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## Über dieses Buch

The book presents laboratory experiments concerning ARM microcontrollers, and discusses the architecture of the Tiva Cortex-M4 ARM microcontrollers from Texas Instruments, describing various ways of programming them. Given the meager peripherals and sensors available on the kit, the authors describe the design of Padma – a circuit board with a large set of peripherals and sensors that connects to the Tiva Launchpad and exploits the Tiva microcontroller family’s on-chip features. ARM microcontrollers, which are classified as 32-bit devices, are currently the most popular of all microcontrollers. They cover a wide range of applications that extend from traditional 8-bit devices to 32-bit devices. Of the various ARM subfamilies, Cortex-M4 is a middle-level microcontroller that lends itself well to data acquisition and control as well as digital signal manipulation applications. Given the prominence of ARM microcontrollers, it is important that they should be incorporated in academic curriculums. However, there is a lack of up-to-date teaching material – textbooks and comprehensive laboratory manuals. In this book each of the microcontroller’s resources – digital input and output, timers and counters, serial communication channels, analog-to-digital conversion, interrupt structure and power management features – are addressed in a set of more than 70 experiments to help teach a full semester course on these microcontrollers. Beyond these physical interfacing exercises, it describes an inexpensive BoB (break out board) that allows students to learn how to design and build standalone projects, as well a number of illustrative projects.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### Chapter 1. Introduction

This chapter introduces readers to the Tiva C Series microcontroller- based evaluation board, EK-TM4C123GXL LaunchPad from Texas Instruments. Tiva C series microcontroller family is based on ARM Cortex-M4 processor. However, it will also introduce the reader to the PadmaBoard which is a peripheral motherboard for LaunchPad, which enables the readers to perform various experiments using LaunchPad and PadmaBoard. This chapter provides a roadmap which gives reader a brief overview of topics and experiments covered in this manual.

### Chapter 2. ARM Cortex-M4 Core and Tiva C Series Peripherals

This chapter provides overview ARM cortex M4 architecture along with its peripherals. It includes a brief description of peripherals of microcontrollers belonging to Texas Instruments Tiva C Series family.

### Chapter 3. Tiva C Series LaunchPad

This chapter deals with a detailed description of the Tiva C Series TM4C123G LaunchPad. The Tiva LaunchPad is an evaluation board (EK-TM4C123GXL) from Texas Instruments, which uses ARM Cortex-M4F-based microcontroller of Tiva C Series. The letter “F” in the ARM Cortex-M4F denotes that the microcontroller has a dedicated floating point unit and hence is capable of catering to several signal processing applications.

This chapter focuses on detailed explanation of features of the PadmaBoard. PadmaBoard can be connected to the Tiva LaunchPad through the expansion headers present on Tiva LaunchPad. As Tiva LaunchPad is a evaluation board for Tiva C Series ARM Cortex-M4-based microcontroller which has various peripherals. But to implement these peripherals, there are not enough features on the Tiva LaunchPad. But PadmaBoard has various on board features which are illustrated in subsequent sections. Using these features user can develop and prototype many applications.

### Chapter 5. Tiva C Series Microcontroller Breakout Board

This chapter focuses on hardware basics for the development of standalone projects using Tiva C Series microcontrollers. By standalone project, it refers to the project which does not use any evaluation board. So, this helps the developer to choose microcontroller as per their requirement and can develop their own customized system using that microcontroller.

### Chapter 6. GNU ARM Toolchain

This chapter will focus on the setting up of the environment for programming Tiva C Series ARM Cortex-M4 based microcontrollers using open source tools. The same methodology can be applied to program the other ARM-based microcontrollers of different families.

### Chapter 7. Structure of Embedded C Program

This chapter deals with the basic structure of embedded C programming.

### Chapter 8. Application Programming Interface (API)

This chapter deals with the application programming interface (API) model of programming. This programming interface empowers the user for rapid development of applications for the Tiva microcontrollers.

