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2022 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

18. Geography and Indigenous Peoples: Struggles of Resistance

verfasst von : Márcia Yukari Mizusaki, José Gilberto de Souza

Erschienen in: Brazilian Geography

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

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Abstract

This study aims to analyse the processes associated with indigenous struggles, particularly in relation to the Guarani and Kaiowá in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Such processes embody the advancement and intensification of the contradictory movement of class and non-class antagonism, expressed by capitalists and land owners against indigenous peoples. In America, the processes of commodification and incorporation of labour around the axis of capital emerged from racial division and other structuring elements, such as patriarchalism and religion, which became dominating powers, closely linked to the socio-spatial relations that have (re)produced them. In Brazil, the process culminated in the constitution of privately owned land, expropriation and violence, consolidating windfall profits as a result of turning nature into a monopoly and commodities—a specific class power unfolding in the production of value, either by expropriation or by the violent proletarianisation to which indigenous peoples have been subjected. This process fosters capital territorialisation and impacts the life of the indigenous peoples, whose individuals contradictorily re-frame their (re)existence. Indigenous labour has been incorporated into the axis of capital, from overexploitation to the capital-centric focus, while the indigenous workers contradictorily refer to their ancestry and cosmology, taking a stand as indigenous people. In these struggles, the indigenous identity becomes an identity of resistance, and the socio-spatial practices aim towards the preservation of knowledge. Such knowledge and practices gain relevance and reaffirm the state of being and living in the world, opposing the metabolic rift between man and nature, even if the commodification of life and common assets leads to the self-destruction of humankind.

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Fußnoten
1
According to Meliá (1990, p. 41) the ideal of the shaman plays an important role in the Guarani way of being. “Guarani shamanism is, in its essence, we believe, the consciousness possessed by the divine and made word of a good way of being that is fully lived in the religious festival and in the community invitation”. Mura (2006, p. 303) also highlights that “... the shaman plays an important role in the interpretation of the characteristics of the cosmos and its changes, as well as in the formation of a specific morality and ethics (teko porã), and also in the definition and emotional-affective stability of the kaiowa person (for means of mongarai, healing processes and in diagnosing and combating witchcraft)”.
 
2
According to Moreira (2004, p. 34) “Geographicality is, thus, the spatial being-being of the entity. It is the ontological state of being in space-time. A valid principle attributable to any entity – it can be man, a natural object or space itself (...) – whatever the character of its quality. His reflection is presented in the question of the being of the entity. In the case of man, geographicity is the way in which hominization as the essence of metabolism expresses its existence in the form of space. The geographicity of man is then the way in which freedom from necessity emerges and takes shape through the concrete form of spatial existence in society”.
 
3
What is considered, therefore, is that there are human dimensions that are in contradiction to the hegemonic forms of production and reproduction relations, but whose centrality is not in the class unit, as a social category, it is where the original forms of production and of socio-spatial reproduction relationships, the quilombolas, the LGBTQIA+ communities, women, among other human dimensions. These are primeval forms of ontological existences and realizations, which object, which are opposed to the unicist forms of social representation and power that gain prominence in the face of development in capitalism and show racism, machismo, xenophobia in direct forms of domination, patriarchy, among others.
 
4
The expression or epistemic-categorial centrality refers to its explanatory capacity of the real, as a movement of thought in abstracting the essentiality of the real. (Souza and Fulino, 2020).
 
5
The work here does not refer exclusively to the production of goods, but to the primary and secondary teleological metabolic processes, in which thought and action are unified, thought is work and metamorphosing natura-naturans/naturata is work and are intertwined, as processes of formation of the be social.
 
6
MOCULTURE of faith (2017). Production by Joana Moncau, Grabriela Moncau, Izaque João and Spency Pimentel. Brazil: Futura, 2017. Documentary. (23 min). Available at: https://​canaisglobo.​globo.​com/​assistir/​futura/​curtas/​v/​6769937/​. Accessed on: June 17, 2021.
 
7
It is worth noting that the number of establishments does not refer to the number of owners, since a person or business group may own more than one establishment, which shows a more acute situation of land concentration in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.
 
8
The spelling for indigenous groups, as in the case of the Kaiowá and Guarani, will be guided by the Convention on spelling of names for indigenous populations, which are capitalized. When they are found as an adjective, they will be written in lower case (Pereira, 1999; Lima, 2012).
 
9
According to Pereira (1999, p. 81) “... groups of close relatives, gathered around a family fire, where the meals consumed by the members of the fire are prepared”. Family fire is very dynamic in its form and composition and is accompanied by the principles of mutual cooperation between close relatives, political arrangements and marital dynamics. Belonging to a fire is fundamental to Kaiowá existence.
 
