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2022 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

6. GNSS CORS Networks and Data

verfasst von: Clement A. Ogaja

Erschienen in: Introduction to GNSS Geodesy

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

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Abstract

From definitions of a geodetic CORS system to examples of tracking networks around the world and raw data exchange formats, this chapter highlights the ground-based infrastructure for collecting continuous tracking data from the earth-orbiting satellites. Such infrastructure, having increased over the years, is run by various agencies, organizations, and institutions to enable the science and practice of GNSS geodesy. The primary product from the CORS infrastructure is the satellite tracking data, archived in standard raw data exchange formats such as RINEX, for subsequent modeling and estimation of station coordinates and velocities, satellite orbits, clock products, reference frames, and other related products.
Fußnoten
1
CORS networks benefit the users by utilizing one GPS receiver as the operation of the reference station is performed by the service provider of the CORS network.
 
2
NSRS is a consistent coordinate system that defines latitude, longitude, height, scale, gravity, orientation, and shoreline throughout the United States.
 
3
“The primary purpose of the EUREF network is to provide access to the European Terrestrial Reference System 89 (ETRS89) which is the standard precise GNSS coordinate system throughout Europe.” (http://​epncb.​eu/​).
 
4
CORS station tracking data typically includes phase and pseudorange observations, satellite ephemeris, and meteorological sensor data where available.
 
5
In the ITRF (the global reference frame), “plate tectonics cause the coordinates of European stations to slowly change in the order of about 2.5 cm/year”.
 
6
GNSS data session is the time period during which all the receivers are collecting data simultaneously.
 
7
“Switching on a receiver at epoch t 0, the instantaneous fractional beat phase is measured. The initial integer number N of cycles between satellite and receiver is unknown. However, when tracking is continued without loss of lock, the number N, also called integer ambiguity, remains the same”, p. 107 of [14].
 
8
An estimate of N can be obtained by one of several means, for example, from the pseudorange measurement or Doppler (see, e.g., p. 36–38 of [30]).
 
9
ϕ(t 0) is equivalent to (ϕ rcv − ϕ sat) in Eq. 5.​4 in Chap. 5.
 
10
Ambiguity only occurs at the initial epoch. It is the unknown number of full cycles at the initial epoch. Once the receiver gets a lock on a satellite (2nd epoch onward) it can count the number of full cycles. See, e.g., [30].
 
11
Broadcast orbits (aka ephemerides data) for GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou are in the format of Keplerian elements and correction coefficients. However, for GLONASS, they are in the format of state vectors (position-velocity–acceleration vectors).
 
12
Real-Time IGS (RT-IGS) protocol was proposed by RT-IGS Working Group, for delivery of RT-IGS message types over the internet.
 
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Metadaten
Titel
GNSS CORS Networks and Data
verfasst von
Clement A. Ogaja
Copyright-Jahr
2022
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-91821-7_6