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Über dieses Buch

This volume provides a detailed look at the entrepreneurial ecosystem of different nations by combining individual data with institutional components. The composite index presented in this book, the Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEI), aims to measure the quality and scale of the entrepreneurial process in 130 countries around the world. The authors have developed a system that links institutions and agents through a National Entrepreneurial System (ecosystem) in which each biotic and abiotic component is reinforced by the other at a country level. The enclosed data, from both individual- and country-level institutions, provides policymakers a tool for understanding the entrepreneurial strengths and weaknesses of their respective economies, thereby enabling the implementation of policies that foster productive entrepreneurship.

Distinct from both output-based entrepreneurship indexes (i.e., new firm counts) and process-based indexes (i.e., comparisons of policies and regulations), the GEI is designed to profile national systems of entrepreneurship. The GEI is a construction of individual and institutional measures that integrates 31 variables from various data sources into 14 pillars, three sub-indexes and a ‘super index’. The relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development appears to be more or less mildly S-shaped. The findings suggest moving away from simple measures of entrepreneurship across countries illustrating a U-shaped or L-shaped relationship to more complex measures, which are positively related to development. The Index also does not focus exclusively on high-growth entrepreneurship; it also considers the characteristics of entrepreneurship that enhance productivity: innovation, market expansion, being growth oriented, and having an international outlook. Moreover, because entrepreneurship can have both economic and social consequences for the individual, the GEI captures the dynamic, institutionally embedded interactions between the individual-level attitudes, abilities, and aspirations that drive productive entrepreneurship.

This unique book will be invaluable for researchers, policymakers and entrepreneurs keen to expand their understanding of entrepreneurship and development.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The world economy is facing important medium- and long-term challenges. Whereas rich countries will be challenged to increase their economic productivity to sustain current standards of living as their populations rapidly age, low-income economies will need to integrate more than two billion young adults into the world economy by 2050. Economic initiatives by enterprising individuals are likely to be key in addressing the challenges of long-term productivity in rich countries, whereas poor countries will continue to struggle to integrate their rapidly growing populations into their economies.
Zoltan J. Acs, László Szerb, Erkko Autio

Chapter 2. The Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index

Abstract
The modern “temple” of the entrepreneurial ecosystem is like many temples of the ancient world: both are held up by pillars. Today’s economic ecosystem is supported by the pillars of development, which are held together by the cement of incentives created by institutions that influence the behavior of individuals. If a fully developed economy is to continue to flourish, these pillars need constant attention, continuous improvement, and careful maintenance, and they must be of similar height and strength.
Zoltan J. Acs, László Szerb, Erkko Autio

Chapter 3. Performance by Country and Country Group

Abstract
How well one country performs relative to others in terms of entrepreneurship is a question of some importance. In this section, we address this question for different country groupings. We do it by groups because the quality and contribution of a country’s entrepreneurship vary systematically in accordance with its level of economic development. While the more developed countries tend to have better entrepreneurial processes, there still can be substantial differences between similarly developed countries’ entrepreneurial strengths and weaknesses.
Zoltan J. Acs, László Szerb, Erkko Autio

Chapter 4. Enhancing Entrepreneurship Ecosystems. A “Systems of Entrepreneurship” Approach to Entrepreneurship Policy

Abstract
Facilitating entrepreneurship is high on many government policy agendas. Policies that support entrepreneurship have become increasingly sophisticated over time, as governments have moved from facilitating the creation of new firms toward supporting high-growth businesses. Many governments currently talk about support ecosystems that cover the entire life cycle of a new venture, from inception to early survival and growth to international expansion.
Zoltan J. Acs, László Szerb, Erkko Autio

Chapter 5. Methodology and Data Description

Abstract
In previous publications, we have described the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index methodology in detail. In this chapter, we describe the GEDI structure, the dataset used to create it, and a short summary of the GEDI methodology.
Zoltan J. Acs, László Szerb, Erkko Autio

Backmatter

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