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Über dieses Buch

This two-volume set, CCIS 0269-CCIS 0270, constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the International Conference on Global Trends in Computing and Communication, ObCom 2011, held in Vellore, India, in December 2011. The 173 full papers presented together with a keynote paper and invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 842 submissions. The conference addresses all current issues associated with computing, communication and information. The proceedings consists of invited papers dealing with the review of performance models of computer and communication systems and contributed papers that feature topics such as networking, cloud computing, fuzzy logic, mobile communication, image processing, navigation systems, biometrics and Web services covering literally all the vital areas of the computing domains.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Steady State Solution to CPP/M/1 Queue with Working Vacations Used in Internet Engineering

In order to extend the application opportunities of queues with working vacation to to the performance evaluation of practical systems with bursty traffic, we introduce the CPP/M/1 queue with working vacations. In this queue customers arrive in a batch having a geometric size distribution. We present a method and give closed form expressions for the steady state probabilities. We also show that a stochastic decomposition property exists for the CPP/M/1 queue with working vacations.

Tien V. Do, Ram Chakka

Elastic Virtual Machine for Fine-Grained Cloud Resource Provisioning

Elasticity is one of the distinguishing characteristics associated with Cloud computing emergence. It enables cloud resources to auto-scale to cope with workload demand. Multi-instances horizontal scaling is the common scalability architecture in Cloud; however, its current implementation is coarse-grained, while it considers Virtual Machine (VM) as a scaling unit, this implies additional scaling-out overhead and limits it to specific applications. To overcome these limitations, we propose Elastic VM as a fine-grained vertical scaling architecture. Our results proved that Elastic VM architecture implies less consumption of resources, mitigates Service Level Objectives (SLOs) violation, and avoids scaling-up overhead. Furthermore, it scales broader range of applications including databases.

Wesam Dawoud, Ibrahim Takouna, Christoph Meinel

A Theoretical Approach to a Better Tag Cloud Visualization

Tag Cloud is an arrangement of metadata emerging with increase in bookmarking called tagging. It is a method to visually produce the socially linked information on websites. It represents an idea with which different tags are co-related. Differences in font sizes, weight, color and the relation between tags displayed introduce a whole new dimension of search for information on web. Efficacious cloud visualization is necessary to draw attention of the users. In this paper, various tag cloud presentation techniques are discussed aiming the effects of a visually better tag cloud by changing certain properties along with a different proposed technique.

Achin Mishra, Raj Pati Mishra

Core Temperature Depends on the Processing Load of the Core and the Temperature of Adjacent Core-A Regression Analysis

In a multi core CPU, the temperature of a core is an important aspect of study. In this paper an attempt has been made to examine the dependency of core temperature on the utilization of core and temperature of adjacent core. The study was conducted in dual core architecture. The utilization rate and temperature of both the cores are recorded and regression analysis has been made on the data. The result shows the core temperature depends more on the temperature of other cores than the utilization of the core itself.

Subrata Sinha

Ligand Binding Studies of Caspase 3 Protein with Compounds of Bacopa monneri - A Target Protein Responsible for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behaviour. It has been discovered that APP (amyloid precursor protein) is a precusor molecule whose proteolysis generate amyloid ß (Aß) amino acid peptide. Aß is an amyloidogenic peptide that forms senile plaques found in the brains of AD. Evidence suggests that senile plaques are formed due to the activation of Caspases particulary caspases CASP 3 and CASP 4.

Bacopa monneri

has been in use since early as a brain tonic to enhance memory development, however how the components of

Bacopa monneri

function is yet unknown .In this paper an attempt has been made to establish the components activities insilico with CASP 3. We found that among the screened seven compounds Ligand 6 interacts potentially with CASP 3 and has passed all the properties of drug with drug likeliness 0.95, drug score 0.69 , highly soluble, highly permeable, non mutagenic, non tumerogenic and non irritant.

Surabhi Johari, Subrata Sinha, Sewali Bora, Sagarika Biswas, Khushboo Gupta

Protein Ligand Interaction Studies of DJ-1 Protein Responsible for Parkinson’s Disease and Chemical Analogues of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) Compounds

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra . It has been discovered that DJ1 is a protein responsible for oxidative stress which causes aggregation of

α

synuclein fibrils further resulting in formation of Lewy bodies. These Lewy bodies serve as a marker for neuronal degeneration . Therefore probably inhibiting the DJ1 may reduce the formation of Lewy bodies thus decreasing the epidemiology of PD.

Bacopa monnieri

has been in use since early as a brain tonic to enhance memory development, however how the components of

Bacopa monnieri

functions is yet unknown. In this paper an attempt has been made to establish the component’s activities insilico with DJ1 that is responsible for Lewy bodies’ formation. We found that among the screened seven components, Jujubogenin glycosides interacts potentially with DJ1 but its drug like behavior was not satisfied so an analogue of Jujubogenin glycosides was designed which has passed all the properties of drug with drug likeliness 2.89 , drug score 0.65, highly soluble, highly permeable, non mutagenic, non tumerogenic and non irritant.

Subrata Sinha, Surabhi Johari, Khushboo Gupta, Sewali Bora

Towards Development of an Intelligent Framework for Managing Authorization Service in Ubiquitous Enterprise Computing Environment

Traditional security mechanisms and models may not provide adequate guarantees to deal with the new exposures and vulnerabilities of emerging Ubiquitous computing environment. Ubiquitous Computing environment characteristics make the security problem complex and challenging. In this paper we discuss how computationally intelligent based approach can be used to design an intelligent model for managing security issues related to authorization service in ubiquitous enterprise computing environment.

Supreet Kaur, Kawaljeet Singh

ANOVA Discriminant Analysis for Features Selected through Decision Tree Induction Method

Feature selection plays an important role in recent years as the selected features improve the classification accuracy of the classifiers in software defect predictions. For improving the quality of the defect prediction model, effective features must be selected. Many feature selection algorithms have been developed for the improvement of defect prediction models. In this paper, we have used ANOVA Discriminant Analysis (ADA) to statistically prove that the features selected through Decision Tree Induction (DTI) approach are effective for defect predictions and only these features can be used for further use. ADA computes the means of variables and it selects the significant features from the groups iteratively for better results. By using ADA, it is found that the features selected through the DTI approach have higher discriminating power than others and the accuracy of the classifiers also increases when this feature set is used for many classifiers. Hence it is said that the selected feature set alone can be used for defect prediction instead of original feature set. It is also observed that the attributes selected through DTI are same as attributes used by ADA. Hence, these are proved to be significant. Wilk’s Lambda is taken as the significant measure. It shows the Discriminant power of the features i.e. discriminating power is high when Wilk’s lambda is low.

N. Gayatri, S. Nickolas, A. V. Reddy

Developing an Efficient Mechanism for Retrieving Documents Using Automatically Generated Metadata

Efficient generation of metadata and retrieval is becoming highly challenging with the increase in volume of resources. Huge recall with low precision is the problem of most document retrieval systems. Effective automatic generation of metadata can reduce time required in creating metadata manually. This paper attempts to develop asearch algorithm to retrieve documents using automatically generated metadata

. T

he fifteen elements of Dublin Core Metadata are discussed and addition of another element consisting of popular search keywords for retrieving the document has been suggested. The keywords in the suggested extended metadata element can be grouped according to geographic location for personalizing the search results. Precision increment and recall decrement can be achieved by retrieving books of specific topic-ids for which maximum words match with the searched keywords. Different stemming mechanisms for the search keywords have also been discussed. A flowchart of the proposed algorithm is given at the end.

Sayanti Bandyopadhyay, Amit Kumar Bandyopadhyay

Filtering Semantic Information at Client Side Using Semantic Enriched Tool

The Semantic Web is a "web of data" that enables machines to understand the semantics, or the meaning, of information on the World Wide Web. The semantic web is a vision of information that is understandable by computers. This is what the Semantic Web is all about, describing things in a way that computers applications can understand it. Web browsers retrieve content and display it. Web browsing involves two tasks, finding the right web page and making sense of its content

.

So far much less attention has been paid to the interpretation of its content. In this paper we describe the tools which support the interpretation of web pages semantically without altering the original web page. It brings semantic interpretation to classical web pages by dynamically – i.e. during browsing – selecting ontologies that contain semantic descriptions of the main terms of the web page.

Anand Kumar, S. K. Jain, Saurabh Parmar, Gagandeep Kaur

4-Bit Serial-Parallel Multiplier and Bit-Level Systolic Architecture for Implementation of Discrete Orthogonal Transforms

Highly efficient arithmetic operations are necessary to achieve the desired performance in many real-time systems and digital image processing applications. In all these applications, one of the important arithmetic operations frequently performed is to multiply and accumulate with small computational time. In this paper, a serial - parallel multiplier, which can be used to perform either signed or unsigned multiplications, is presented. In this multiplier one factor

B

(

n

) is fed serially with word length

n

=4 while the other

A

(

m

) is stored in parallel with number of bits

m

=4. Baugh-Wooley algorithm necessitates complementation of last bit of each partial product except the last partial product in which all but the last bit are complemented. In the proposed algorithm all bits of the last partial product are complemented. This modification results in considerable reduction in hardware compared to Baugh-Wooley multiplier. This multiplier can be used for implementation of discrete orthogonal transforms, which are used in many applications, including image and signal processing. Also a fully pipelined 2-D bit-level systolic architecture is presented for efficient implementation of discrete orthogonal transforms using a serial-parallel matrix-vector multiplication scheme. A comparison with similar structures has shown that the proposed structure requires less computation time.

