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This thesis presents an important step towards a deeper understanding of naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs (NFCRs). It demonstrates the various kinds of discontinuities using geological evidence, mathematical kinematics model and computed tomography and uses this as a basis for proposing a new classification for NFCRs. Additionally, this study takes advantage of rock mechanics theory to illustrate how natural fractures can collapse due to fluid flow and pressure changes in the fractured media.

The explanations and mathematical modeling developed in this dissertation can be used as diagnostic tools to predict fluid velocity, fluid flow, tectonic fracture collapse, pressure behavior during reservoir depleting, considering stress-sensitive and non-stress-sensitive, with nonlinear terms in the diffusivity equation applied to NFCRs. Furthermore, the book presents the description of real reservoirs with their field data as the principal goal in the mathematical description of the realistic phenomenology of NFCRs.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Despite the fact that the exploitation of carbonate reservoirs problem started move than 100 years ago, the remaining challenges regarding hydrocarbon production remain at all time high. These reservoirs that present discontinuities and inhomogeneities represent a strong challenge because they are complex systems with interdependent variables that require to be understood. Moreover, these carbonate reservoirs contain the largest and productive oil reserves in the world.
Nelson Enrique Barros Galvis

Chapter 2. Phenomenology and Contradictions in Carbonate Reservoirs

In 1972, Neale and Nader described the flow dynamics in a vuggy porous medium using the creeping Navier-Stokes and the Darcy equations in the surrounding homogeneous and isotropic medium.
Nelson Enrique Barros Galvis

Chapter 3. A Ternary, Static, and Dynamic Classification of NFCRs

Naturally Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs (NFCRs) need to be classified based on the detection and evaluation of the dominant discontinuities, integrating dynamic and static parameters. Discontinuities can display flow behaviors and geological features, that may behave according to a variety of reservoir static-dynamic models. An integral classification is essential for optimum reservoir management and hydrocarbon production.
Nelson Enrique Barros Galvis

Chapter 4. Analytical Model for Non Stress Sensitive Naturally Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs (NFCRs)

This chapter compares the obtained solutions in a fractured medium and a fractured porous medium. Both media are slightly deformable without stress-sensitive. The analysis has been developed chiefly with the aim of obtaining exact analytical expressions for the solution of the mathematical model of carbonate reservoirs.
Nelson Enrique Barros Galvis

Chapter 5. Analytical Model for Stress Sensitive Naturally Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs (NFCRs)

The goal of this chapter is to develop and to study an analytical and mathematical model for Naturally Fractured Reservoir when there is stress-sensitive in formation. The model is solved analytically to be used and proved with well testing. Solutions obtained with this model will describe the pressure behavior with respect at time considering the change of permeability, porosity and fluid density.
Nelson Enrique Barros Galvis

Chapter 6. Westergaard’s Solution Applied to Carbonate Reservoirs

A tectonic fracture is associated to stresses concentration. Carbonate rocks usually have a history involving mechanical, thermal and chemical actions during millions of years. Fracture mechanics have been used successfully to predict fracture initiation that have regarding structures design using metallic materials.
Nelson Enrique Barros Galvis

Chapter 7. Applicability and Benefits of Doctoral Thesis for Hydrocarbons Industry

Naturally Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs (NFCRs) present a significant challenge because they are complex flow systems, with interdependence variables that need to be full characterized to describe the heterogeneities that impact fluid flow. In consequence, optimizing production and the recovery factor in carbonate reservoirs result from a combination of geological, geomechanical and dynamic factors that should be included in an integrated reservoir characterization.
Nelson Enrique Barros Galvis

Chapter 8. Conclusions and Recommendations

This doctoral dissertation has presented a discussion on the effects of planar and nonplanar discontinuities in fluid flow through porous media, reservoir classification, mechanical behavior of fractures during depletion, dynamic analysis of pressure and fluid flow modeling applied to stress-sensitive and non stress-sensitive carbonate reservoirs.
Nelson Enrique Barros Galvis
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