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No modern medium has been detested as much as television. The chapter reviews key works by Mary Whitehouse, Marie Winn, Jerry Mander and Neil Postman deeming television to be a cause of social ills in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. Television was seen to undermine democracy, community and enlightenment, obstructing a moral lifestyle, and impairing mental and physical health. The chapter discusses collective action against television through movements such as TV-Free America, the British White dot and Adbusters. While anti-television activism did not inspire a general rejection of television, TV-Turnoff Week from the mid-1990s became a way for organizations, professions, communities and individuals to demonstrate their resentment and point to television as an explanation for social change to the worse.
Adams, Sheila. Smashed TV Makes Pretty Necklace. n.a. http://www.whitedot.org/issue/iss_story.asp?slug=TVGlass
Adbusters. Adbusters Jams CNN. 26 April 2007. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktMMgZOHpaA
———. TV Turnoff 99. 6 August 2002. http://web.archive.org/web/20020806041340/http:/www.adbusters.org/campaigns/tvturnoff/toolbox/update99.html
Aftret, Bjørg, and Jens Jacobsen. “Fjernsynet: Varieteteater med søppel.” NTB, 26 October 1987.
Anders, Günther. The World as Phantom and as Matrix: Philosophical Considerations on Radio and Television. 1956. Available from http://libcom.org/library/obsolescence-man-volume-i-part-two-%E2%80%9C-world-phantom-matrix-philosophical-considerations-r
———. “Nasty Politics or Video Nastes.” In The Video Nasties: Freedom and Censorship in the Media, by Martin Barker, 7–38. London: Pluto, 1984b.
Bourdieu, Pierre. On Television. London: Pluto, 1998 .
Brantlinger, Patrick. Bread and Circuses: Theories of Mass Culture as Social Decay. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983.
The Matrix. Directed by The Wachowski Brothers, 1999.
Burke, David, and Jean Lotus. Spy-TV. London: Slab-O-Concrete Publications, 2000.
Burke, Lotus, and Jean Lotus. Get A Life! London: Bloomsbury, 1998.
Cai, Xiaomei. TV-Turnoff Week. 2014. http://knowledge.sagepub.com/view/childmedia/n447.xml
Christus Rex. Pope Urges “fast” from TV during Lent. 10 March 1996. http://www.christusrex.org/www2/news-old/3-96/es3-10-96.html
Croteau, David, and William Hoynes. Media/Society: Industry, Images and Audiences. London: Sage, 2012.
Dundjerski, Marina. Group Gives TV a Cold Reception. 24 April 1997. http://articles.latimes.com/1997-04-24/entertainment/ca-51886_1_tv-free-america
Fang, Irving. From Alphabet to Internet: Media in our lives. New York: Routledge, 2015.
Freedman, Dan. “Weeklong Television Turnoff aims at 5 Million Viewers.” Tuscaloosa News, 20 April 1998.
Friedman, Monroe. Consumer Boycotts: Effecting Change through the Marketplace and the Media. Routledge: New York and London, 1999.
Giersing, Morten. TV i USA. København: Gyldendal, 1986.
Hirsch, Arthur. Taking On- and Turning Off. 26 April 1998. http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1998-04-26/features/1998116062_1_labalme-television-years-south-park
Johnson, Carla. Channel Snubbing Kids Turn On To Other Activities During TV-turnoff Week. 1 May 1996. http://m.spokesman.com/stories/1996/may/01/channel-snubbing-kids-turn-on-to-other-activities
Katz, Elihu, and Paddy Scannell. “The End of Television? Its Impact on the World (So Far).” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 2009: 1–236.
Kaufman, Ron. A Nation of Morons. 11 October 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071011215954/http://turnoffyourtv.com/commentary/morons/stupid.html
Kelly, Jim. He Took The Bet And Lost. 3 May 1996. http://articles.mcall.com/1996-05-03/news/3093312_tv-turnoff-week-tv-free-america-waddell
Krcmar, Marina. Living Without the Screen: Causes and Consequences of Life Without Television. New York: Norton, 2009.
Mander, Jerry. Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television. New York: Morrow, 1978 .
McAlister, Nancy. For 7 days, TV’s a Turnoff. 22 April 1999. http://jacksonville.com/tu-online/stories/042299/ent_S0422Tur.html
McGrane, Bernard, and John Gunderson. Watching TV Is Not Required: Thinking About Media and Thinking About Thinking. New York: Routledge, 2010.
McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extension of Man. London: Sphere books, 1968 .