M. N. Murty, S. S. Nayak, B. Padhy, S. N. Panda

Sound Data Compression Using Different Methods

This paper is about the methods of sound data compression. The development of audio data compression has significantly made our lives easier. The technological progress has facilitated the process of recording audio on different media such as CD-Audio. In recent years, much has been achieved in the field of audio and speech compression. Many standards have been established In order to compare methods of sound data compression I have used Adobe Audition 3.0 software and computer program of the sound compression system from manufacturers’ side. They are characterized by more better sound quality at lower bit rate. It allows recording the same CD-Audio formats using "lossy" or lossless compression algorithms in order to reduce the amount of data surface area at almost noticeable difference in the quality of the recording. To illustrate the problem, I have used the graphs of the spectrum and musical composition spectrograms. The comparison has been done on the basis of uncompressed music track from the original CD-Audio) lines before and after the abstract. This document is in the required format.

Pravin Y. Kumbhar, Shoba Krishnan

A Non Redundant Compact XML Storage for Efficient Indexing and Querying of XML Documents

XML is self describing and extensible. It is stored in the form of text document which makes it a cross platform technology independent of hardware and software. Because of such unique features XML is now recognized as standard for data storage and exchange over the net. Moreover size of XML database has also increased considerably. With such growing presence of XML in database technology there is ever increasing need to design compact non redundant storage for XML which can be effectively utilized for efficient indexing and querying of XML. The proposed technique (NRCX) stores the structure (path) and contents separately in the form of structure index and contents index respectively. The structure index provides id for all unique paths in the XML document. All data items for particular path id are grouped and stored together. This technique uniquely blends the path and the contents without the necessity of storing the path information repeatedly. This approach dramatically reduces the storage requirement for XML. The implementation of this technique and comparison with other techniques confirms our claim.

Mohammed Atique, A. D. Raut

EduCloud: An Institutional Cloud with Optimal Scheduling Policies

Cloud computing is an internet based distributed computing technology becoming an adoptable technology for many of the organizations with its dynamic scalability and usage of virtualized resources as a service. It will likely have a significant impact on the educational environment in the future. Cloud computing is an excellent alternative for educational institutions which are especially under budget shortage in order to operate their information systems effectively without spending any more capital for the computers and network devices. Technically cloud computing can be described as virtual centralization of distributed systems. Universities can take advantage of this to perform various academic and administrative tasks effectively. In this paper, we review the role of cloud environment in the educational arena in detail, especially in the universities where the use of computers are more intensive and what can be done to maximize the utilization of resources available in the infrastructure.

L. Shyamala, Saswati Mukherjee

Resource Discovery for Grid Computing Environment Using Ant Colony Optimization by Applying Routing Information and LRU Policy

Grid computing can be defined as the agreement between the virtual organization to share the resources viz., data, processor, peripheral devices, network, storage, web services to achieve the high performance. The resources are dynamic and heterogeneous in nature. Hence proper mechanisms are needed to discover those resources. Various studies were available on resource discovery as centralized, distributed, hierarchical, etc. Among these, we propose an approach which uses the ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) and routing information to discover the resources in the grid environment. The LRU (Least Recently Used) is employed here, anticipating the balance in resource utilization. This paper defines the grid computing and resources and makes a literature study over the available algorithms. Finally, we propose an algorithm which is a hybrid approach with ACO and routing information with LRU policy.

S. Nirmala Devi, A. Pethalakshmi

Service Oriented Architecture for Governing Engineering Colleges

In today’s world, more and more organizations are adopting automation. Educational institutions are also willing to have such automated environment. The challenge is to find a solution that is extendible, flexible and fits well with the existing legacy systems. Replacing legacy systems to cope with the new architecture is not only costly but also introduces the risk of malfunctioning. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is recommended which provides a relatively cheap and more cost-effective solution in addressing the problems and challenges of combing legacy system with new architecture. This Paper is focused on Service Oriented Architecture for e-governance of engineering institution. A e-governance based on SOA model is proposed and the services needed for the institution are implemented. Systems are developed for engineering institution which provided the services in student attendance system, staff attendance system, project maintenance system, alumni association system, library management system, laboratory management system, department information system, student information system, conference maintenance system, training and placement system, hostel management system, internal mark maintenance system, time table and syllabus system, fees maintenance system and scholarship maintenance system. The services needed for the above systems are implemented using .NET and J2EE. The services are used to implement applications like due certificate details, eligibility of a student for examination, eligibility of a student for campus interviews, etc.

Neelavathi Suryamurthy, Vivekanandan Kalimuthu

A Device Middleware-Based Smart Home Environment for Ambient Health Care

The growing elderly population in the developed countries is increasingly forced to live independently. They are being remotely monitored, reminded, recommended and cared by a stream of care givers, providers, doctors, etc. The enabling technologies and devices are also growing fast. Firstly the room or house wherein the patient lives has been equipped and saturated with a host of multifaceted, multi-channel, multimedia, and multimodal sensors / actuators, robots, displays, appliances etc. Another noteworthy development is the powerful emergence of communication protocols and connectivity solutions, web-enabled devices, device-specific and agnostic services. To enable these diverse participants, to find one another, correspond and collaborate together dynamically and cognitively to understand the prevailing situation and needs of the patient, conceive and construct composite services for patient-centric, sophisticated and smart. In short, smart environments, wherein the ambient intelligence is the norm, are being created and sustained leveraging calm, cognitive and catalytic technologies.

Veeramuthu Venkatesh, Pethuru Raj, V. Vaithayanathan

Computer Oriented Process for Treating Second Order Differential Equations with Singular Coefficient at the First Derivative Term

This paper applies the computer oriented process for solving second order differential equations with singular coefficient at the first derivative term. The original differential equation is modified at the singular point and then the differential equation is treated by using spline in tension. To test the efficiency of the proposed method both homogeneous and non-homogeneous singular boundary value problems are considered.

A. S. V. Ravi Kanth, K. Aruna

Text Dependent Speaker Identification and Speech Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network

Speaker Identification deals with the process of automatically recognizing the speaker based on his or her speaking one or more specific phrases, like passwords, PIN codes etc which acts as authenticator. Text Dependent Speaker Identification system makes use of mel frequency cepstrum coefficients to process the input signal and vector quantization approach to identify the speaker. Speech Recognition system is implemented using Linear Predictive Coding and Back Propagation technique of Hyperbolic Tangent Function under Artificial Neural Networks. The above tasks are implemented using MATLAB.

Suma Swamy, Shalini T., Sindhu P. Nagabhushan, Sumaiah Nawaz, K. V. Ramakrishnan

Efficient Probabilistic Query Ranking in Uncertain Databases

Large databases with uncertainty became more common in many applications.In many modern applications, there are no exact values available to describe the data objects. Instead, the feature values are considered to be uncertain. This uncertainty is modeled by probability distributions instead of exact feature values and that are assumed to be mutually-exclusive. A typical application of such an uncertainty model are moving objects where the exact position of each object can be determined only at discrete time intervals. The objective is to rank the uncertain data according to their distance to a reference object.In the existing system, a framework is used for efficient computation of probabilistic similarity ranking queries in uncertain vector databases, each object is ranked in object instance wise and it is clustered and again ranking to the objects is performed, which results in log-linear i.e, O(nlogn). In this paper, we propose the Radix algorithm in order to increase the performance to O(n).we theoretically as well as experimentally show that it reduces this to a linear-time complexity while having the same memory requirements, facilitated by incremental accessing of the uncertain vector instances in increasing order of their distance to the reference object.

Divya Katukoori, K. Bhima, T. Aruna Sri, S. Hemanth Chowdary, Sujoy Bhattacharya

A Parameterized Framework of Trust Computation for Grid Resource Broker

Now a days the power of distributed computing is explored the ventures of grid computing and cloud computing. Grid computing is used to solve any large scale scientific problems by integrating geographically distributed ideal resources. Cloud computing is the next generation of grid computing and also it is an on demand version of grid computing. Especially in grid computing, the research on identifying best resources is still on its way. In this paper, we are contributing a methodology to identify the best resources for computational grid. The proposed solution will focus and extract the trust of the resource with more accuracy.

M. Ashok, S. Sathiyan

Energy and Path Aware Ant Colony Optimization Based Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Maximizing the network lifetime is a common objective of sensor network researches, because of the battery limitation in each sensor. Furthermore, the shortest and optimal path between sender and receiver needs to be found, so that the network can operate efficiently and provide the largest benefits for its users. In this paper, we will present energy and path aware ant colony optimization based routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks (EPWSN). This algorithm with use of presented competency function and effective definition of its parameters can increase the system efficiency. In this algorithm new pheromone update operator is designed to integrate energy consumption, hop count and path length into routing choice. Finally, simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm in comparison with the previous ant colony based routing algorithm (ACLR, traditional ACA), achieves lower path cost, obtains more balanced transmission among the node, reduces the energy consumption of the routing and extends the network lifetime. Therefore the proposed algorithm has a greater performance in comparison with other ant colony routing algorithm.

