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Über dieses Buch

This book highlights the various technologies that are currently available or are now being developed for the green and smart buildings of the future. It examines why green building performance is important, and how it can be measured and rated using appropriate benchmarking systems. Lastly, the book provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in green building technologies and the trend towards zero energy or net positive energy buildings in the future.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

The building sector is the largest contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Buildings use about 40 % of global energy, 25 % of global water, 40 % of global resources, and they emit approximately 30 % of GHG emissions. These emissions are set to double by 2050 if we carry on business as usual. Buildings present the most impactful and also economical mitigation potential for GHG emissions globally. In this book, we look at several green building design technologies, including the design methodology itself (i.e. integrated design). A green and smart building is an interplay of various integrated design strategy such as passive and active design features, as well as water and waste reduction techniques, renewable energy integration, building management systems and controls, efficient operations and rating systems that allow effective benchmarking and performance analysis and guidelines for various stakeholders involved in the building industry.
Nilesh Y. Jadhav

Chapter 2. Green and Smart Building Trends

Green and Smart Buildings have evolved over the past two decades from being an environmental idealism to a business case with strong industry growth and a long-term business opportunity. This is driven by factors such as client/market demand, lower operating costs, greater environmental consciousness, regulatory requirements/incentives and improved health and productivity benefits. However, there are several barriers or obstacles for green buildings such as higher perceived first costs, lack of public awareness, lack of political support and incentives, and the perception that green is for the high-end project sector only. Governments across most major economies of the world are starting to care about energy efficiency and sustainability in the building sector. The buildings sector’s crucial role in mitigating climate change was also recognised at the historic Paris Climate Conference in 2015. Another useful trend for the green building industry in the financing realm is the model of a Energy Services Company (ESCO) that provide innovative financing schemes along with the full suite of energy conservation measures. The advent of Internet of Things (IoT) is also affecting the way green and smart buildings are getting connected with various stakeholders throughout the world.
Nilesh Y. Jadhav

Chapter 3. Integrated Design Concepts and Tools

It is critical to make the decision to build a green building early in the design and construction, or retrofitting and refurbishment process in order to maximize the green potential, minimize redesign, and assure the overall success and economic viability of the green elements of the building project. Integrated design or whole-building design is a process in which every element of the design is first optimized and then the impact and interrelationship of various different elements and systems within the building and site are re-evaluated, integrated, and optimized as part of a whole building solution. Tools for building modeling and simulation allow the design team to evaluate the energy performance of the building in the virtual environment considering its geometrical model, design parameters, occupancy schedules and local weather conditions.
Nilesh Y. Jadhav

Chapter 4. Passive Design Technologies

The term ‘Passive Design’ here refers to design strategies, technologies and solutions that effectively take advantage of the environmental conditions outside the building to maximise the energy and cost savings while ensuring the core building facilities and provisions (such as indoor comfort, safety, health, etc.) are not compromised. The building orientation, massing and building envelope technologies discussed here can achieve significant operational energy savings and avoid the need for excessive artificial lighting, cooling or heating.
Nilesh Y. Jadhav

Chapter 5. Active Design Technologies

In the earlier chapter we looked at Passive Design strategies and technologies that are built into the building and passively help by working with the ambient conditions in improving reducing the overall carbon footprint of the building. Active design technologies consume energy and hence the most important aspect of such technologies for green buildings is their energy efficiency i.e. the ratio of the output delivered over energy input. We would be looking at active design technologies in the following areas: Heating, cooling and ventilation; lighting; building services equipment such as pumps, lifts and escalators; and plug loads or receptacle loads.
Nilesh Y. Jadhav

Chapter 6. Building Management and Automation Technologies

Building Management Systems (BMS) or Building Automation Systems (BAS) are computer-based control system installed in buildings that monitor and control the building’s mechanical and electrical equipment such as ventilation, lighting, power systems, fire systems, and security systems. They collect and analyze data and then provide insights or take necessary actions to improve the building’s efficiency and productivity.
Nilesh Y. Jadhav

Chapter 7. Renewable Energy Integration in Buildings

In the earlier sections we looked at energy efficiency in buildings and how technologies and tools can help reduce the energy use of buildings drastically. However, it’s not possible to use absolutely zero energy in occupied and operational buildings. The term ‘zero energy building’ is possibility when there is enough on-site energy generation that meets the energy needs of the building. In fact, the definition of a zero energy building is still being debated around the world.
Nilesh Y. Jadhav

Chapter 8. Water and Waste Management Technologies

Apart from energy, the usage of water and management of waste are important aspects of green buildings. Buildings use significant amount of water for various needs such as sanitation, kitchen, laundry, utilities, heating/cooling and landscaping needs. The availability of clean water is a major challenge in several parts of the world and hence water conservation in buildings is imperative. Also buildings can lead to significant waste generation throughout its lifetime, right from its construction phase to its demolition. The waste generated by the building occupants and facilities also needs to be managed in order to reduce its environmental impacts.
Nilesh Y. Jadhav

Chapter 9. Engaging Occupants in Green and Smart Buildings

The human factor in building technologies cannot be ignored. After all, buildings are made for human occupancy in various forms such as living, working, studying, entertaining, shopping etc. Building users play a critical but poorly understood and often overlooked role in the built environment. Architects, designers and buildings owners should seek ways of integrating user involvement in building performance.
Nilesh Y. Jadhav

Chapter 10. Green Building Performance Assessment and Rating

All the technologies and techniques discussed in earlier chapters provide the building stakeholders with enough arsenal for designing and operating a green and smart building. However, one question still remains, and that is about how the performance of green buildings can be measured and assessed to ensure that all that is required is done and how does the building compare with other buildings. Such performance assessment will also provide insights into the opportunities to improve building performance by learning and borrowing ideas from the best practices in green and smart buildings.
Nilesh Y. Jadhav

Chapter 11. Conclusion

Green and Smart Buildings technologies discussed and presented in this book are not necessarily all new and cutting edge technologies. Some of them have been available for decades. However, the adoption rates of these technologies are still very low. The list of the technologies discussed in this book, although not exhaustive, can offer a quick reference guide for building owners, designers, architects and facility managers to design and operate green and smart buildings. If the technologies discussed here can be adopted for new buildings and building retrofits, the energy, water and waste footprint of the built environment can be significantly reduced, while at the same time ensuring occupant comfort and safety with the appropriate choice of technologies.
Nilesh Y. Jadhav
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