, pins with the same electric potential are connected using wire segments. Specifically, after
(Chap. 4), the layout area is represented as
(Sec. 5.4) and all nets in the netlist are routed in a systematic manner (Sec. 5.5). To minimize total routed length, or optimize other objectives (Sec. 5.3), the route of each net should be short (Sec. 5.6). However, these routes often compete for the same set of limited resources. Such conflicts can be resolved by concurrent routing of all nets (Sec. 5.7), e.g.,
integer linear programming (ILP)
, or by sequential routing techniques, e.g.,
rip-up and reroute
. Several algorithmic techniques enable scalability of modern global routers (Sec. 5.8).