Hamed Orojloo, Reza Askari Moghadam, Abolfazl T. Haghighat

A Data Profile-Based Contention-Free MAC Protocol for the Patient Monitoring Systems on WBANs

The patient monitoring system is one of the essential medical systems to help medical team monitoring the vital signs of patients for 24 hours and giving emergency treatment at the critical abnormal condition. Recently, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are applied to this situation for making the patients comfortable and the medical team convenient. However, existing candidate MAC protocols for WBAN are not appropriate to satisfy the requirements of the patient monitoring systems. To resolve this issue, we propose a Data Profile-based Contention-free MAC (DPC-MAC) protocol, which can synchronize the slave nodes by piggybacking synchronization information to ACK/NACK packets without beacon packet transmission. In addition, the DPC-MAC schedules the superframe resources based on the data profile of slave nodes. Through the performance comparison, the proposed DPC-MAC protocol radically reduces the average latency, extends the network lifetime, and diminishes the average link occupancy compared to the existing candidate MAC protocols.

Hongkyu Jeong, Min-Gon Kim, Hong-Shik Park

Switching of a Sixteen Electrode Array for Wireless EIT System Using a RF-Based 8-Bit Digital Data Transmission Technique

Surface electrode switching of 16-electrode wireless EIT is studied using a Radio Frequency (RF) based digital data transmission technique operating with 8 channel encoder/decoder ICs. An electrode switching module is developed the analog multiplexers and switched with 8 bit parallel digital data transferred by transmitter/receiver module developed with radio frequency technology. 8 bit parallel digital data collected from the receiver module are converted to 16 bit digital data by using binary adder circuits and then used for switching the electrodes in opposite current injection protocol. 8 bit parallel digital data are generated using NI USB 6251 DAQ card in LabVIEW software and sent to the transmission module which transmits the digital data bits to the receiver end. Receiver module supplies the parallel digital bits to the binary adder circuits and adder circuit outputs are fed to the multiplexers of the electrode switching module for surface electrode switching. 1 mA, 50 kHz sinusoidal constant current is injected at the phantom boundary using opposite current injection protocol. The boundary potentials developed at the voltage electrodes are measured and studied to assess the wireless data transmission.

Tushar Kanti Bera, J. Nagaraju

An Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for the Minimum Average Routing Path Clustering Problem in Multi-hop Underwater Sensor Networks

Given a set of sensor nodes and a set of sinks placed randomly in an Euclidean plane, the minimum average routing path clustering problem (MARPCP) seeks a subset of sensors to function as cluster heads such that each sensor node is adjacent to at least one cluster head, and the expected hop distance from a node to its nearest sink in the clustering-based routing scheme is minimized. This problem is of particular concern in underwater sensor networks. This paper proposes a new approach to this problem based on Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm. Computational results show the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

Venkateswara Rao Dokku, Alok Singh

Zero Knowledge Proof in Secret Sharing Scheme Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography

In this paper a secured secret sharing scheme has been proposed where the dealer (who distribute shared secrets among the participants and reconstruct the shared secret key) is verified using zero knowledge proof concept by the participants. To protect authenticity of the participants and confidentiality of the secret shares being transferred through the network a signcryption scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) which incorporates both the digital signature and encryption scheme in a logical single step is used. It reduces computational cost and communication overhead. As we are using elliptic curved-based zero-knowledge proof, it provides privacy and security more than other existing techniques. The improvement of security is due to the complexity of solving the discrete logarithm problem over elliptic curves.

Anususya Sardar, Subba Rao Y.V., RukmaRekha N.

On the Design and Realization of Non-Synchronous Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum for Securing Data over Mobile and Computer Networks

We propose and investigated the novel scheme of non-synchronous method of Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum modulation and demodulation scheme. The frequency hopping spread spectrum is most widely used spread spectrum technique in wideband wireless communications due to its numerous advantages like elimination of near far effect in cellular mobile communications. The strict timing synchronization is major requirement in frequency hopping spread spectrum. The hopping pattern at transmitting as well as receiving end should be synchronous to each other. This can be achieved to use same spreading codes both at transmitting and receiving end. In practical communication systems it is very difficult to achieve code synchronization when the signal is supposed to transmit over frequency selective channels. In this paper a novel scheme has been proposed in which two Frequency Modulation (FM) demodulators (CXA1619BS) one at transmitting end and another at receiving end have been used to produce voice signal having same frequency and amplitude, due to random behavior of voice signal ( only unvoiced part was taken) a chaotic signal was generated and used as spreading code. The digitally controlled chaos oscillator has been used for spreading code generation. Since in two different geographical regions FM signals received at transmitting as well as receiving end at the same time are having same frequency and amplitude, therefore do not require synchronous codes for proper detection of received data. So the proposed technique solves one of the major problems of synchronization in practical communication systems. The proposed scheme was tested experimentally using hardware module and results are presented in the form of various waveforms.

Javaid A. Sheikh, Shabir A. Parah, G. Mohiuddin Bhat

Improved Object Lookup in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks

Effectiveness of unstructured P2P overlays highly depends on the efficiency and scalability of their lookup algorithms. However, how to quickly discover or lookup an object or a file that a peer is looking for in a large scale P2P network with efficiency remains a challenging research problem. In this paper we dynamically select peers with high priority of having objects while reducing the overall network traffic. Our experiments have demonstrated that our method can significantly shorten the search path and result in a higher peer search performance. We achieved a success rate of 85 percentage in locating a file when the number of peers are large in the topology with a reduction of 40 percentage of search traffic.

Chittaranjan Hota, Gaurav K., Prasanna G., Narayana M.V.S., Hrushikesha Mohanty, Muttukrishnan Rajarajan

Ontology Construction for Polycystic Kidney Disease

Ontologies and knowledge bases are fundamental cornerstones in semantic search systems based on which efficient web services and sophisticated search mechanisms are designed. High quality domain ontologies are essential for successful employment of semantic Web services. However, acquisition of ontologies is difficult and costly, thus hindering the development of this field. In this work, the knowledge acquisition problem in the semantic Web is cast as the task of ontology construction. We construct an ontology for “polycystic kidney disease” from domain text by a pattern based method which requires minimum human intervention. We also create ontology manually to present the evaluation results of the constructed ontology.

Saurabh Parmar, S. K. Jain, Gagandeep Kaur, Anand Kumar

An Intelligent Recommendation System for Individual and Group of Mobile Marketplace Users Based on the Influence of Items’ Features among User Profile

With the expansion of the wireless services, the number of mobile users has rapidly increased and the quantity of information on the internet and in wireless medium has also increased exponentially. This much information becomes difficult to be monitored by users well as searching for specific data may cost a lot in terms of time. Moreover, in the mobile scenario, only simple search and browsing functions are available due to limited computing power of a mobile phone. Therefore, it is more preferable to let the desirable information find the customers rather than to let them search for specific information when it is needed. This can be realized by integrating personalized user preferences along with justification recommendation system such that necessary information find the mobile user and alleviate the burden of search for that information when it is needed. This paper proposes an effective recommender system that can help consumers formulate better purchasing decision by incorporating support for user features. This system is not only recommends items to user based on their interest, but also attempt to recommend the nearest location place of the item. The proposed framework has the potentiality to increase consumer satisfaction, enhance consumer/company loyalty, and boost overall sales by giving justification and creditability to the products that have high degree of interest to consumers. The results show a significant promise in the system’s ability to make accurate recommendations to the users.

Amer A. Sallam, Siba K. Udgata, Vineet Padmanabhan

An Efficient Mechanism to Avoid Additional Nesting in Nested Network Mobility

A vehicle today needs Internet connectivity which consists of many mobility based devices, built in computers, and various devices carried on by the passengers. These devices are connected to the Internet to provide entertainment to passengers, to execute some official works and to provide connectivity to its base network too. Through Network Mobility (NEMO) by IETF, connectivity can be provided. Some times the movable networks may work based on nesting concept also, during that scenario the regular limitation like Sub-optimality due to additional packet size and packet counts are increasing. In order to overcome the additional limitation due to nested network mobility, we are proposing a new mechanism to avoid the additional nesting to reduce the same additional packet size and delays.

M. Dinakaran, P. Balasubramanie

Design of Secure Communication Model for Virtual Environment

This structural design mainly concentrates on the concept of Virtualization. This architecture is an innovative approach towards the virtualization technology. This mainly depends on ‘Virtual Service’, providing the optimal implementation of Virtual Hardware, Virtual Machine, Virtual Applications, Virtual Trust, Virtual Security and Virtual Space. This Virtual Space contains collection of virtual machines which run on virtual hardware environment containing virtual applications. During communication between the virtual applications, Virtual Security has been ensured along with virtual trusted connection. This architecture also aims to increase the speed of transmission and minimize the malware threat.

