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This thesis presents research focusing on the improvement of high-resolution global black carbon (BC) emission inventory and application in assessing the population exposure to ambient BC. A particular focus of the thesis is on the construction of a high-resolution (both spatial and sectorial) fuel consumption database, which is used to develop the emission inventory of black carbon. Above all, the author updates the global emission inventory of black carbon, a resource subsequently used to study the atmospheric transport of black carbon over Asia with the help of a high-resolution nested model. The thesis demonstrates that spatial bias in fuel consumption and BC emissions can be reduced by means of the sub-national disaggregation approach. Using the inventory and nested model, ambient BC concentrations can be better validated against observations. Lastly, it provides a complete uncertainty analysis of global black carbon emissions, and this uncertainty is taken into account in the atmospheric modeling, helping to better understand the role of black carbon in regional and global air pollution.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Emission sources, environment fate, health effects and climate impacts of black carbon (BC) are increasingly concerned by the public and policy makers. BC, or soot, as a distinct type of carbonaceous material that strongly absorbs incoming solar radiation, is emitted by incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, such as coal, petroleum, biofuels and biomass. BC is widely found in the environment, including soils, ices, sediments, and the air. It was found that BC makes up 12–31 % of the sedimentary organic materials at two deep ocean sites, which has an age of thousands of years (Masiello and Druffel 1998). During the industrial-era, the consumption of fossil fuels and biofuels have been increased rapidly, leading to a significant increase of BC emissions to the atmosphere (Novakov et al. 2003; Ito and Penner 2005; Dentener et al. 2006; Bond et al. 2007; McConnell et al. 2007; He and Zhang 2009; Hirdman et al. 2010; Skeie et al. 2011). With a lifetime spanning from 1 to 10 days (Penner et al. 1993), BC can contribute to air pollution as a component in fine particulate matter (Brimblecombe 1987). The climate impact of BC, in addition to its impact on human health, has been recognized and highlighted in recent decades (Andreae 1995; Haywood and Shine 1995; Hansen et al. 1998; Myhre et al. 1998; Penner et al. 1998; Jacobson 2001b; Hansen and Nazarenko 2004). Now, BC has been widely concerned for its dual role in air pollution and climate change (Anenberg et al. 2012; Shindell et al. 2012).
Rong Wang

Chapter 2. Research Background

Abstract
The sources of black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere include wildfires, volcanoes eruption, energy-related combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels and some industrial activities (Penner et al. 1993; Streets et al. 2001; Bond et al. 2004). For the present-day, over two thirds of BC emissions are coming from anthropogenic sources due to a rapid increase of fossil fuel and biofuel consumptions by industry and by domestic activities (Bond et al. 2004). In addition, some natural processes also produce BC to the atmosphere, in particular from forest fires and savanna fires (Andreae and Merlet 2001). Based on past emission inventories of BC (Turco et al. 1983; Penner et al. 1993; Cooke and Wilson 1996; Liousse et al. 1996; Andreae and Merlet 2001; Novakov et al. 2003; Bond et al. 2004, 2007; Ito and Penner 2005; Dentener et al. 2006; Junker and Liousse 2008; Zhang et al. 2009; Lamarque et al. 2010; Granier et al. 2011; Lu et al. 2011; Diehl et al. 2012), the major emission sources of BC in the atmosphere include: (1) combustion of carbon-based fuels, including coal, oil, natural gas, crop residues and fuel wood by power plants, industrial sector, transportation and residential sector; (2) coke production, including the refining processes, the gas heating and the leakage processes; (3) brick production, including the material conveying processes, the product drying and fuel firing processes; (4) waste incineration, including combustion of municipal and industrial waste; (5) outdoor biomass burning, including the natural fires (forests fires, grassland fires, woodland fires and peat fires) and human-induced fires (deforestation and open burning of agricultural waste in the field). Previous studies show that domestic heating, residential cooking, on-road diesel vehicles, coke and brick production, and wildfires are the most important emission sources of BC in the atmosphere.
Rong Wang

Chapter 3. Research Method

Abstract
This section presents the methods used for developing the emission inventory of black carbon (BC) is described, including the collection of BC emission factors, compilation of high-resolution fuel consumption data, technology divisions, and calculation of BC emissions. The atmospheric transport model used to simulate the global transport and distribution of BC in the atmosphere and the methodology used to estimate the exposure of black carbon are described.
Rong Wang

Chapter 4. Development of a High-Resolution Fuel Consumptions Database

Abstract
A high-resolution fuel consumption inventory is developed using a sub-national disaggregation method with detialed sectors. The new data product is compared with a previous inventory developed based upon the nightlight data set and an mock-up inventory based upon a traditional national disaggregation method. The implications of the new inventory of fuel consumption at a high spatial resolution for carbon emissions are discussed.
Rong Wang

Chapter 5. Global Black Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles

Abstract
Regression models are developed to predict the emission factors of black carbon (BC) for gasoline and diesel motor vehicles based on the developing level of countries. The effect of technology transfer on the reduction of BC emission factors is discovered and quantified in the models. At last, the emissions BC from motor vehicles for 222 countries-territories are estimated from 1960 to 2007 based upon the temporally and spatially-resolved BC emission factors. A similar method was used to predict the emission factors of BC for battery coking.
Rong Wang

Chapter 6. Emissions of Black Carbon in China from 1949 to 2050

Abstract
Black carbon (BC) emissions in China are estimated from 1949 to 2007 based on a new compiled dataset of BC emission factors for various sectors and a re-constructed database of fuel consumptions. The impact of major technology changes during the historical period on the trend in national BC emissions in the country are discussed. At last, the emissions of BC in China are predicted to 2050 under different scenarios of fuel consumption and technology transfer rates.
Rong Wang

Chapter 7. Global Emissions of Black Carbon from 1960 to 2007

Abstract
Global emissions of black carbon (BC) are estimated for a period from 1960 to 2007. The major drivers of the temporal trend are addressed. To study the impact of technology changes, the emission intensity of BC, defined as the emission per fuel consumed, is calculated by sector. The decreasing trend of the emission intensity of BC reflects the effect of technology improvements on BC emissions. In addition, the estimated BC emissions and the spatial patterns are compared with previous BC inventories, and the differences are explained.
Rong Wang

Chapter 8. Concentration, Ambient Exposure, and Inhalation Intake of Black Carbon

Abstract
Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) are simulated by a global atmospheric general circulation model. To study the impact of emission inventory and model resolution, the model is run at two different resolutions using the emission inventory developed in our study and one developed in a previous study. The simulated concentrations by different simulations are then all evaluated by global observations to investigate the advantage of the new emission inventory and the high-resolution model. Based on the new emission inventory and the high-resolution transport model, the population exposure and inhalation intake of BC are estimated globally.
Rong Wang

Chapter 9. Conclusions

Abstract
The main conclusions of this thesis are summarized and the implications on global modelling of black carbon (BC) are discussed. More studies are needed to improve the emission inventory of BC and enhance the model resolution, which can provide a better understanding of the role of BC in the environment.
Rong Wang
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