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The recent trend in user-customized product design requires the shape of products to be automatically adjusted according to the human body’s shape, so that people will feel more comfortable when wearing these products. Geometric approaches can be used to design the freeform shape of products worn by people, which can greatly improve the efficiency of design processes in various industries involving customized products (e.g., garment design, toy design, jewel design, shoe design, and design of medical devices, etc.). These products are usually composed of very complex geometric shapes (represented by free-form surfaces), and are not driven by a parameter table but a digital human model with free-form shapes or part of human bodies (e.g., wrist, foot, and head models).

Geometric Modeling and Reasoning of Human-Centered Freeform Products introduces the algorithms of human body reconstruction, freeform product modeling, constraining and reconstructing freeform products, and shape optimization for improving the manufacturability of freeform products. Based on these techniques, the design automation problem for human-centered freeform products can be fundamentally solved.

Researchers and developers working on problems of automatic designing individually customized products can use this book as a reference, and it can also be used in courses in computer-aided product design at the graduate level.



Chapter 1. Introduction

As an introduction chapter, the conventional functions of design automation on mechanical products are first briefed. After that, this chapter analyzes the demand for new tools in the design automation of human-centered freeform products. Answers to the following questions can be found in this chapter: (i) Why are not conventional techniques good enough for the design automation of human-centered freeform products? (ii) What are the common characteristics of human-centered freeform products? (iii) What are the necessary techniques for the design automation of human-centered freeform products?
Charlie C. L. Changling Wang

Chapter 2. Digital Human Body

As the reference of all human-centered products, digital human bodies are reconstructed from scanning data which are usually presented in the form of three-dimensional (3D) sample points. To support design automation, the scanned human bodies represented by point clouds need to be converted into surface representation. Feature points that are defined according to particular applications can be extracted from the surfaces. After that, cross-parameterization constrained by the feature points is conducted to establish a point-to-point correspondence between human bodies. Models with a consistent mesh connectivity which help the shape space analysis for human bodies can then be obtained. The statistical model established by the human bodies with a consistent mesh can be further used to correlate the shape of human bodies with semantic parameters. Such a correlation provides a method to synthesize human bodies by parametric inputs (named as parametric design of human bodies).
Charlie C. L. Changling Wang

Chapter 3. Geometry of Freeform Products

This chapter gives the basic method of representing and modeling a freeform product. Not only human-centered products but also any other freeform objects can be represented and modeled by a non-manifold data structure and its related operators introduced here. Based on this, two approaches to design human-centered products are developed. A constructive method is introduced for designing products whose spatial relationship with human bodies is explicitly defined during the design procedure. A surface subdivision method is then employed to refine constructive designs into final surfaces. The other method is more user-friendly, which allows users to interactively draw styling design curves of tight-fit products on the surfaces of digital human bodies. Final products are generated by trimming the surfaces of human bodies with these styling curves.
Charlie C. L. Changling Wang

Chapter 4. Design Automation of Human-Centered Products

This chapter presents the techniques for transforming the free-form shape of a product worn by a human body to shapes that ‘fit’ other human bodies. The design automation techniques introduced in this chapter focus on how to retain the spatial relationship between the designed product and the digital human body. Four techniques are introduced, which include direct transformation of style design, shape warping based on free-form deformation (FFD), volumetric parameterization based on spatial deformation, and flexible shape control in design transformation. All these techniques require that input human bodies are represented by piecewise linear surfaces with a consistent mesh connectivity as the input.
Charlie C. L. Changling Wang

Chapter 5. Manufacturability of Products Fabricated by Planar Materials

The techniques presented in this chapter are motivated by studying the manufacturability of products fabricated by planar materials. Several approaches, including surface flattening based on energy model, shape optimization, patch segmentation, and length-preserved and length-controlled flattening, are introduced for this purpose. These approaches have been verified by examples from a variety of applications.
Charlie C. L. Changling Wang

Chapter 6. Compression Products Fabricated by Extensible Materials

In the clothing industry, compression garments are increasingly being used to mold and confine the malleable shapes of human bodies. A garment design may require variations in pressure ranging from normal to larger values through increasing strains in specific areas for particular applications. Therefore, compression garments need to be customized because body shapes differ and different body shapes require different strain distributions. 3D body shapes can be obtained by any popular 3D data-acquisition means (for example, a human body laser scanner). 2D patterns which are fabricated into the 3D shape bring about the desired strain distribution by the variation of their shapes between 2D and 3D. At present, the 2D pattern design and garment-to-body fit are accomplished by trial and error. This chapter aims at providing techniques to automate this design procedure.
Charlie C. L. Changling Wang


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