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This book presents economic and socio-cultural perspectives on globalization from emerging markets. It explores the links between globalization and development, and reveals the dynamics, strengths and weaknesses, trends in and implications of globalization in emerging market economies. Gathering papers by leading experts in the field, it shares essential insights into the history and status quo of globalization processes and structures; identifies the opportunities provided by and risks posed by globalization; and sheds light on the way to global peace. The topics addressed range from globalization development within the Group of Twenty (G20), populist events such as “Brexit” as a form of historical irony, and a zeitgeist analysis of the globalization spirit; to the evolution of higher education and public administrative systems under the weight of globalization; not to mention emerging topics such as the informal economy and new rules for fleecing the South in the newly globalized trade system.




This introduction provides a summary of globalization and development with economic and sociocultural perspectives from emerging markets. It gives a brief synopsis of the properties of the link between globalization and development and multifarious facets, dimensions, aspects, elements, features, processes, structures, trends, and evidences of globalization and its convolution with development, presenting economic and sociocultural perspectives from emerging markets. It explains the contents of the book and various chapters contributed enthusiastically by many outstanding academics and experts, researchers, and scholars who are conducting research in the interdisciplinary (and multidisciplinary) field of globalization studies, exploring present and future issues and challenges in this area. Additionally, the research papers presented in this book can provide new insights into globalization studies and also international business for researchers interested in both comparative studies and development of new theories, especially because the rise of emerging markets is known as a remarkable opportunity for development of such theories.
Nezameddin Faghih

An Overview


Globalization Development Within the Group of Twenty (G20) as Indicated by Globalization and Innovation Indices

This chapter undertakes a taxonomic study of globalization development within the Group of Twenty (G20) as indicated by globalization and innovation indices. This study considers the impact of innovation promotion factors on the “globalization development degree” (fi) for the G20 member states and investigates how the globalization development of G20 members relates to the innovation promotion factors extracted from the Global Innovation Index (GII) indicators, used as the secondary data for the period 2012–2017. The KOF Index of Globalization is also used as the secondary data (the corresponding data for the period 2012–2017). KOF provides a globalization index and three subindices of globalization in its three main dimensions, i.e., economic globalization, social globalization, and political globalization. Consequently, the G20 member states (including the EU) are compared with each other, and nine variables are considered during the time period 2012–2017: four variables are the KOF index and its three subindices and five variables correspond to GII country ranking scores, as well as two variables selected from the GII input subindices (institution and business sophistication) and the two output subindices, namely, knowledge and technology outputs and creative outputs. The results manifest and demonstrate coherence between G20 economies under the gravity of globalization: a good example for the emerging markets worldwide. Moreover, in the wake of Brexit, the findings of this research shed light on a historical irony: United Kingdom’s leadership in globalization development during the recent years, followed by Germany, Canada, France, and the United States. Thus, the taxonomic study reported in this chapter provides an identification of country globalization development and presents relevant information to policy-makers, who seek to apply effective strategies and policies under the impact of globalization.
Nezameddin Faghih, Mahshid Sazegar

Globalization and the Informal Economy in Developing Countries

It has been documented that developing countries are plagued by sizable informal sectors. There are a lot of studies addressing either the informal economies or globalization. However, the literature on whether and how globalization affects the informal sector is somewhat lacking. Several theories are formulated, but empirical studies do not all agree on what facets of globalization affect informality and how. Part of the problem is data deficiency and somewhat lacking synchronization of the existing informal sector data. There are some recent developments in this area that have furthered the subject. The goal of this chapter is to offer an extensive overview on the topic of globalization and informality.
Kameliia Petrova