### Chapter 9. Digital Input/Output

This chapter will focus on using the TivaWare API functions instead of the register access model discussed in the previous chapter. To get acquainted with using the TivaWare API, some of the basic experiments that were performed in Chap. 7 will be again revisited. After getting comfortable with the TivaWare API, this chapter helps in exploring some of the features present on the PadmaBoard, such as using LED as light sensor, tone generation using a buzzer, and measure distance using ultrasonic module.

### Chapter 10. Interrupts

This chapter deals with generation of interrupts on ARM Cortex M4 Tiva C Series microcontrollers. Whenever a switch is pressed, there are two ways to read its input, one is through polling and other is through interrupt. The algorithm mentioned in Chap. 9 in Sect. 2 is polling method. In that, processor is always checking the state of the pin, which is actually wasting the clock cycles of the processor to keep on checking the input, these clock cycles could be used to perform some other task which can improve the efficiency of the processor. As when switch is pressed, state is changing from logic high to logic low, and this state change on the GPIO pin itself requests the processor to perform certain task. This will lead to development of efficient system and these requests to the processors are known as interrupts.

### Chapter 11. Timer and Counters

This chapter deals with the programmable timers. These timers can be used to count or time the external events. ARM provides the timer along with the processor termed as SysTick timer, as a core peripheral. Then, while developing the microcontrollers IP companies like Texas Instruments, Freescale, etc., add the additional timer modules around the processor. These timer modules are generally added as they are multifunctionality timers like count up or down, input edge count.

### Chapter 12. Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter (UART)

Data transfer between two devices can be as parallel communication or serial communication.

### Chapter 13. System Control and Power Management

This chapter deals with power management operations using System Control module. System Control module provides system control and implementation information. Power management is one of the main aspects of design. The product should be energy efficient and must consume minimal power. Example in smoke detector, controller may not need to beactive all the time, it should be active only when smoke is detected. Hence, controller should consume very little power in its inactive state. Such tasks can be achieved through power management operations in Tiva C series family.

### Chapter 14. Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)

This chapter covers the processing of analog data by microcontroller by using analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The environment present around the microcontroller is analog but the processing of data in the microcontroller is done on the digital data. So, ADCs are required to convert continuous analog voltage to discrete digital number which can be realized in digital form. The microcontroller has built in ADC modules. Since the conversion of analog to digital data is done on the basis of quantization, so some error will be introduced in the conversion due to quantization. This error cannot be eliminated though it can be decreased by increasing the number of bits of digital output.

### Chapter 15. Serial Communication: SPI and I2C

This chapter deals with two types of serial communication Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) and Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). Already, one serial communication protocol UART is discussed earlier in Chap. 12. These two peripherals give access to control various features. The features that are covered in this chapter are Real Time Clock (RTC) which can be used for time stamping applications, digital-to-analog converter (DAC) to generate analog signal, microSD card for mass data storage, TV interfacing using composite channel for display. Lots of interesting projects can be developed by combination of these peripherals.

### Chapter 16. User Input and Output Devices

In this chapter more input and output user interfaces are discussed. In earlier chapters, for user interface UART terminal on host PC and switches were used. So, this chapter will discuss a bit more complex interfaces like 16$$\times$$2 LCD, 16 key keypad and PS/2 based keyboard. LCD and 16 key Keypad are driven using serial shift registers. So, that both of these can be controlled by using just the 5 GPIO’s. Having, such interfaces helps in developing standalone projects, as the user may not need to use host terminal to display messages and for user input. The user can display the messages on LCD and give input using 16 key keypad or PS/2 keyboard.

### Chapter 17. Tiva C Series Based Standalone Projects

This chapter focuses on developing of standalone projects based on Tiva C Series of microcontrollers. As, discussed in Chap. 5 about the breakout board of Tiva C Series microcontroller, same breakout board is used in this chapter to perform experiments regarding the standalone projects. There are not much changes required in program code while using other Tiva C Series microcontrollers to perform the experiments, as the API function calls are common for all microcontrollers.

### Backmatter

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