R. Anand, S. Saraswathi, V. R. Sindu, B. Sandhya

An Enhanced Probabilistic Encryption Algorithm for Secured Data Transmission

In this paper, we propose a modification probabilistic encryption algorithm by generating Basins (sub keys) dynamically. A probabilistic encryption produces more than one cipher text for the same plaintext. In probabilistic encryption, we use a secret shared key matrix. We multiply this key matrix with a matrix formed from ternary vector and then apply a sign function on the product, which generates a sequence. From this sequence we generate Basins using equality. In our paper we propose a mod with modulo base value to generate the Basins. As the base value changes, the number of Basins also changes.

K. Adi Narayana Reddy, V. Madhu Viswanatham, B. Vishnu Vardhan

JavaScript Application Framework for Mobile Devices

This paper presents the concept of JavaScript Application Framework (JSAF) which is a Platform Independent Model (PIM). This Paper aims at developing an application framework using web developing languages which supports the usage on all platforms making it easy for the developers to use the application framework to develop applications. JSAF is used for creating applications for Mobile Devices which supports a Browser which can render advanced web developing languages such as JavaScript, HTML5 and CSS3. The JSAF provides all the basic User-Interface (UI) widgets required for the Application Development to the Application developer. The JSAF Application is rendered on a Browser which will load JSAF framework prior to the Application. JavaScript Application Framework has the Multitasking feature and Cross Application Communication feature. JavaScript Application Framework is developed at Samsung India Software Operations and proprietary.

Raghu R., Shobha K.R.

A Centralized Priority Based RWA Protocol for WDM Networks

In this protocol we use appropriate RWA methodologies depending on the priority and speed of the incoming traffics to identify the optimal lightpaths. As request arrives, centralized management system (CMS) identifies the traffic class depending on their priority and speed. Accordingly CMS uses appropriate RWA methodologies to identify the optimal lightpaths. To give more importance to high priority request the available wavelength set is divided into two subsets, called P set of higher order wavelengths and C set of remaining wavelengths. Protocol first tries to find an optimal lightpath for high priority request using wavelengths from subset C, else finds out using P. Lightpaths for low priority traffics are found by only using subset C. Further for survivability backup lightpath is maintained. The selection of backup lightpath is done in such a way that there is no shared link between the primary and backup lightpath. By simulation results, we have shown high priority requests have low blocking probability.

T. K. Ramesh, A. Nageswara Reddy, G. V. L. Praveen Kumar, K. Biju, P. R. Vaya

Low-Power Area Efficient Reconfigurable Pipelined Two’s Complement Multiplier with Reduced Error

This paper describes reconfigurable two’s complement multiplier using Baugh Wooley’s algorithm supporting six modes of operation. A fixed width Baugh Wooley multiplier is used as prototype for the architecture. Error reduction technique based on bias compensation vector is introduced in the design to achieve a low error fixed width product. Clock gating technique and zero input method is used to obtain a power efficient design. A power reduction of 8.14% and 7.39% is achieved for the current design compared to other non-reconfigurable and reconfigurable techniques. Also a higher clock frequency of 200 MHz is supported by the current architecture compared to other reconfigurable structure which supports 100 MHz for the same reconfigurable two’s complement multiplication. Area of the proposed power efficient architecture is also reduced by 32.64% compared to the previous reconfigurable architecture.

R. Sakthivel, M. Vanitha, Harish M. Kittur

RWA Protocol for Larger WDM Networks

In this paper we present the design of a RWA protocol for larger WDM network (RPLN), consisting of ‘N’ sector networks, each with a centralized management system (CMS). A backup central CMS of high capacity is maintained to share the work and to takeover if any of the sector CMS fails. As per the connection request, the central CMS decides inter or intra sector transmission. In the case of intra transmission, the sector CMS identifies the optimal lightpaths based on number of free wavelength and distance. For inter transmission, it acts as a node for the central CMS. The central CMS acts as the backup CMS if anyone of the sector CMS fails. By this we introduce a new concept of

centralized-centralized-distributed.

RPLN overcomes the single point failure and performance bottleneck of a large network with single CMS. Furthermore grooming is also used to improve the blocking probability of connection requests.

T. K. Ramesh, R. Janani, S. Prannoy Kiran, T. Swapna, P. R. Vaya

Integration of SMS Security Systems in Cloud Computing

The main motive of this paper is to patch up one of the security problems in the Public CLOUD COMPUTING, to accesses the Virtual Machines (VM)’s by authorized owner only and to secure the cloud resources from the un-authorized users through SMS alert systems. The SMS service is dedicated to Cloud setup which can be integrated independent of work load manager (like condor, novello, other orchestrators etc). Though there are number of cloud security solutions that allow the users to use the allocated VM’s or resources by the authorized owner like AAA, we are still facing of intrusion in the pubic clouds

Mohan Kumar C.M., Raj Sudheer Dangeti, Jeganathan L.

Identity Based Cryptosystem: A New Paradigm in Public Key Infrastructure

Identity Based Cryptosystem (IBC) is a new paradigm in the field of cryptography. Using IBC two users can communicate in secured manner without the need for exchanging of public or private keys and without keeping any key directories to store the public keys. IBC systems have the advantage of having any unique identity string as the public key, like an email address, phone numbers, etc. This system removes the requirement for certificates and associating a name with a public key. Thus eliminates some of the practical problems related with the traditional public key cryptosystems. In this paper we proposed the algorithm to implement the Identity Based Encryption System.

S. Kuzhalvaimozhi, G. Raghavendra Rao

An Efficient Take-Back Call Admission Control Scheme for 3G/WLAN Integrated Cells

Capacity increases and call dropping probability decreases in a 3G cell with embedded WLAN(s) (i.e., mixed cell). Two factors reduce the 3G traffic. One, users initiate new calls through WLANs and two, ongoing sessions are handed over from 3G to WLAN. As a result, call blocking probability in 3G system decreases and overall system capacity increases with increasing WLAN coverage. It is observed that call dropping rate in an entire mixed cell decreases as long as the call blocking probability in WLAN remains less than that in the 3G system. But new call arrival rate in WLAN also increases with increasing call intercepting (CI) probability of WLAN (i.e., probability with which WLAN shares a call in a mixed cell). Thus call blocking probability in WLAN increases. At higher values of CI probability, the blocking probability of WLAN becomes more than that in the 3G system duo to rise in new calls. At this juncture, call dropping rate increases with increasing CI probability. We propose an efficient take-back call admission control (TB-CAC) scheme in which a mobile station always prefers to access WLAN and the blocked calls of WLAN are immediately taken back by 3G systems. Proposed TB-CAC scheme shows considerable improvement of call dropping rate under increasing CI probability of WLAN.

S. Nanda Kumar, Sibaram Khara, T. Velmurugan

A Case Study on Various Routing Strategies of VANETs

Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguish approach for intelligent transport system (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in vanet is important and necessary issue for smart ITS. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol has taken significant attention. So, it is very necessary to identify the pros and cons of routing protocols which can be used for further improvement or development of any new routing protocol.. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of VANETs routing protocols. Many researchers have proposed various routing strategies in VANETS. In this paper, we identify certain drawbacks in existing protocols and we propose new methodology to overcome the same.

Santhosh Jayachandran, Johnson Doraisami Jothi, Siva Rama Krishnan

High Utility and Low Cost Microcontroller Based Data Acquisition System for Antenna Encoders

Satellite communication is very vital for the high speed communication. In order to communicate with satellite efficiently proper tracking is required by an antenna. The status of the antenna can be obtained from switching between the two different encoders giving data of two different quantities – Angular and Elevation and displayed on LCD, transmitted to a PC and also available for processing. This data can be further used to change the antenna positions to required state by rotating motors and again fetching the data. Thus, a whole control system can be made. The system consists of a two ATmega16 microcontrollers and several other ICs. It has been noted that this system performs satisfactorily and provides necessary variations and has easy switching characteristics.

Vikalp Paharia, Harshul Gandhi, Astha Jain

Design of WDM Optical Networks for the Analysis of Cross Phase Modulation and Self Phase Modulation

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is a boon of Light wave Technology as it increases the transmission capacity and enhances the transmission distance by using optical amplification. The capacity of the present system is limited by the noise generated by the amplifiers and interactions due to nonlinearities like Cross Phase Modulation (XPM), Self Phase Modulation(SPM), Four Wave Mixing(FWM) and Stimulated Raman Scattering(SRS). This paper focuses on the design of WDM Network in order to analyze the effect of XPM on the optical transmission rate. Also the papers focus on the suppression methods that can be used in order to remove the degrading effects of these non linearity’s.

Sugumaran S., Vamsi Nath Reddy P., Sirivella V. S. M. Reddy, Arulmozhivarman P.

An Energy Efficient Event Based Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

WSN’s present a new challenge in current research works due to their unlimited potential. Sensor nodes operate with limited battery power, which is seldom replaced or recharged. So, energy utilization is an important constraint in designing routing protocols in WSN. In this paper, we proposed an event based hierarchical cluster based routing algorithm with the objective of reducing the energy consumption for creating the routing topology and thus maximize the lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks. The performance of the proposed protocol has been examined and evaluated through a simulation study. The simulation results clearly show that it has a better performance than EECDS.