Developing Economies and Newly Globalized Trade: New Rules to Fleece the South

Neoliberal ideology forms the political backbone and background of present changes in economic and social systems. Trade policies in particular are often used to preach the advantages of globalization. This chapter shows that the new trade regime is heavily biased, tilting trade relations further against small countries and the South. Rather than being a rule-based system upholding the rule of law, and protecting the contractual rights of Southern or smaller countries in general, it is a pseudo-legal club to beat weaker countries with, even though bigger Southern Countries, such as India or China, are not always defenceless. Larger countries can choose whether to comply with dispute settlement findings or not. This chapter gives many examples. Recent attempts to change the dispute solution mechanism even more away from equal treatment before the law bode ill for weaker members. The much touted “Development Round” turned out not to have had much development effects, serving Northern interests instead. Furthermore, the WTO offers itself publicly as a means to outsmart parliaments and democracy. While the WTO has served to establish basic commitments, the North meanwhile prefer bilateral investment treaties in order to press WTO-plus obligations on the South, obligations that could not get through multilateral WTO negotiations. Present unilateral actions by the USA illustrate once again the weakness and limited usefulness of the WTO framework.
Kunibert Raffer

Zeitgeist Analysis of Globalization Spirit: A Philosophical Approach

The goal of this chapter is to discuss globalization ontology through the zeitgeists of historical eras. Zeitgeist or spirit of the age study of each influential age contributes dramatically to cogent comprehension of economic, social, political, cultural, and historical backgrounds and atmospheres, which have collectively molded globalization into a stupendous phenomenon. Moreover, the paper has scrutinized the concept of globalization to see whether it is an ancient concept in a new disguise or a modern all-inclusive phenomenon. Hence, the study is mostly analytical and rests upon secondary data through library study. The originality of the study lies not only in the philosophical application of zeitgeist concept for the analysis of globalization’s nature but also in the introduction of subject matter’s initial Dismantling (to its reductionistic integral characteristics) and its subsequent Mantling (to envisage them in their holistic crystallization) as a useful complementary approach to benefit both from Reductionism and Holism perspectives for the ontological discussions of immediately sophisticated and broad-ranging phenomena. Additionally, the potential implication of the study would be its contribution in theorizing globalization as a dialectical context-related phenomenon, which will undergo future metamorphic evolution by the changes in the requisites of Times (Zeit’s) and their Spirits (Geist’s).
Amir Forouharfar

Institutional Quality and Globalization in Developing Countries

The main purpose of this chapter is to analyze the theoretical relationship between globalization and institutional quality and the empirical analysis of this linking in developing countries. For this aim, this chapter seeks to answer three main questions: (1) How do institutions affect globalization (trade openness)? (2) Can the economic globalization and trade openness cause institutional changes? If the answer is positive, does globalization lead to an improvement in the institutional quality or its deterioration? (3) Is there any causal relationship between globalization and institutional quality in developing countries?
To answer these questions, we use analytical-descriptive methods and econometric methods including Granger-type causality test based on panel vector error correction model (PVECM).
The theoretical findings of this chapter show that the good institutional quality via various channels affects the volume, structure, and composition of the trade. Also, economic globalization may improve (or deteriorate) the quality of institutions, but the kind and the extent of its influence depend on the type of institutional system and institutional structure of countries.
The descriptive analysis of data (status of globalization and institutional quality) in developing countries showed that the trend of economic globalization is not favorable in comparison with the world trend. In addition, compared to both three dimensions of globalization and the world as a whole, it presents an unfavorable situation. On the other hand, the position of institutional quality, in particular the quality of regulation and the effectiveness of governments (of the vital factors of trade expansion), has the worst situation. The results of Granger-type causality test showed that there is no causal relationship between economic globalization and legal-economic institutions (such as the rule of law and government effectiveness) in the short term, but there is at least one causal relationship in the long run. This relationship with the index of the rule of law is bidirectional and with other indexes is unidirectional. Also, the findings of this study show that in the short and long run, political globalization is the cause of political institutions (political stability and voice) and social globalization is the cause of social institutions. Therefore, the globalization view of institutional change can be cautiously supported.
Ali Hussein Samadi

A Taxonomy of Country Performance Based on GDP and Innovation Indicators for the Group of Twenty (G20)

This chapter proposes a taxonomy of country performance based on GDP and innovation indicators within G20 economies. This study considers the impact of GDP on the “development degree” (fi) for the G20 economies and investigates how the development of G20 economies relates to the innovation promotion factors extracted from the Global Innovation Index (GII) indicators, used as the secondary data for the period 2010–2016. Various variables are used, such as population (in millions), GDP (in USD billion), and seven indicators that are extracted from the GII data. Through the evaluation process, the seven indicators are divided into input and output data; five of them are the input data (institutions, human capital and research, infrastructure, market sophistication, and business sophistication), and the other two are the output data (knowledge and technology output and creative output). The taxonomy provides the identification of country performance and presents relevant information to policymakers, who seek to apply effective economic strategies and develop global policies.
Nezameddin Faghih, Mahshid Sazegar