10
“The te'yi are residential units that bring together a varied number of family dwellings” (Pereira, 1999, p. 85).
 
11
Tekoha (teko + ha) means a place where they live according to their customs. The realization of teko takes place in tekoha: “It is where land, territory, subsistence, social relations and religious festivals are confused and merged. It means and produces an interrelation between the social, economic, political and religious, essential for the Guarani” (Brand, 1993, p. 95).
 
12
For the Guarani, yvy is simultaneously earth (inorganic matter), world and soil. The distinction between one or another characteristic is made through the linguistic contextualization of the word yvy or, in the case of soil, through the adjective that allows to differentiate them; for example, yvy morotí (white earth), yvy pytã (red earth), yvy hú (black earth) and yvy sayju (yellow earth), each with specific properties for agriculture, an activity that allows and gives meaning to this classification” (Mura, 2006, p. 104).
 
13
Law no. 6012 of 09/18/1850 became known as the Land Law. “It sought to characterize what are vacant lands and aimed to be a legal instrument to discriminate between public and private lands, in addition to preventing access to vacant land, except through purchase”. The Land Law is considered “... a milestone in the process of transition from slave to free labor” (Motta, 2005, p. 279).
 
14
Thomaz Larangeira, a merchant from Rio Grande do Sul, supplied food to the commission in charge of demarcating the boundaries between Brazil and Paraguay, after the War of the Triple Alliance (1864-1870). Noting the large presence of herbs in the region, he managed to obtain permission to lease herbs, thanks to his political relationships (Jesus, 2004).
 
15
According to Brand (1993).
 
16
In making this observation, the author agrees with Mura (2004 and 2006 apud Cavalcante, 2013), who originally would have made such an observation.
 
17
The land situation of the repossessions is quite diverse, as there are lands that have been homologated, regularized, interdicted, declared, delimited and under study, as already highlighted by Crespe (2015).
 
18
Crespe (2015, p. 163) observes that tehoka speaks of time and space, of past and future, simultaneously, where “... the suffix rã is an indication for the future. Tehoka is the tekohaque that needs to be again”. The author emphasizes, however, that the other terms were not completely abandoned, with no consensus even among the Kaiowá and Guarani.
 
19
Despite referring to the Landless Rural Workers Movement, we believe it is possible to apply the same concept used by Fernandes (1996, p. 238-239) to the indigenous movement: “The space of struggle and resistance is therefore the result of a project of struggle [of landless rural workers], of their survival as a historical subject. (...) The encampment is, in its concreteness, the space for struggle and resistance, it is when [the workers] go into direct confrontation with the state and the landowners. (...) In this space, the struggle and therefore the confrontation with the state, through political negotiation, and with the landowners, through direct conflict, is put into question. Depending on the form of the encampment and the power relationship between the political forces, different situations of struggle will arise. With regard to the state, eviction occurs frequently, through the use of violence by the police force. Regarding the landowners, the violent confrontation against the jagunços hired to do the work”.
 
20
G1 MATO GROSSO DO SUL. “Resistance Auction” raises BRL 640,500 in Mato Grosso do Sul. In: https://​www.​g1.​globo.​com/​mato-grosso-do-sul/​noticia/​2013/​12/​leilão-da-resistencia-arrecada-r-6405-mil-em-mato-grosso-do-sul,html. 12/08/2013.
 
21
According to data contained in the documentary Monocultura da fé (Monocultura da fé, 2017).
 
22
In 2020 the house of prayer was rebuilt, with the support of the Ecumenical Service Coordination (CESE), a Christian philanthropic civil society, which brings together a group of Christian churches (Igreja Evangélica de Confessão Luterana no Brasil; Igreja Presbiteriana Independente do Brasil; Igreja United Presbyterian Church of Brazil; Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil; Roman Catholic Church – CNBB Available at: https://​www.​cese.​org.​br/​quem-e-a-cese/​a-cese/​Aliança de Batistas do Brasilfile://​/​C:​/​Users/​DESKTOP/​Downloads/​ESTATUTO_​CESE_​2019.​pdf
 
23
Monocultura da fé, 2017.
 
24
Conf. CIMI, 16/11/2018; 24/09/2019; 07/11/2019;18/09/2019; 07/01/2020).
 
25
Guára: ““coming from”, in the colonial period, territories based on the local hydrography from which certain Guarani groups come” (Mura, 2006, p. 500).
 
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Metadaten
Titel
Geography and Indigenous Peoples: Struggles of Resistance
verfasst von
Márcia Yukari Mizusaki
José Gilberto de Souza
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Verlag
Springer Nature Singapore
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-3704-0_18