Chiranjib Patra, Arindam Mondal, Parama Bhaumik, Matangini Chattopadhyay

Throughput Improvement in Mobile OFDM System with Pilot Free Adaptive Modulation

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is an emerging multicarrier modulation scheme, which has been adapted for several wireless local area network (WLAN) systems and IEEE 802.16a (WIMAX) systems. The quality of service and performance sensitivity of different wireless services varies according to the channel, so the conventional OFDM is unsatisfactory. In this paper, we introduce an adaptive modulation scheme in association with OFDM systems. By using different modulation techniques we can send variable number of bits per symbol depending on the channel quality to achieve better throughput. We also remove the pilot bits from the transmitted data to increases the bandwidth efficiency. We propose a method to estimate the channel quality and Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) directly, without using any pilot bits.

K. Vinoth Babu, G. Ramachandra Reddy, Sunit Gupta, Pratul Chauhan, Pratik Patel

Trust Based Certificate Authority for Detection of Malicious Nodes in MANET

In MANET, mobile nodes are prone to various security attacks due to their dynamic changing topology, open medium and are constrained by limited energy, bandwidth and computational power. Most of the currently existing security algorithms designed for these MANETs are insecure, inefficient, and have low detection accuracy for nodes misbehavior. A novel trust based Certificate Authority concept is introduced to transmit data packets only through trusted nodes and isolate malicious nodes in the MANET. The proposed trust management scheme incorporates battery power consumption and packet integrity aspect in addition to direct and indirect trust values. Experimental results are presented with Qualnet Simulator 5.0. The proposed framework has shown better results in detecting malicious nodes and building a secure network.

Manoj V., Raghavendiran N., Aaqib M., Vijayan R.

A Comparative Study on Web Log Clustering Approaches

In the area of Web Usage Mining, the widely used data mining algorithm is the Clustering analysis. Hence we analyzed the most recent work in the field of Web Logs Clustering and made comparison based on their merits and drawbacks with respect to specific application areas. In this work we discuss three different approaches on Web Logs Clustering, namely, Temporal Cluster Migration, Fuzzy Clustering and PSO based Clustering and we conclude on the most efficient algorithm based on the results of experiments conducted with various web log files.

Sudhamathy G., Sarojini Illango B., Jothi Venkateswaran C.

A New Performance Modelling and Measurement Method for Service-Oriented Cloud Applications (SOCAs)

Cloud computing has been at the centre of intense discussion particularly for its intrinsic power of bringing out a steady flow of innovations on both the business and the IT domains. Debates on performance, security and reliability form the centre stage of most of these deliberations. Third-party public clouds hosting and delivering scores of social, collaborative, and business acceleration applications to global users are also gaining momentum. On the other hand, the on-premise web, application and database servers are being still sustained due to the lack of unbreakable and impenetrable security capabilities in public cloud infrastructures.

The brewing trend is that a wider variety of legacy, web, enterprise, consumer, social, telecom and embedded services are being deployed and delivered from clouds to global users with all the quality of service (QoS) attributes. That is, next-generation applications are derived out of these distributed and decentralised services. In other words, service oriented cloud applications will become popular and pervasive. In this paper, we have focused on the performance concerns and challenges of SOCAs. We have come out with a few formulae for service utilization, availability and performance in a cloud environment.

S. RajaRaajeswari, R. Selvarani, Pethuru Raj

Defending DoS Attacks Using a Puzzle-Based Approach and Reduction in Traceback Time towards the Attacker

In today’s world Denial-of-Service attacks have huge impact on network security. DoS attacks are usually launched to make the service of a system unavailable to a person who is authorized to use it. Several methods were introduced for defending Denial-of-Service attacks earlier. In our paper we propose a client-puzzle mechanism approach to defend DoS attacks. Here, intermediate routers can be used for issuing and solving network puzzles of various difficulty levels depending on the intensity of the attack. The target server will be protected by using an intermediate firewall router for issuing the puzzles; this will reduce the load over the server. Likewise intermediate proxy routers can be used for solving the puzzle. But furthermore, this proxy can also be a target of attack. This problem can be overcome by using a hybrid traceback mechanism for the attacking client. This technique helps to find out the attacking node and the router through which the attack packet was forwarded.

Anup Mathew Abraham, Shweta Vincent

Cloud and Grid Computing Based Telemedicine Using Computer Communication Network through Internet

Most of the Telemedicine Foundation has limited Telemedicine nodes connection in rural area. But increasing population of countries need unlimited of complexity Telemedicine connection. My research work proposed Cloud and Grid computing based Telemedicine using computer communication network by distributed sharing of Internet for supports increasing complexity of TM nodes connection to implements to rural area for point to point communication and Multipoint to Multipoint connection with communication control This paper examine the evaluation of unlimited TM connection to rural area and analyses the diffusion of Telemedicine nodes by limited connection from model of hierarchical telemedicine network,. [1].[2].[3]

S. Saravanan, M. AnbuRajan, A. Venkatraman

AT Command Implementation for a Multimode Wireless Device

This paper presents the concept of AT parser module frame work which is used to test the modem in a wireless device. This Paper aims at developing an AT command framework for a multimode wireless device. AT commands is 3

rd

Generation Partnership Project standardization. AT commands are supported in several mobile devices. AT commands are used to control the modem in the device. AT commands are used to provide some specific functionality like Packet Switching, Network,

Subscriber Identity Module

, Phonebook, Short Message Service etc., by sending commands and receiving through modem. The objective of this paper is to implement the AT frame work module to communicate between PC and Android java chipset of the device of a multimode wireless device. Device may be a dongle/mobile which supports AT commands. The aim of the paper is to implement the AT frame work module for some of the SMS based AT commands and General AT commands using C language. And also to implement frame works for multiple AT commands. AT command Framework is developed at Samsung India Software Operations and proprietary.

Sharana Goud B., Parimala P.

CIMG-BSDS: Image Clustering Based on Bookshelf Data Structure in Web Search Engine Visualization

The Web is nowadays moving from a Web of data to a Web of services. The usage of Web metaphor search engines has been growing at an unstable rate. Due to the uncertainty of query terms and repetitive results, a good clustering of web search results is essential to improve browser experience as well as to improve recovery performance. This paper present an approach for Web Service innovation on Web search, targeted to support flexible and on-demand Web Service usage on the Web. A methodology is focused for building unique service objects from multiple Web resources in public web service. Clustering Image based on Book Shelf Data Structure (CIMG-BSDS) is proposed in this research paper. From the user profile both content based and session based clustering is implemented for effective information retrieval. This system delivers a much better presentation of search results and hence increases the usability of web search engines significantly in visual mode.

S. K. Jayanthi, S. Prema

Fuzzy Based Integrated Security Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) which communicates with each other nodes without the basic network infrastructure, all the nodes act as autonomous nodes with self-organization and self-administration, leads to lack of security and selfishness among the nodes. This paper concentrates to provide fuzzy based integrated security model which incorporates Authentication key and Intrusion detection method through fuzzy approach. Authentication key provides effective information security and Intrusion detection provides the security towards the anonymous access. Combining both with fuzzy approach will provide a dual defense to the environment by providing security towards the anonymous access and information security together. The model is implemented by simulating various attacks through the ns/2 simulation and the result are compared with simulation of various authentication key distribution and intrusion detection models and the result shows that integrated security model provide high level of security compared to the stand alone Authentication key based security or Intrusion detection models

M. B. Mukesh Krishnan, P. Sheik Abdul Khader

An Efficient Authentication Method for Throttling DDoS Attacks

Distributed Denial of Service Attacks has recently emerged as one of the most newsworthy, if not the greatest, weaknesses of the Internet. DDoS attacks aim to deny legitimate users of the services. In this paper, we introduce a novel secure scheme for defending against the DDoS attack. When the number of requests arriving at the victim crosses the threshold value (T), integer factorization solution is invoked and the victim server starts sending encrypted e(n) which is generated by RSA instead of ‘n’ to all the users. If the user is not an attacker, decrypts the ‘n’ by using CRT and generate ‘p’ and ‘q’ through integer factorization. If the user fails to provide the computational power to decrypt ‘n’ value as well as to find the factors ‘p’ and ‘q’ then consider him as a malicious user.

Ch. Rupa, J. Madhu Babu, P. Siva Prasad, P. S. Avadhani

Computational Analysis of Stationary and Transient Distribution of Single Server Queue with Working Vacation

The classical M/M/1 queue is considered with vacations, in which the server works with different service rates rather than completely stops service during the vacation period. Service times during vacation period, service times during service period and vacation times are all exponentially distributed. An exact transient system size probability distributions and other system characteristics are derived in closed form and also obtained the time-dependent system size probability in the absence of working vacation. Further we deduce the stationary distributions from time-dependent system size probabilities. A numerical illustration is provided by considering various parameters.