The Disruption and Global Implications of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) for Higher Education

There has been a great deal of discussion on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) since 2012 (considered by some as the year of the MOOCs). The emergence of MOOCs caused a great deal of interest among academics and technology experts as well as the general public. Some of the authors who wrote on MOOCs predicted it would be the next big thing to disrupt education. Other authors saw it as another fad that will go away once it had run its course (as most fads often do). But MOOCs did not turn out to be as such, and they are still around. Most importantly, they have evolved into something that resembles a viable business model. This development will have global implications for higher education and raises the prospect of bridging the North-South divide. This chapter examines this phenomenon and its implications from the theoretical frameworks of disruptive innovations and Jobs to Be Done—as developed by Clayton Christensen and his colleagues—and also explores its global dimension and its implications for higher education.
Nabil Sultan



Chinese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Barriers to Technology Transfer in Sub-Saharan Africa: Innovation Capacity and Knowledge Absorption in Senegal

Innovation capacity and knowledge absorption are recognized in the literature as two fundamental enablers to achieve growth through innovation. Technology transfer is based on knowledge absorption that is crucial in the innovation process. In African countries, especially sub-Saharan countries, technology transfer is even more important since it allows countries to emerge from poverty and weak economic growth. Do China-Senegal partnerships favor Senegal’s innovation capacity building? This chapter will review the importance of knowledge absorption and the difficulty of its construction in Senegal, before studying the links between Senegal and China. Although the Chinese foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in Senegal are growing in recent years, the relations between the two countries remain an opportunistic relation rather than a real transfer of knowledge.
Vanessa Casadella, Zeting Liu

More Trade, More Wealth? Impact of Trade on the Economic Development of African Developing Countries

Many scholars have investigated the association between trade openness and the economic development. Does the assumption “more trade, more wealth” as outlined by the World Trade Organization (WTO) actually work? This chapter focuses only on the African developing countries during years 1991–2016, and the impact of international trade on a country’s GDP and GNI per capita is analyzed. Empirically, the approach is based on panel regressions and Granger causality tests. A positive impact of international trade on a country’s economic situation is found, which is mainly driven by the export activity. However, it fails to statistically prove any impact of the import activity. Finally, the results of the Granger causality tests show that the relationship between international trade and GDP and GNI per capita is unidirectional. These findings lead to believe that scholars should investigate more carefully the role of barriers to trade in the developing countries. Future researchers are also encouraged to conduct individual country analyses with multiple countries and to enrich academia for the cross-country variation in the obtained findings.
Ondřej Dvouletý

Fostering Egalitarianism Through Globalisation of Africa’s Indigenous Knowledge and Technology (IK&T) for Enhanced Industrial Development and Global Competitiveness

Globalisation is defined as the process of strengthening economic, political, social and cultural relations across the globe aimed at inspiring homogenisation of political and socio-economic principle worldwide. The belief is that it impacts significantly on Africa through methodical rearrangement of collaboration among its nations, by removing, among several others, cultural, commercial and communication barriers. The problem that arises is the assumption that these African states are equal in status, strength and resources even with industrialised countries in Asia, Europe and America. The answer is affirmatively ‘no’. How then do we make the unequal states of Africa equal in the arrangement, in order to benefit from globalisation and ensure stimulation of Africa’s industrial development for global competitiveness? This is the focus of this chapter. Relying on secondary and historical data, the chapter employs human factor (HF) theory and posits that capacity and capability building in indigenous technology development is a facilitator for nationwide advancement, in the midst of other factors, its propensity to provide the required backing for growth in the key areas of the economy, mainly in farming and manufacturing. The main argument thus is that development of Africa’s indigenous technology, an important and neglected African resource, its innovations and adaptation are unequivocally mandatory for refining production techniques required to drive progress, African empowerment and global competitiveness. This is so in that technology invented based on people’s culture, tradition and needs and which is adopted for use in their environment can be easily understood, adopted and adapted for increased productivity and industrial development. This will bring the countries in the continent to be equal participants/partners and beneficiary in the globalisation process.
Olawale R. Olaopa

