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This book offers readers a comprehensive overview, and an in-depth understanding, of suitable methods for quantifying and characterizing saline aquifers for the geological storage of CO2. It begins with a general overview of the methodology and the processes that take place when CO2 is injected and stored in deep saline-water-containing formations. It subsequently presents mathematical and numerical models used for predicting the consequences of CO2 injection.
This book provides descriptions of relevant experimental methods, from laboratory experiments to field scale site characterization and techniques for monitoring spreading of the injected CO2 within the formation. Experiences from a number of important field injection projects are reviewed, as are those from CO2 natural analog sites. Lastly, the book presents relevant risk management methods.
Geological storage of CO2 is widely considered to be a key technology capable of substantially reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere, thereby reducing the negative impacts of such releases on the global climate. Around the world, projects are already in full swing, while others are now being initiated and executed to demonstrate the technology.
Deep saline formations are the geological formations considered to hold the highest storage potential, due to their abundance worldwide. To date, however, these formations have been relatively poorly characterized, due to their low economic value. Accordingly, the processes involved in injecting and storing CO2 in such formations still need to be better quantified and methods for characterizing, modeling and monitoring this type of CO2 storage in such formations must be rapidly developed and refined.



Chapter 1. CO2 Storage in Deep Geological Formations: The Concept

The objective of this first chapter is to give an overview of the role and status of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology in a world-wide perspective. The effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and their related impacts on climate change, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion on options to mitigate the emissions and the role of CCS in these efforts, in terms of both the present status at the time of writing this book and future outlook.
John Gale

Chapter 2. Overview of Processes Occurring During CO2 Geological Storage and Their Relevance to Key Questions of Performance

The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview and discussion of the relevancy of various physical and chemical processes to be associated with the geological storage of CO2 at a particular site, and thereby serve as a bridge between the detailed process descriptions and modeling techniques to be presented in the following chapters and the studying and simulation of site-specific physicochemical behavior of a potential CO2 geosequestration site. The approach adopted is to address the relevancy of a given process in terms of the specific objectives, the technical issues of concern, or the key questions associated with CO2 geological storage, in the context of the geological settings and characteristics of the storage site. The suggested approach is exemplified by application to two field cases.
Chin-Fu Tsang, Auli Niemi

Chapter 3. Mathematical Modeling of CO2 Storage in a Geological Formation

Chapter 2 discusses, in a descriptive manner, the processes occurring during the geological storage of CO2. In this chapter, the mathematical models describing these processes are described. The chapter starts from the basic properties of the injected CO2 and of the native brine, proceeding to the relevant models for multiphase flow of CO2 and brine, the related chemical and reactive transport processes, the non-isothermal effects of CO2 injection and the mechanical deformation. The concept of degrees of freedom, facilitating the selection of a smaller number of equations to be solved, in order to obtain a complete solution for this multifaceted problem, is also discussed. The numerical and analytical approaches for solving these mathematical models are presented in the following Chap. 4.
Jacob Bear, Jesus Carrera

Chapter 4. Mathematical Modeling: Approaches for Model Solution

The governing equations and mathematical models describing CO2 spreading and trapping in saline aquifers and the related hydro-mechanical and chemical processes were described in Chapt. 3. In this chapter, the focus is on methods for solving the relevant equations. The chapter gives an overview of the different approaches, from high-fidelity full-physics numerical models to more simplified analytical and semi-analytical solutions. Specific issues such as modeling coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes and modeling of small-scale processes, such as convective mixing and viscous fingering, are also addressed. Finally, illustrative examples of modeling real systems, with different types of modeling approaches, are presented.
Auli Niemi, Zhibing Yang, Jesus Carrera, Henry Power, Christopher Ian McDermott, Dorothee Rebscher, Jan Lennard Wolf, Franz May, Bruno Figueiredo, Victor Vilarrasa