Menand, Louis. “Introduction.” In Masscult and Midcult, by Dwight MacDonald, vii–xxii. New York: New York Review Books, 2011.
Meyrowitz, Joshua. No Sense of Place. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Minow, Newton N. “‘Television and the Public Interest’. Speech on May 9th, 1961 to National Association of Broadcasters, Washington, DC.” American Rhetoric. 1961. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/newtonminow.htm
Portwood-Stacer, Laura. “Media Refusal and Conspicuous Non-Consumption: The Performative and Political Dimensions of Facebook Abstention.” New Media and Society, December 2012: 15(7): 1041–1057. CrossRef
Postman, Andrew. “Introduction.” In Amusing Ourselves to Death, by Neil Postman, vii–xvi. London: Penguin, 2005b.
Postman, Neil. Amusing Ourselves to Death. London: Penguin, 2005a .
Putnham, Robert D. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000. CrossRef
Refsnes, Ingeborg. “TV-fri uke i Melhus.” Adresseavisa, 24 January 2006.
Rogers, Everett M. Diffusions of Innovations. New York: The Free Press, 1995 .
Rothman, David. Ray Bradbury on Fahrenheit 451: “I Wasn’t Worried About Censorship—I was Worried about People Being Turned into Morons by TV”. 4 June 2007. http://teleread.com/ray-bradbury-on-fahrenheit-451-i-wasnt-worried-about-censorship-i-was-worried-about-books-being-turned-into-morons-by-tv/
Screen-Free week. History of SFW. 2014. http://www.screenfree.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/HistoryOfSFW.pdf
Shulins, Nancy. “Tips for foreldre som vil endre sine TV-vaner.” NTB, 03 December 1987.
Singer, Stacey. Week Turns Kids On To Turning Off. 25 April 1996. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1996-04-25/news/9604250110_1_henry-labalme-tv-free-america-matt-pawa
Smith, Anthony, and Richard Paterson. Television: An International History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Stulen, Hege. “En uke uten skjermbilde.” Sandefjords blad, 28 April 2005.
Sundet, Vilde Schanke. “Making Sense of Mobile Media.” PhD-thesis, University of Oslo, Oslo, 2012.
Syvertsen, Trine, Gunn Enli, Ole Mjøs, and Hallvard Moe. The Media Welfare State. Nordic Media in the Digital Era. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2014. CrossRef
Tracey, Michael, and David Morrison. Whitehouse. London: MacMillan, 1979. CrossRef
TV Turnoff. About Us. 6 August 2002a. http://web.archive.org/web/20020806195313/http://www.tvturnoff.org/aboutus.htm
———. International TV-Turnoff. 4 October 2002d. http://web.archive.org/web/20021004025015/http://tvturnoff.org/international.htm
———. Surgeon General: Watch less TV. 18 August 2000b. http://web.archive.org/web/20000818231304/http:/tvturnoff.org/ArticlesPage2.htm
———. TV Turnoff. 7 June 2002c. http://web.archive.org/web/20020607135840/http://turnoffyourtv.com/TV.turnoff.week.html
———. TV Turnoff Network. 16 August 2000a. http://web.archive.org/web/20000816033801/http://www.tvturnoff.org/StaffPage.htm
Ulveseth, Kari. “Ja til skjermfrihet.” Adresseavisen, 30 April 2005: 31.
White dot. About Us. 2000b. http://www.whitedot.org/issue/fix_aboutus.asp
———. Britain Ignores White Dot Endorsement. 2015. http://www.whitedot.org/issue/iss_front.asp
———. FAQS. 2000a. http://www.whitedot.org/issue/fix_faqs.asp
———. Get Out of the Box. 21 April 2009. https://jagadees.wordpress.com/2009/04/21/tv-free-life/
Whitehouse, Mary. Cleaning up TV. From Protest to Participation. London: Blandford Press, 1967.
———. Quite Contrary. An Autobiography. London: Pan Books, 1993.
———. Television: Technology and Cultural Form. London: Routledge, 2008 .
Winn, Marie. The Plug-In Drug. New York: Bantham, 1980 .
———. The Plug-In Drug: Television, Computers, and Family Life. New York: Penguin, 2002.
———. Unplugging the Plug-in-Drug: The “NO TV Week” Guide. New York: Penguin, 1987.
Baker, Stephen. Commentary: The right spot for the idiot box. Available from https://www.businessweek.com/stories/1996-04-28/commentary-the-right-spot-for-the-idiot-box. April 29, 1996.
- “Get a Life!” Anti-Television Agitation and Activism
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