Economic Globalization and Nigeria’s Development: Letting the Facts Speak

The rationale for globalization was that opening up of economies to each other through world trade, financial and technological diffusion would ultimately make all the nations better off. Nigeria has been committed to globalization in very elaborate contexts, and one evidence of this is her signing of the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements to engage in trade according to their standards. This chapter examines trade liberalization statistics and Nigeria’s key economic indicators after decades of embracing globalization. The chapter has obtained data from WTO and World Bank (WB) databases and Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. Descriptive tools and stylized facts were employed on the data. Applying the Auto-Regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) technique, the chapter examines the relationship between globalization and development. The results show that globalization has not led to economic development in Nigeria in spite of the evidence that tariffs have been lower, the economy has become more open, and the volume of trade has increased. The stylized facts show that Nigerians have not been made better off by the opening up of the economy; indexes have worsened in some cases. The chapter recommends that the dynamics of globalization as embraced in the country be re-examined and deliberately refocused so that future engagements proceed in a manner that will target improvements in the development indicators.
Naomi Onyeje Doki

Middle East and North Africa (MENA)


The Islamic State’s Theoretical Challenge in a Globalized World

Not surprisingly, globalization produced resistance and conflicts. In the Arab-Muslim world, the globalization process appears at odds with the ideological roots of Islamic universalism and cosmopolitanism. In the last decades, in front of challenges like the transformation of societies and radicalism, Islamic political thought sought for new paths of reform, trying to revise modern concepts like democracy through classical concepts like consultation (shūrā) and more updated paradigms like that of “civil state” (dawla madaniyya). In the broader context of the present international Western-shaped global system, these endeavors are potentially discovering the pristine universal dimension of the believers’ charismatic Umma.
Massimo Campanini

Globalization and Evolution of Public Administrative System in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

This chapter aims to describe the evolution of administrative system under globalization pressures in the MENA region. For this reason and for considering the adaptability of public administration in these countries, government performance as a result of administrative system reforms and globalization is analyzed according to six dimensions: (1) government effectiveness, (2) regulation quality, (3) E-government, (4) political stability, (5) corruption control, and (6) general governance. This study uses the panel data approach covering the period 2010–2017 for the MENA countries and employs methods for identifying patterns of behavior. Results indicate that globalization and government performance have a strong and nonlinear relationship and their interactive pattern of behavior is oscillatory. In the interactive relationship between these two variables, administrative system reform activities are mediator variable.
Nazak Nobari

The Evolution of Higher Education in Oman Under the Gravity of Globalization and Innovation

Globalization is described as the driving force of innovation, knowledge, individual values, and ideas. The influence of globalization and internationalization in higher education institutions has become a key theme in recent research. Higher education institutions are influenced by the social and economic diversity originating from globalization. In the present knowledge society, various new ideas are associated with higher education institutions’ instruction framework. For instance, entrepreneurial universities and corporation universities have emerged through the impact of globalization. The main objectives of this chapter are to examine the significance of globalization and innovation on the evolution of higher education in Oman and to explore the readiness of universities to embark on a second academic revolution in transforming traditional teaching universities into entrepreneurial universities by introducing the triple helix model of innovation. The chapter is to study the entrepreneurial environment in higher education by reviewing the legislation, post-basic education, entrepreneurship education in the school curriculum, entrepreneurship education in the vocational training curricula, Business Simulation Centers (BSCs), national and regional milieu, and existing support structures and clusters for practicing entrepreneurship education in Oman. The current study is conceptual, and the approach consists of formulating proposals and definitions based on an extensive literature review. It has been concluded that based on the overview of the triple helix model from a neo-institutional perspective, the external forces provide a favorable environment for the initiation of entrepreneurial universities in Oman. There are many elements of the triple helix model which are now present in Oman, and the environment is propitious for the establishment of entrepreneurial universities.
Farzaneh Yarahmadi