R. Sudhesh, L. Francis Raj

APD: ARM Deceptive Phishing Detector System Phishing Detection in Instant Messengers Using Data Mining Approach

Deceptive Phishing, is the major problem in Instant Messengers, one is able to disclose sensitive information, including personal information, fact or even patterns that are not supposed to be disclosed, the simplistic solution to address this problem of privacy in Instant Messengers (IM) is presented using Association Rule mining technique a data mining approach. Online criminals have adapted traditional fraudulent schemes like phishing in electronic form. Increasingly, such schemes target an individual’s IM where they mingle among masked by honest communications. The targeting and conniving nature of these schemes are an infringement upon an individual’s personal privacy as well as a threat to personal safety. In order to focus on privacy preserving the proposed APD (Anti phishing detector) system embeds association rule mining (ARM) technique in IM’s to detect deceptive phishing. There are many techniques developed to tackle e-mail phishing, a little research literature not yet done on deceptive phishing in Instant Messengers where the identification of user is often unknown to users. This is one of the motivating factor for the research project described, tested and experimented.

Mohd mahmood Ali, Lakshmi Rajamani

Adaptive Duplex Technique for Reduction of Turnaround Time in IEEE 802.22

The IEEE 802.22 Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) is a first Cognitive Radio (CR) standard to provide wireless broadband services in rural areas for the coverage area of 33 to 100kms. It opportunistically uses the unused UHF/VHF TV bands by using Time Division Duplex (TDD) and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) technique. However large Turnaround Time (TT) is the major deployment issues of WRAN system in rural areas. In this paper, we propose an adaptive duplex method that effectively reduces the large Turnaround Time. The results show that Adaptive duplex considerably reduces the amount of TT, increases the efficiency and throughput of the system.

Kalidoss Rajakani, M. A. Bhagyaveni

WiMAX and WiFi Convergence Architecture to Achieve QoS

The main challenge in the development of future wireless communication systems is to provide users with a wide range of services across different radio access technologies through a single mobile terminal, while maintaining the quality of service requirements. WiMAX and WiFi are considered as the promising broadband access solutions for wireless MANs and LANs, respectively. In recent works WiMAX is considered suitable as a backhaul service to connect multiple dispersed WiFi ‘hotspots’. Hence a new integrated WiMAX/WiFi network has been proposed. In this paper a architecture for integrating IEEE 802.16 with IEEE 802.11 to achieve QoS is proposed. QoS parameters such as throughput, load, delay and network convergence activity are simulated through Opnet 14 for the interworking architecture of WIMAX and WLAN.

G. Vijayalakshmy, G. Shivaradje

BPSK Phase Modulation with Novel Prime Codes in OCDMA Networks

In this paper, we simulate the performance of phase modulation in coherent Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) systems. An Optical Spreading Sequences, a Prime Code family named Double Padded Modified Prime Code (DPMPC) sequence has been generated and employed because of its flexible code length. The number of active users to be interacted is made high by increasing the Code length value. In this analysis, BPSK format has been deployed where phase modulation has been done with optical signal and Convolutional encoding has been done to the modulated wave for real time error correction and at the receiver side decoding has to be done by using Viterbi algorithm to minimize the bit errors of the output by estimating the original input bits and demodulation of the decoded bits has also done. The Bit error rate analysis is also investigated for this network.

Helan Vidhya T., Pavithra S., Sivasankari S.A.

A Simplified Pricing Model for the 3G/4G Mobile Networks

The evolution of new technologies in the wireless technological networking environment is expected to provide economic growth as well as support a multitude of interactive and diversified multimedia and traditional services such as voice, e-mail, web-access which require large amount of network resource such as bandwidth to achieve the highest quality level. Economic Growths, Optimal Resource Allocation and End to End QoS guarantee are the key requirements of 4G wireless cellular networks. While the demand for wireless cellular services continues to increase, there is scarcity in the network resource such as bandwidth in the wireless environment which burdens the wireless service provider with a big challenge. Although the service providers feel comfortable with the traditional flat-rate model of pricing which is simple and is a popular way of billing with minimal overhead but it could seriously derelict the long term profitability of the wireless service provider. Under these circumstances in order to meet the key requirements and cope up with the new challenges the study of pricing models have gained a paramount attention in the network research. This article analyzes the existing pricing models and brings out the limitations of the same. A simple pricing model has been proposed in this article keeping in mind the limitations of the traditional pricing models. The proposed pricing model would be capable of ensuring profit of both user and service provider as well as be unbiased to both.

Reeky Maiti

Performance Analysis and Dispersion Compensation in Ultra Long-Haul 10Gbps Optical System by OPC

Dispersion limits the transmission distances and information carrying capacity of Long-Haul optical systems. In this paper, the compensation of Dispersion, an inherent property of all Optical fibers, by optical phase conjugation (OPC) technique is studied. Also, the required number and fashion of OPCs to be introduced in Ultra Long-Haul optical transmission system, to have highly reliable transmission of information, is experimented through simulation in 10Gbps, 30000kms fiber-optic link.

Pradeep Doss. M., Sridarshini T., Valliammai M.

An Augmented Three-Phase Concept Map Design for an Adaptive Learning System

Due to the advancement in information technology and varied learner group, e-learning has become popular. For achieving the adaptivity in learning, predefined concept map is used to provide proper guidance. Many researches propose various approaches in developing concept map by considering only binary numeric grade. Also, weight of concepts in each learning item is not properly considered. In this study, a Three-phase concept map design for adaptivity is proposed. This approach is an efficient one, since the first phase discards all unrelated items which may distract further analysis. Here, Norm-referencing in Item Analysis approach is used to find the item discrimination for elimination of irrelevant items. The second phase, computes all the grade association rules till Large_3 Item Sets. The weight of concept in each learning item is considered and prerequisite concepts are found which is not having any redundancy and cyclic in its map, thereby facilitating the next step of procedure. The final phase constructs the concept map with maximum confidence in a capable manner since most of the surplus computation is abolished in earlier phases. Finally, the concept map can be used in tutoring system, thereby enhancing the adaptivity in e-learning.

R. Kavitha, A. Vijaya, D. Saraswathi

Formal Specification of Trusted Neighbor Information Base of OLSR Routing Protocol of Adhoc Network Using Z Language

Nodes in an ad-hoc network lack the protection offered by firewalls in infrastructure-based networks. Trust based system aids to improvise this situation. A few works exists that handle the formal description of ad hoc networks. But describing correct specifications, reusing specifications, and constructing specifications repository are significant issues on software development to product safety and high quality software systems. In order to deal with such issues, we propose a formal specification of the Trusted Neighbor Information Base of OLSR routing protocol of ad hoc network using “Z” language. Z is a state-oriented formal specification language based on set theory and predicate logic. Specification languages are situated between natural and program languages. These types of languages enable to eliminate internal ambiguity, which is characteristic for natural languages. The Z notation is used to for formal specification of this part of the protocol. Finally, the formal specifications is verified and proved using Z Eves tool.

Amandeep Verma, Manpreet Singh Gujral

Vertical Handover Based on Voice Activity in Heterogeneous Network

A heterogeneous network consists of multiple access networks interworking together. Vertical handover is the technique that allows for seamless connectivity among these networks. This vertical handover when used specifically during the off periods of the VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) connection, then the QoS can be improved. This paper provides such a method in which we derive a simplified two-state Markov model from the six-state Brady model in which both the talk-spurt period and mutual silence period characteristics are obtained. Then the handover execution time and packet loss time are taken as parameters to analyze the performance. The result is that decrease in VoIP packet loss time. However vertical handover procedure increases within the allowable limit.

G. Kalaivani, S. Usha

Cross-Layer Scheme to Solve Hidden Device Problem in WPANs with Increased Transmission Range

Wireless Personal Area Networks(WPANs) is one of the promising candidates for interconnections between Wireless Sensor Network. The standard IEEE 802.15.4 is designed specifically to achieve low power transmissions in low rate and short distance WPAN. Previous studies indicate that the probability of any two devices in an infrastructure network unheard of each other is around 41%. The unheard devices are called hidden terminal problem which results in low utilization of bandwidth and unfairness in channel access. A Cross-layer scheme is used in order to overcome the hidden terminal problem and the transmission range is increased. The performance graph experimentally proves that the goodput is increased with the reduced power consumption and with the increase in transmission range the Energy Efficiency is compared with the nodal density.

M. L. Mathivathani, S. Usha

Road Detection Using a New Method for Vanishing Point Detection Based on Hough Transform

Given an image of the road that is not clear. The computer must determine where the road in that image. Here this road detection process is mainly divided into two steps. 1) Detection of the vanishing point associated with the road. 2) Segmentation of the road area. A new method for detecting the vanishing point based on twice Hough transform is presented in this paper. The first Hough transform is used to detect the straight lines in the image. Then it uses a coordinate transform to translate the points in a circle to points in a line. Finally a Hough transform is used again for the detection of a line. From the parameters of the line the position of the vanishing point can be calculated. Then OCR based road segmentation is used to find the two most dominant edges of the road based on the detected vanishing point.

Binu B.

Stock Price Prediction Using Support Vector Regression

Forecasting stock price is an important task as well as difficult problem. Stock price prediction depends on various factors and their complex relationships. Prediction of stock price is an important issue in finance. Stock price prediction is the act of trying to determine the future value of a company stock. The successful prediction of a stock future price could yield significant profit. Hence an efficient automated prediction system is highly essential for stock forecasting. This paper demonstrates the applicability of support vector regression, a machine learning technique, for predicting the stock price by learning the historic data. The stock data for the period of four years is collected and trained with various parameter settings. The performance of the trained model is evaluated by 10-fold cross validation for its predictive accuracy. It has been observed that the support vector regression model with RBF kernel shows better performance when compared with other models.