Chapter 5. Upscaling and Scale Effects

Chapters 3 and 4 address the mathematical and numerical modeling of CO2 geological storage. This chapter, in turn, focuses on a specific important aspect of modeling, namely that of scale effects and upscaling. The geological systems are heterogeneous, with heterogeneity occurring at various scales. This gives rise to what is commonly named the “scale effect”. Certain process are critical at the scale of pores, while some of the effects of CO2 injection may have an effect and need to be modeled at the scale of tens and even hundreds of kilometers. Furthermore, various processes may be important at different scales. This requires understanding and methods of linking processes over a span of the scales. This is the topic of the current chapter.
Marco Dentz, Jesus Carrera, Juan Hidalgo

Chapter 6. Laboratory Experiments

The hydro-thermo-mechanical and chemical properties of reservoir rocks and the surrounding sealing units are important data for assessing the performance of a CO2 storage. Laboratory measurements on rock samples are the first method to assess these properties and evaluate the reservoir injectivity and storage potential. Beyond standard techniques, this chapter also presents state of the art laboratory experiments capable of reproducing the in situ conditions during CO2 injection. In addition, these methods are also used to investigate the coupling between the hydro-thermo-mechanical and chemical properties.
Philippe Gouze, Katriona Edlmann, Christopher Ian McDermott, Linda Luquot

Chapter 7. Site Characterization

A necessary first step in qualifying a specific site for CO2 storage and for quantifying its relevant properties is a proper site characterization. Site characterization provides the ultimate input data for reservoir modeling and for all the predictions concerning the storage complex and its surroundings. It also provides baseline information for monitoring the behavior of injected CO2. It also incorporates input from laboratory experiments described in Chap. 6. This chapter gives an overview of site characterization procedures with respect to geological storage of CO2, by starting from regulatory requirements and guidelines and proceeding to specific methodologies for assessing the sites properties in terms of CO2 geological storage.
Auli Niemi, Katriona Edlmann, Jesus Carrera, Christopher Juhlin, Alexandru Tatomir, Iulia Ghergut, Martin Sauter, Jacob Bensabat, Fritjof Fagerlund, Francois H. Cornet, Victor Vilarrasa, Christopher Ian McDermott

Chapter 8. Field Injection Operations and Monitoring of the Injected CO2

Monitoring the fate of the injected CO2 and possible associated effects, such as hydro-mechanical and chemical effects in the target reservoir and its surroundings, is essential for safe operation of a storage facility. In this chapter, we shall first provide an overview of the technologies available and used for monitoring of CO2. We shall then proceed to describe specific methods and finally present some important case studies that will demonstrate the use of the discussed monitoring technologies under specific field settings.
Auli Niemi, Jacob Bensabat, Peter Bergmann, Christopher Juhlin, Alexandru Tatomir, Iulia Ghergut, Martin Sauter, Barry Freifeld, Larry Myer, Christine Doughty, Axel Liebscher, Stefan Lüth, Sonja Martens, Fabian Möller, Cornelia Schmidt-Hattenberger, Martin Streibel

Chapter 9. Natural Analogue Studies

Lessons learned from sites where CO2 has naturally been stored for long geologic periods of time provides valuable information for assessing proposed anthropogenic storage sites. This chapter discusses the natural CO2 storage analogue sites and looks at them worldwide to determine which geological characteristics are preferable for natural CO2 storage and which are not. Following this, an approach is presented based on geomechanical facies, for a comparative assessment of storage sites, accounting for features observed in the natural analogue sites. Finally, a number of anthropogenic storage sites are classified according to the characterization criteria and a detailed description of a number of natural and anthropogenic storage sites are presented.
Christopher Ian McDermott, Johannes M. Miocic, Katriona Edlmann, Stuart M. V. Gilfillan

Chapter 10. Risk Management for CO2 Geological Storage Projects

A number of key challenges relating to potential CO2 reservoir capacity, injectivity and confinement need to be overcome when validating the performance of a storage system for its lifecycle. In the case of a failure of a storage operation, the environment, investments, and human health and safety, may be at risk. It is therefore important to use risk management methods to ensure that the project will meet its objectives in all aspects. The aims of risk management are both to identify and evaluate all the risks that could impact the project objectives, and to establish treatment, monitoring actions and plans to reduce the impact of risks thereby ensuring the project performance. This Chapter discusses the implementation of risk management for a CO2 geological storage project.
Yvi Le Guen, Stéphanie Dias, Olivier Poupard, Katriona Edlmann, Christopher Ian McDermott


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