (2015). Revealed corruption, taxation, and fiscal accountability: Evidence from Brazil. World Development, 70, 13–27. CrossRef
Transparency International. (2001). Country study report: Colombia. http://www.transparency.org/activities/nat_integ_systems/dnld/colombia.pdf.
Treisman, D. (2000). The causes of corruption: A cross-national study. Journal of Public Economics, 76, 399–457. CrossRef
Triesman, D. (2007). What have we learned about the causes of corruption from ten years of cross-national empirical research? Annual Review of Political Science, 10, 211–244. CrossRef
Tulchin, J., & Espach, R. (Eds.). (2000). Combating corruption in Latin America. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
Vanden, H. (2004). New political movements and governance in Latin America. International Journal of Public Administration, 27(13–14), 1129–1149. CrossRef
Väsquez, J. (2013). Colombian police under fire: Image, corruption and controls. Policing: An International Journal, 36(2), 399–420. CrossRef
Vicens, A. (2015, February 27). You’ve probably never heard of America’s worst police force. Mother Jones. https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2015/02/puerto-rico-police-department-abuses-reform/.
Villalón, R. (2007). Neoliberalism, corruption, and legacies of contention: Argentina’s social movements, 1993–2006. Latin American Perspectives, 34(2), 139–156. CrossRef
Waisbord, S. (2004). Scandals, media, and citizenship in contemporary Argentina. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(8), 1072–1098. CrossRef
Waller, L., Bourne, P., Minto, I., & Rapley, J. (2007). A landscape assessment of political corruption in Jamaica. Kingston: Guango Tree House. https://www.academia.edu/28960481/A_Landscape_Assessment_of_Political_Corruption_in_Jamaica.
Weber, M. (1975). Roscher and Knies: The logical problems of historical economics. New York: The Free Press.
Weyland, K. (1998). The politics of corruption in Latin America. Journal of Democracy, 9(2), 108–121. CrossRef
Weyland, K. (2013). The threat from the populist left. Journal of Democracy, 24(3), 18–32. CrossRef
Williams, J., & Beare, M. (1999). The business of bribery: Globalization, economic liberalization, and the “problem” of corruption. Crime, Law and Social Change, 32(2), 115–146. CrossRef
Wolf, E., & Hansen, E. (1967). Caudillo politics: A structural analysis. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 9(2), 168–179. CrossRef
You, J., & Khagram, S. (2005). A comparative study of inequality and corruption. American Sociological Review, 70(1), 136–157. CrossRef
- Geographies of Latin American Corruption
- Chapter 2
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen