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Über dieses Buch

This book discusses the theoretical and practical issues of glaciokarsts. After a research history, a general description of glaciokarsts is provided. Thereafter, the glacial erosion on karst, the karstic features of glaciokarsts, the development of these features, the karstic zones of glaciokarsts, surface development of glaciokarsts, case studies on glaciokarsts and an overview of the glaciokarsts of the Earth are presented.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. History of Glaciokarst Research

In this chapter the research history of glaciokarsts is described from 1880 in the following topics: morphological descriptions (landforms on glaciokarst terrains, cave explorations on glaciokarsts), hydrologic and speleological analysis of subglacial and periglacial karst aquifers, new methodologies in glaciokarst research (dating methods, formal stratigraphy, GIS, computer simulations), age of synthesis, anthropogenic effects and climate change on glaciokarsts.

Tamás Telbisz, Gábor Tóth

Chapter 2. General Description of Glaciokarsts

This chapter presents the glacier typesGlacier types associated with karsts and the types of glaciokarstGlaciokarst . Among the latter, the glacier/karst interactions and planform types are analysed in detail. The conditions of glacier formation are investigated and the geomorphological zonesGeomorphological zone and subzones of glaciokarst are overviewed. When presenting the properties of glaciokarst, the balance of subglacial waters and epikarstEpikarst characteristics are described, glaciokarst typesGlaciokarst types are distinguished by the age and mode of origin and the modes and rates of transformation of landforms are identified.

Márton Veress, Dénes Lóczy

Chapter 3. Glacial Erosion on Karst

The chapter presents the movement of warm-basedWarm-based and cold-basedCold-based glaciers. The factors influencing the slide and flow of glaciers are described. The geomorphic action of glaciers is discussed with a focus on karst. On karst, glacial erosionGlacial erosion is characteristic in karst depressionsKarst depressions , in stratified limestoneStratified limestone , as well as in troughsTroughs which developed on similar rocks. As regards depressions, the denudation of slopes the inclination of which is identical with (downstream slopes) or opposite to (upstream slopes) the direction of glacier flow, the destruction of the thresholds of uvalasThresholds of uvalas (all of them) and the glacial erosional transformation of depressions partly filled with non-moving ice are analysed. The formation of stepped surfaces of stratified limestone terrains as well as the relationship between troughs with stepped surfaces, valley directions and the dip direction of beds are presented.

Márton Veress

Chapter 4. Karst Landforms of Glaciokarst and Their Development

InVeress, M. this chapter, the karst landformsKarst landforms of glaciokarst are presented which are the following: karrenKarren , giant grikesGiant grikes , shaftsShafts , karst depressionsKarst depressions such as giant depressionsGiant depressions (dolinesDolines , uvalasUvalas ), small-sized solution dolinesSmall-sized solution doline , schachtdolinesSchachtdolines , subsidence dolinesSubsidence dolines , ponorsPonors and poljesPoljes . We describe their distribution and frequency, their relation to glacialGlacial erosional features as well as the relation between each other, their size, morphology, varieties, evolution, development and development age.

Márton Veress

Chapter 5. Characteristics and Genesis of Subsurface Features in Glaciokarst Terrains

Glaciokarst terrains are rich not only in specific landforms, but in subsurface forms as well. Long, complex cave systems are widespread in glaciokarst terrains, and the deepest caves are almost all found in glaciokarsts. On the other hand, as for the volume of cave chambers and passage dimensions, glaciokarst caves are not among the largest ones. One of the most important questions about glaciokarst speleogenesis is whether subglacial cave development exists at all, and if so, how effective it is. Other important issues are the age of glaciokarst caves and the karst hydrology of glaciokarst terrains. Characteristic features of alpine caves are vadose shaftsVadose shafts and (sub)horizontal passage levels. The two main variations of passage profiles are the tubular phreaticPhreatic and the canyon-like vadose cross-sections, moreover, the combination of the previous two also exists, it is the so-called keyhole profile. Among small-scale cave features, paragenetic shapes and scallopsScallops are presented in this chapter. Characteristic glaciokarst cave sediments are coarse debris, which are mainly the results of extreme high discharges, fine-grained varved carbonates, which are deposited due to back-flooding conditions, and speleothemsSpeleothems , which grow mostly during warm periods, but if some special conditions are satisfied, they may grow even below actually glacier-covered terrains due to the so-called “common-ion effectCommon-ion effect ”. Further on, cryogenic cave calcites are also formed in glaciokarst caves, but their amount is insignificant. As for the karst hydrology, extreme fluctuations are characteristic to glaciokarsts, meaning both high seasonal changes and relatively high daily changes according to melt cycles. Using U-series and cosmogenic nuclide methodology to date speleothems and detrital cave sediments, it is now evident that the majority of glaciokarst caves are polygenetic in origin, surviving one or more glacial periods. Preglacial caves (i.e. caves evolving since at least the Pliocene) are common in the AlpsAlps . On the other hand, there are approved postglacial caves as well, which are related to drumlins or isostatic fissures. Finally, subglacial speleogenesisSubglacial speleogenesis is also proved to be possible, though it has a low rate. Ice-contact cave development takes place when a connected aquifer is formed in the glacier ice and in the neighbouring karstic rock mass.

Tamás Telbisz

Chapter 6. Karstic Pattern of Glaciokarst

The recent karstic patterns of glaciokarst are presented. Karstic patternKarstic pattern is described taking karst typesKarst types and karst-type assemblagesKarst-type assemblages into consideration. The recent karstification and pattern of the areas of former cirque glaciers, valley glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets and piedmont glaciersPiedmont glaciers are presented. The recent karstic pattern and development of the karst of glaciokarst types (plateau glaciokarst, semi-plateau glaciokarst, mountain glaciokarst, rock fortress, ridge glaciokarst, complex glaciokarst and island glaciokarst) are analysed and described.

Márton Veress

Chapter 7. The Development of Glaciokarstic Surfaces

This chapter deals with the geomorphic evolutionGeomorphic evolution of glaciokarst. The ways of surface denudation are presented on bare karst and soil-covered karst, on concealed karst and allogenic karst, then in light of them, the landscape evolution in the area of various glacial erosional surfaces and landforms will be outlined. The future geomorphic evolution of glacial erosional surfaces are also touched upon.

Márton Veress

Chapter 8. Case Studies on Glaciokarst

This chapter involves five case studies, in which the landscape and the relation of karstification and glacial erosion are described. Three case studies deal with the sample sites of the Alps (Northern Calcareous Alps, Julian Alps and Bernese Alps). One area is situated in the Durmitor (Dinarides), while the fifth area is a special site. It is a subarctic karst in the southern part of Patagonia developing under extreme climatic circumstances.

Gábor Tóth, Márton Veress

Chapter 9. Notable Glaciokarsts of the World

In this chapter, notable glaciokarsts of the world are presented. Geographical location, geologic and tectonic settings, climatic conditions, glaciationGlaciation phases as well as surface and underground karst landforms are presented about each selected region. Obviously, the areal extent, the degree of exploration and the amount of publicly available information are different in each case. Historically, the first glaciokarstGlaciokarst studies were based on the AlpsAlps , the PyreneesPyrenees , the Dinaric AlpsDinaric Alps and the British IslesBritish Isles , and they have remained in the focus since then. Hence, these regions are presented here in more detail, but even these presentations can be considered only short overviews. Some other glaciokarst terrains, such as ScandinaviaScandinavia or the Rocky MountainsRocky Mountains , have also been thoroughly studied but later in history; nevertheless, there are abundant internationally available publications about them. Certain parts of the Balkan PeninsulaBalkan Peninsula , the ApenninesApennines or even AnatoliaAnatolia received high attention more recently and novel methods have been used to investigate their glaciokarst terrains. The CarpathiansCarpathians and the Appalachians, which are also discussed in this chapter, are extensively studied mountains in general, but glaciokarsts occupy a relatively small proportion in them. On the other hand, there are still regions, which are difficult to access, where glaciokarsts are poorly explored, and/or the available literature is limited (or the publications are only in Russian, for instance). Some of them, namely, the Altai MountainsAltai Mountains , the Greater Caucasus, the Tian ShanTian Shan , the PamirPamir and the Patagonian archipelagoPatagonian archipelago , are also briefly presented here. Finally, it is noted that our selection does not contain all glaciokarsts of the world because it is beyond the scope of this chapter.

Tamás Telbisz, Gábor Tóth, Dmitry A. Ruban, Jaroslav M. Gutak

Backmatter

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