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2012 | Buch

Glasses and Glass Ceramics for Medical Applications

verfasst von: Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort

Verlag: Springer New York

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Über dieses Buch

Glass ceramics are a special group of materials in which a base glass can be crystallized under carefully controlled conditions, which in turn determine the properties of the material. These materials offer a wide range of physical and mechanical properties combining the distinctive characteristics of sintered ceramics and glasses. This book provides readers with an interest in medical ceramics with the ability to start making their own glasses and glass ceramics, together with an understanding of the various factors that control the final properties of these medical and dental materials. In addition, the authors describe various industrial problems with current, clinically-used medical glass ceramics and discuss appropriate scientific solutions.

Glasses and Glass Ceramics for Medical Applications will appeal to a broad audience of biomaterials scientists, ceramists, and bioengineers, particularly those with an interest in orthopedic and dental applications, as well as scientists and engineers involved in the manufacture of glasses, glazes, enamels, and other glass coatings for the medical materials industry. The book will also be of interest to undergraduate and graduate students in materials engineering and dentistry, and is suitable for use in courses on medical and dental materials.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction to Medical Ceramics

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. History, Market and Classification of Bioceramics
Abstract
A wide range of materials is used in the construction of medical devices and each material will interact in some way with the biological environment. These materials are generally described as biomaterials. A biomaterial is a synthetic material to be used in intimate contact with living tissue. A more precise definition of a biomaterial was given in 1986, at the Consensus Conference of the European Society for Biomaterials, when a biomaterial was defined as “a nonviable material used in a medical device, intended to interact with biological systems.”
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort
Chapter 2. Selection Criteria of Ceramics for Medical Applications
Abstract
The biocompatibility is the most important issue for the application of medical ceramics whether biopassive, bioactive, or resorbable ceramics. Medical ceramic materials often include glasses, glass ceramics, and ceramic–polymer bioactive composites. The ceramics may be manufactured either in porous or in dense form, in bulk or in granules or in the form of coating layers. The biocompatibility is considered to be one of the most beneficial factors in using synthetic ceramics innovations in medicine. Any new glasses and glass–ceramics developed for medical purposes should possess this extremely important property of biological compatibility with living tissue.
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort
Chapter 3. Grouping of Ions in Ceramic Solids
Abstract
In this chapter, the nature of the atomic arrangements, the forces between atoms, and the location of atoms in the crystalline ceramics and noncrystalline glass are considered. As the silicates form the main chemical constituents of the glasses and glass ceramics, and porcelains discussed in this book, the structure of silicates is explained briefly to clarify the grouping of different ions in either the glasses or the ceramic. In addition, the rules governing the coordination of cations and anions are briefly discussed.
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort

Manufacturing of Medical Glasses

Frontmatter
Chapter 4. Formulation of Medical Glasses
Abstract
The process of glass formulation is simply a process by which a glass is prepared with the desired properties for a certain application. The science of glass formulation is the knowledge that provides the possibility of producing distinctive formulations of value products for valued consumers. Creating the products starts by successfully combining the market view and the experience in formulation. The scientist skilled in glass formulation is able to design and develop glass formulations to meet specific needs for the application in mind.
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort
Chapter 5. Theoretical Estimation of Glass Properties
Abstract
The theoretical estimation of glass properties is very important for glass scientists, students, and workers to predict glass properties of interest and glass behavior under certain conditions before carrying out the experimental investigation. The estimation of properties saves time, material, financial, and environmental resources during the experimental work. It enables us to more or less predict or estimate the desired value of the property.
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort
Chapter 6. Design and Raw Materials of Medical Glasses
Abstract
This chapter emphasizes the glass structure and conditions of glass formation. In addition, the chapter gives a brief view on how to optimize the glass properties through mastering the chemical composition via mathematical calculations.
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort

Manufacturing of Medical Glass Ceramics

Frontmatter
Chapter 7. Design of Medical Glass-Ceramics
Abstract
The art of glass-ceramics was first established with the publication of US Pat. No. 2,920,971. Classically, a glass-ceramic is made through controlled heat treatment of a precursor glass.
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort
Chapter 8. Microstructural Optimization of Glass Ceramics
Abstract
The microstructure of ceramics is the most important property affecting the other ceramic properties and the application target. The microstructure is likely to be responsible for the most valuable properties of ceramics. The microstructure of a glass ceramic consists of a fine-grained phase or phases dispersed in a glassy matrix (glassy phase). Sometimes there may also be some very small pores in between grain boundaries as shown in Fig. 8.1.
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort
Chapter 9. Development of Colour and Fluorescence in Medical Glass Ceramics
Abstract
Coloured glasses absorb light, either broadly or sharply, in the ultraviolet, visible or in the near-infrared region of the spectrum so that the different colours are displayed. The colouring glasses should contain at least one of the colouring ions to perform their functions such as Fe, Ni, Co, V, Ce, etc. incorporated in the base glass. These types of coloured glass have been used in distinctive applications according to their transmission and absorption characteristics, for example, as optical filters such as neutral density filters, blue filters, and sunglasses (Weyl 1959).
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort

Models of Dentally Used Glass Ceramics

Frontmatter
Chapter 10. Leucite Glass-Ceramics
Abstract
The key variables in the design of a medical glass-ceramic are glass composition, phase assemblage, and the crystalline microstructure, which are the driving factor for the different properties. The phase assemblage (the types of crystals and the proportion of crystals to glass in the glass-ceramic) is responsible for almost all of the physical and chemical properties, including the functional, microstructural, thermal, mechanical, and chemical characteristics.
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort
Chapter 11. Machinable Mica Dental Glass-Ceramics
Abstract
The metal-ceramic restoration is a well established solution for how to overcome the problem of the lack in strength and toughness of the highly aesthetic feldspathic dental ceramics. As shown in the previous chapter the primary consideration for the veneering ceramic is that it has a coefficient of thermal expansion that is appropriately matched to the coefficient of thermal expansion of the metal by the incorporation of leucite, that it bonds well to the metal substructure and provides aesthetic veneers able to mask the color of the underlying metal.
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort
Chapter 12. Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramics
Abstract
In this chapter, the best way to crystallize and process lithium disilicate glass ceramics for dental applications is discussed. In addition, the best way to modify the chemical composition and optimize the microstructure to achieve lithium metasilicate or lithium disilicate is assessed.
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort

Bioactive Glass and Bioactive Glass Ceramics

Frontmatter
Chapter 13. Bioactive Glasses
Abstract
Bioactive glasses were discovered by Hench in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative interfacial bonding of an implant with host tissues. Bioactive glasses have osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties that can be used for the repair and reconstruction of damaged bone tissues. They are surface-reactive materials designed to induce biological activity and form a strong bond with the living tissues such as bone.
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort
Chapter 14. Models of Bioactive Glass Ceramics
Abstract
It was shown very early on in the development of bioactive glasses that when a bioactive glass, with a composition suitable for a glass ceramic, is heat treated to create the crystalline phase, the material can retain its bioactivity. This was an important finding as bioactive glasses are brittle and lack strength and toughness. As a consequence, the handling and mechanical properties of bioactive glasses are not adequate for significant load bearing applications and the monophase bioactive glasses are generally restricted to clinical situations, which are nonload bearing.
Emad El-Meliegy, Richard van Noort
Backmatter
Metadaten
Titel
Glasses and Glass Ceramics for Medical Applications
verfasst von
Emad El-Meliegy
Richard van Noort
Copyright-Jahr
2012
Verlag
Springer New York
Electronic ISBN
978-1-4614-1228-1
Print ISBN
978-1-4614-1227-4
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1228-1

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