Asia and Latin America


Cultural Globalization: A Critical Analysis of Identity Crises in the Developing Economies

Cultural globalization and local identity are two indivisible words. There is a crucial debate whether cultural globalization thrives or deteriorates local identity. The main objective of this chapter is to justify whether cultural globalization is a threat to local identity. This study used a qualitative interpretive meta-synthesis (QIMS) that reviews literature on cultural globalization in the developing economies. Results showed that in many countries especially in the developing one, cultural globalization has emerged as a threat to local identity. As a result, these countries perceive a number of socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological problems such as poverty and social inequality, erasure of local cultures and heritages, regional disparity, and lack of development ownership. Many of these aspects are closely related with the threat to local identity. This chapter argues that there are many benefits of globalization, but the vast negative consequences are related with the scope of local identity such as cultural dislocation and displacement, cultural realm, breaking cultural autonomy, diffuse cultural traits, and destruction of local traditions and occupations. The finding would be useful to development thinkers, policymakers, and cultural activists.
M. Rezaul Islam, Haris Abd. Wahab, Cristiano Franco Burmester, Shofiqur Rahman Chowdhury

Social Globalization and Consumer Life Satisfaction: An Empirical Study in Malaysia

Undoubtedly globalization is taking place at a rapid pace all over the world. Specifically, this chapter attempts to examine the relationship between the subindices of social globalization and consumer life satisfaction. The main purpose of this study is to examine whether a specific subcomponent of social globalization, namely, television viewing, is reflected in life satisfaction of individuals. This study adopts and uses the gratification theory to understand the gratification sought and obtained by adult consumers when watching various international television genres. Since the power of media mobilizes consumers to have connections with the world through television, this process creates the perception among people that they are global citizens. Studies have found that people’s life satisfaction tends to be high when their social globalization level is high. This study argues that individuals who watch certain foreign TV genres, as a means to perceive themselves as global citizens, tend to be more satisfied with their lives. The study was undertaken in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic and fast-growing economy. A survey was conducted among 900 adult TV consumers. The results indicated that adult consumers who spend time watching specific TV genres tend to be more content with their lives. Although this study has shed light onto some implications of television viewing and life satisfaction of adults, a few limitations exist and are further discussed in this chapter.
Eric V. Bindah

Aspects of Globalization: Spotlight on Latin America

Globalization is the process of interconnection of the world. Latin America embraces cultures and territories of different nations. Therefore, these countries are connected in multidimensional way since the 1980s, which is the initiation time of globalization of Latin America. The components of multidimensionality include language, religion, culture, eating habit, sports, trade, etc. The positive effects of globalization include trade, production, labour market, and demographic improvement, while the negative effects comprise of divergence of communities, increased transitional, cross-border and rural–urban migration, and infrastructural deficit. However, in recent times, Latin America has been facing the reduction of the benefit of globalization for various reasons. This backwardness can be mitigated by filling up the gap between policy formulation and that of implementation. A snapshot of globalization of Latin America is described in the rest of the chapter.
Shamim Siddiqui, Nishat Tasnim, Munshi Naser Ibne Afzal, Susmita Dutta

A Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise (SME) Owner-Manager’s Job Theoretic Review Under Globalization

In a constantly changing global competitive world, it is crucial for organizations to understand their proper role. The global business environment has increased in complex trades between players as boundaries break down. In order to obtain competitive advantages from this environment, managers simply assume that their organization needs to go global. But these misconceptions and narrow views about globalization can lead managers to seek something that they do not really know what it is. Despite the importance of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the question of the owner-manager’s job is generally handled intuitively and disassociated to their characteristics. This chapter examines the relationship between globalization and the SME owner-manager’s job, with a focus in developing economies. Based on a theoretic review, an attempt has been made to show a snapshot of the subject through a systematic mapping study. The results of this theoretic review enhance the importance to analyze the owner-manager’s job at a SME perspective and its multiple parts and layers, such as specificities, personal characteristics, and previous experience of his/her owner-manager. An understanding of SME owner-manager’s job can help practitioners to better assess the SME’s readiness to go global.
Luiz Philippsen, Marcelo Seido Nagano, Edmundo Escrivão Filho
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