Abirami R., Vijaya M.S.

Modeling and Simulation of Content-Based Video Streaming Using ns2

In this paper, a simulation program for content based video streaming, using ns2 is presented. It is based on publish and subscribe system. The tags or messages are sent to several nodes which are designated as publishers and subscribers and video is streamed based on the content in the routing process. Simulations for different test scenarios are carried out to evaluate the performances like delay, jitter, throughput and PSNR for video streaming.

Sankar Padmanabhan, Krithika Parameswaran, Anandhi Natarajan, Angel Regi Chelladurai Vijayakumari, Chellamuthu Chinnagounder

A Solution to Prevent Resource Flooding Attacks in 802.11 WLAN

Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is more popular today. providing a secure network is the most challenging task. To strengthen WLAN security, many high security protocols have been developed. But those solutions are found to be ineffective in preventing Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. In this paper, the major DoS Attacks called as the Resource Flooding attacks such as the Association Request Flooding (AssRF), Authentication Request Flooding (AuthRF), Deauthentication Request Flooding (DeAuthRF), Dissociation Request Flooding (DissRF) are studied with an experimental setup. The Management Frames (MF) are mostly susceptible to attacks since they are sent unencrypted. Management Frames with Authentication and Integrity (MFIA) was developed to protect MF. But it was found that MFIA protect MF from only Man-in-the-middle attack, MAC address spoofing, etc. It doesn’t mean to be an effective solution to prevent the Resource Flooding attacks. But Letter Envelop Protocol (LEP) based on “factorization” provides security to the MF. In this paper, we propose a solution which combines LEP along with Traffic Pattern Filtering (TPF) to protect MF and also to detect and prevent Resource Flooding attacks. The solutions are implemented and the performance of the WLAN is analyzed based on the throughput.

Arockiam L., Vani B., Sivagowry S., Persia A.

Enhancement of Orchestration Algorithms for Compiler Optimization

Applying the right compiler optimizations to a particular program can have a significant impact on program performance. But achieving this target involves lot of complication because arriving at the compiler configuration for a particular problem is a complex process. The performance of the program measured by time and memory depends on the machine architecture, problem domain and the settings of the compiler.

Due

to the non-linear interaction of compiler optimizations however, determining the best setting is nontrivial. There have been several proposed techniques that search the space of compiler options to find good solutions; however such approaches can be expensive. This paper proposes a different approach using an effective orchestration algorithm strategy. We show that such an approach which outperforms existing orchestration algorithms. In this paper, it is proposed to study the classification of problems, identification of ideal objective functions for different tasks and the ordering of objective function for optimization. In this paper we proposed an automated framework to select the compiler options for a particular problem from large set options. Many previous works consider only limited set of options. For this framework, we implemented compiler optimization selection algorithms such as branch and bound strategy and advanced combined elimination algorithm and evaluated its efficiencies to improve tuning time. Using our technique we achieve better improvement over the highest optimization setting of the MiBench benchmark suite on Intel core duo processor.

J. Andrews, T. Sasikala

Development of Sensor Node to Measure Soil Moisture

The Soil moisture is a vital parameter which decides the quality of a crop. A sensor node prototype is developed to measure soil moisture, analyse it and transmit it over long distance for further processing. Sensor node is a combination of a sensor, signal conditioning circuit, controller and communication module. A low power processor ARM7 is used as a controller. It periodically scans the clock and depending upon the time set by the user the sensor data is checked and accordingly process is carried out. As crops are watered only upon requirement, over and under irrigation is avoided which saves power and water resources. The sensor data is communicated by using RF transmitter (433MHz) to a receiver or base station for logging and display. The hardware architecture is designed to establish the link between a sensor and a controller. The long-time smooth and proper running of the system in the field proved its high reliability and practicability. As an explorative wireless sensor network in irrigation management, this paper gives a methodology to establish large-scale remote intelligent irrigation system.

Kapil Mundada, Pramod Kanjalkar, Jayant Kulkarni

Localization of Sensor Nodes Using Flooding in Wireless Sensor Networks

The accuracy of localization is a significant criterion to evaluate the practical utility of localization algorithm in wireless sensor networks (

WSNs

). In localization algorithms, one of the main methods to improve localization accuracy is to increase the number of anchor nodes. The number of anchor nodes is always limited because of the hardware constraint, such as cost, energy consumption and so on. In this paper, we propose a novel localization algorithm in which the sensor nodes get localized with the help of virtual anchor nodes. In this scheme VAN gets localized with the help of minimum number of anchor nodes. The objectives to improve the localization accuracy maximize the localization ratio and minimize the cost which incur to deployment of more number of anchor nodes and proposed algorithm is simulated using MAT Lab to evaluate its performance.

Basavaraj K. Madagouda, R. Sumathi, A. H. Shanthakumara

A Packet Classification and Node-Level Certification Mechanism for Intrusion Detection in MANET

Security has been the most important aspect in the world of networks, especially in Mobile ad-hoc networks. In particular, the emphasis is laid on intrusion detection and prevention. In this paper, an effective intrusion detection technique based on classification and certification of packets is presented. The certification is done at the node level in MANET. The proposed solution is divided into two phases. In the first phase, the packets are classified using C-SVM algorithm and NSL-KDD dataset. In the second phase, the classified packets are certified at each hop. The proposed solution is efficient in terms of both power and time.

S. P. Manikandan, R. Manimegalai, V. Rakesh, V. Vaishnavi

MEDINFO CLOUD-A Cloud Based Solution to Ensure Secure Access to Health Related Information

Healthcare facilities require health care workers, adequate infrastructure and information working in harmony to provide services in medically-underserved areas and communities. There has been constant pursuance across the globe to use computing powers to the fullest especially in the healthcare industry where most of the data is fragmented in paperwork.. The current mechanism to provide updates on the latest medicine available is disintegrated and does not penetrate to the grassroots level .All healthcare facilities must be alerted about hazardous medicines instantly to delimit its usage. Organ transplantation is increasing precipitously with the development in healthcare services and the search for a rare blood group has often been in vain. The lack of a proficient system to locate medicines and apt organ and blood donors is a hitch that puts many lives in jeopardy. It is important for all this information to be available as and when required by the hospitals or patients. With the help of IaaS(Infrastructure as a service),our system typically delivers a platform virtualization environment as a service for selective access to information to maximize security. The servers with information are utilized by clients as a fully outsourced service. The internet based computing makes it client centred approach which enables secured access to the data. The main objectives of the project is 1) To provide hospitals with information that can help locate blood and organ donors of specified criteria.2)Supports tracking of organ and blood donations.3)Geographical location based on availability of medicines 4)provide centralized updation of the best medicines available in the market.5)To instantly demarcate the usage of hazardous medicine. There is tremendous promise for cloud computing infrastructure in the healthcare industry and is an ideal tool to leverage computing power at low cost. The project is realistic and can be implemented all over the world.

Sankari Senthil, Ramya R., Saranya B.

A Service Oriented Modeling and Analysis for Building Intrusion Detection Systems

Now-a-days all the major business activities of an enterprise are driven by complex networks. Despite the fact that diversified networking technologies are implemented, the networks have become leaky. Also hackers, displeased employees, unethical firms and terrorist organizations are influencing networks and trying to penetrate into the enterprise network to gather sensitive information. Hence networks are becoming more vulnerable and as a result attacks on networks are intensifying. Although firewalls and routers are deployed, they are self deficient. Intrusion detection systems monitor and inspect the packets traversing over a network ensuring deep packet analysis. But as the attacks are becoming more and more sophisticated, IDS available today are unable to address challenges that surround different types of attacks, since they are designed to handle specific types of attacks only. It is evident that no single technique can guarantee protection against future attacks. Hence there is a need for integrated architecture which can provide robust protection against a complete spectrum of threats. In this paper, we propose our architecture and service oriented modeling based on the service oriented paradigm for building intrusion detection systems.

Rama Rao K.V.S.N., Manas Ranjan Patra

Centralized Parallel Form of Pattern Matching Algorithm in Packet Inspection by Efficient Utilization of Secondary Memory in Network Processor

The Network detection engine have capable of inspecting the packet and find out increasing number of network worms and virus . The high level of network providing packet inspection in detection system and the network equipments applies the predefined pattern to identify and manage the monitor packet over the network. Therefore consequently the emerging high level network equipments need to contribute pattern matching and packet inspection. However, searching for patterns at multiple offsets in entire content of network packet requires more processing power than most general purpose processor can provide. We present a novel architecture for programmable centralized parallel pattern matching algorithm for efficient packet inspection with network processor . We mapped our centralized multi parallel pattern matching algorithm [CNMPPMA] for filter packet in parallel. The simulation result reveals that CNMPPMA significantly improves the matching performance.

N. Kannaiya Raja, K. Arulanandam, B. RajaRajeswari

Effective Use of Interbank Network Services by Using Transaction Counter in ATMs

To make banking more comfortable, Banks make the Interbank Networks, by that the usage of ATMs of the non native users also increases. Interbank Network provides so many services, in them the effective one is usage of non native ATM service up to certain times without paying the surcharge, which is better service and not fulfilling due to missing of some elementary representation. This paper informs the problem along with the solution, which is in the form of Transaction counter.

Rajesh Vemulakonda, Raja Yasodhar Kapalavayi

Performance Analysis of Case Based Word Sense Disambiguation with Minimal Features Using Neural Network

In this paper, the performance of case based word sense disambiguation attained by two different set of knowledge features, such as bigram and trigram are analyzed for identifying the best for word sense disambiguation. To uncover the ambiguous of a word, so many knowledge features like part of features (PoS), collocation, bag of words, noun-verb relation etc. Here, ambiguity of a word is removed with only two and three elements referred as bigram and trigram. Two different representations of bigram, pre-bigram and post-bigram and three different forms of trigram, pre-trigram, in-trigram and post-trigram are considered for disambiguation. Relevant knowledge features are represented as vector form using their respective PoS, and also their cases are represented as vector form. For bigram, the vector size is 1×2 and for trigram 1×3. Feed forward back propagation network with single layer defined with 8 hidden neurons for bigram and 20 hidden neurons for trigram are designed based on their performance. Actually, ten different distance-measuring functions are used for selecting the minimal distance cases from case bases. Finally, the performance of different distance metric functions with bigram and trigram are compared and analyzed.

P. Tamilselvi, S. K. Srivatsa

Performance Evaluation of EAP-TLS Authentication Protocol for UMTS-WiMAX Interworking

With the wide application of mobile technology in wireless transmission, the interworking of various networks turns into a new trend. UMTS-WiMAX interworking is being widely considered by mobile service providers because of its advantages for both users and service providers.Generally authentication methods are different for various wireless networks. In this paper, cost analysis are to realize efficient authentication in wireless networks based on the user mobility ,encryption and transmission time. This paper analyses a strong password based EAP-TLS authentication protocol which uses PKI for mutual authentication and satisfy the entire requirement for UMTS-WiMAX interworking authentication.

R. Narmadha, S. Malarkan

Tiny SPU: Implementation and Analysis of Secure Program Update for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks

This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of Secure Program Update for Clustered wireless sensor networks. Tiny SPU follows an approach based on Deluge, an open source code dissemination protocol, and provides confidentiality along with authentication. The scheme is resilient to malicious program image injection by the compromised nodes. We implement our scheme in TinyOS and evaluate the performance in terms of end-to-end latency and power consumption.

M. B. Nirmala, A. S. Majunath, B. G. Yogesh

Secured Routing Using Quantum Cryptography

This protocol is used to maintain security in networks for secure communication by overcoming some of the drawbacks in existing security protocols. Integration of both classical and quantum cryptography techniques takes place. Quantum cryptography is used for secure optical transmission which employs quantum mechanisms to distribute session keys Classical cryptography provides convenient techniques that enable efficient key verification and user authentication. This protocol used both implicit user authentication and explicit mutual authentication. A Trust centre is used to generate a secret key and public key by using RSA algorithm and it will develop the random key for each session of transmitting data these key develop a QUIBIT values which develop Session key. By using these keys user translate the messages between the other users securely. Error rate gets reduced when compared to the existing quantum cryptography protocol. Bayesian filtering method is integrated to reduce the external noise. The merits of this new protocol are,

Secures against attacks as man-in-the-middle, eavesdropping and replay.

Online guessing attacks can be avoided.

Efficiency is more since the proposed protocol contain the fewest number of communication rounds.

Two parties can share and use a long-term secret key by a trusted center.

Error due to noise gets reduced.

M. Vijay Anand, C. Jayakumar

Green Technology and Monetization of Clonization Model: The Chinese and Indian Options for Nigeria

China and India have successfully penetrated the Nigerian market. Their competitive strategies make them the biggest rivals of domestic industries and other exporters. However, close interactions between the markets have offered the option of technology cloning. The option of technology cloning as the paper suggests is based on a revolutionary concept through which technology is genetically transferred from one country to another based not on structured or previously thought out plans but driven by close interactions with the market; and executed through the efforts of the entrepreneur who adopts the technology solely for his personal gains. The paper is structured into five sections. The first section discusses the concept of technology cloning; section two reviews Nigeria’s past efforts at industrialisation; section three looks at the Nigeria’s movement towards the East; section four discusses existing case studies; while section five discusses the options available.

Ezendu Ariwa, Ijeoma Chichebe Ezeasor

Emitted Sound Amplitude Analysis Using Hilbert Huang Transformation for Cutting Tool Flank Wear Prediction

In this paper, the relationship between emitted sound amplitude and tool flank wear was investigated during turning operation by using Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT). For this purpose, a series of experiments using carbide insert cutting tools and stainless steel work pieces were conducted in a conventional turning machine. The emitted sounds from fresh, slightly worn and severely worn tools were recorded at the sampling rate of 44100/sec using a highly sensitive directional microphone. Each recorded multi-component sound signal was decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using Empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The instantaneous frequencies with time and their amplitudes were obtained by applying Hilbert transform on each IMF. From the marginal spectrums produced using selected IMFs it was observed that there was an increase in sound amplitude with increasing tool wears. Hence it can be concluded that cutting tool flank wear prediction is possible using emitted sound by HHT.

Emerson Raja Joseph, Loo Chu Kiong, Lim Way Soong, S. Purushothaman

A Survey on Cellular Automata and Its Applications

A Cellular Automata (CA) is a computing model of complex system using simple rule. CA divides the problem space into number of cell and each cell can be one or several final state. Cells are affected by neighbors to the simple rule. This paper provides a survey of available literature of some methodologies employed by researchers to utilize the cellular automata for modeling purpose. The literature survey introduces the different type of cellular automata being used for modeling and also tries to present the different fields in which CA have been applied.

Debasis Das

Extraction of Domain-Specific Concepts to Create Expertise Profiles

This work is an attempt to identify the domain specific concepts automatically that are useful in various NLP applications. Concept extraction in ontology building is one of the most important aspects. By implementing the methodology discussed, one can easliy capture the knowledgeable topics that represents a particular domain. The topics captured are utilized for producing experts profile. A list of experts and their expertise topics can be a valuable source of information to find out the expert’s interests. By automatically identifying the expertise topics, the manual intervention for filtering is reduced as the manual recognition is more subjective and labor-intensive. Thus, by finding the expertise topics in an efficient way the ontology construction process also becomes easy as concept extraction is one of the important steps in ontology learning.

Gagandeep Kaur, S. K. Jain, Saurabh Parmar, Anand Kumar

Inter and Intra Cluster Load Balancing Strategies for Cluster Based Video-on-Demand Systems

Video-on-Demand (VoD) has been an active area of research for the past few years in the multimedia research community. Significant research efforts have been directed towards reduction of network bandwidth requirements, improvement of server utilization, and minimization of start-up latency. Server load and network bandwidth are the major performance issues in streaming video over the Internet. Thus, load balancing among servers is one of the major challenges. This paper presents a novel load balancing strategy for cluster based hybrid Video-on-Demand (VoD) systems. The architecture used for load balancing contains peer servers in different levels of hierarchy. The simulation results of the proposed technique illustrates that the load on the servers in a group is balanced up to 90% and the rejection rate is reduced.

Vinay A., Prateek Saxena

Symlet2 Based Wavelet Filter Bank for Uncorrelated Digital Signal Recovery: Some Advantages over Matched Filter

Presence of noise in communication channels presents difficulty in signal recovery at the receiver. In this paper a methodology is developed for signal recovery using a wavelet filter bank (WFB), with applicability to baseband receivers. Uncorrelated test signals, useful in many practical applications, are conceived and used for the experimentation. This test signal is polar Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ) line coded and transmitted through AWGN channel. Though we have considered the Symlet2 based WFB for this study, the methodology is suitable for any other filter bank too. The performance of the WFB-receiver in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) is compared with that of a conventional matched filter based baseband receiver (MF-receiver). The results show that the WFB-receiver performs better than the conventional MF-receiver for certain input parameter ranges. Appropriate selection of the WFB and the use of adaptive filtering for improvised signal recovery come under future prospects of this research.

Amit Kumar Ahuja, Ram Chakka

Iterative Relaxed Median Filter for Impulse Noise Removal and Validation of FCM Clustering Using Cluster Error Index in Median Filtered MR Images

Impulse noise removal is a complex procedure in MR images and hence in this paper, Iterative relaxed median filter is proposed to improve Peak signal to noise ratio of the filtered image and validation of Fuzzy C-Means clustering (FCM) over median filtered MR images is carried out using Cluster Error Index (CEI). For comparative analysis, median filtering methods such as standard median filter (SMF), adaptive median filter (AMF), hybrid median filter (HMF) and relaxed median filter (RMF) are used. Elaborate analysis of noise removal of median filtering methods and effect of these median filtering methods over FCM Clustering is done based on different validity measures.

R. Vijayarajan, S. Muttan

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