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2023 | Buch

Green Infrastructure

Materials and Sustainable Management

herausgegeben von: Ummu Raihanah Hashim, Ahmad Kamil Arshad, Nor Hayati Abdul Hamid, Rohana Hassan, Ekarizan Shaffie, Anizahyati Alisibramulisi, Norshariza Mohamad Bhkari, Muhd Norhasri Muhd Sidek

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore


Über dieses Buch

This second volume of "Green Infrastructure" provides a comprehensive exploration of both established and evolving green infrastructure materials, along with sustainable practices across various facets that hold the potential to shape our future. Emphasizing emerging domain materials such as timber, concrete, soil, and pavement, among others, this book delves into the pivotal role these elements play in fostering sustainable urban development. It underscores the significance of these materials in preserving ecosystem services and constructive management, thus leading to the attainment of manifold advantages. Bridging a critical void in the existing literature, this volume serves as an indispensable resource, serving to guide forthcoming research endeavors concerning green materials and their applications within the realm of sustainability.


Assessment of Entry Timing Decisions (AoETD) Towards Sustainable Operations of Malaysian Construction Firms in International Markets
Malaysian construction firms were found to have an in-depth grasp of the international market experience and cross-border networks. In line with the Construction 4.0 Strategic Plan (2021–2025), previous research indicates insufficient studies focused on developing a systematic assessment to measure entry timing decisions (ETD). This flaw was discovered because of low educational readiness and a lack of data from local researchers. Accordingly, the number of successful local construction firms competing in the global market has decreased. Therefore, the current study provides construction firms with exposure to the importance of entering foreign markets through an Assessment of Entry Timing Decisions (AoETD). The ETD for this study were divided into pioneer (Pi), early follower (EF), and late follower (LF). The study identifies the key and associated determinants for international ETD for Malaysian construction firms. In addition, this paper establishes appropriate decisional level scales for each key determinant, ranging from poor to excellent decision-making. Analysis of data and discussion of study findings were obtained from Smart PLS analysis. Correspondingly, AoETD measurement found that Pi sustained in the international market followed by LF and EF. As such, the development of AoETD can help firms implement strategic entry decisions into the global market. Furthermore, AoETD is developed in line with the Malaysian government's aims to create collaborations between academicians, government, industry, and society.
Norizzati Ibrahim, Che Maznah Mat Isa, Nur Kamaliah Mustaffa, Nur Izzati Ab Rani
Pre-construction Complexity Factors Affecting Cost Performance of Infrastructure Projects
Cost overruns are typical in infrastructure projects all around the world. However, previous studies have shown a lack of understanding of the term complexity in the construction industry, specifically regarding infrastructure projects. This paper is part of the research project, which aims to identify the most significant complexity factors contributing to project performance and develop a complexity assessment model for infrastructure projects. This paper aims to categorize and rank the complexity factors affecting the cost performance of infrastructure projects during the pre-construction stage. A survey questionnaire was designed to identify complexity factors affecting infrastructure project cost performance during the pre-construction phases. One hundred and six (106) managers consisting of clients, consultants, contractors, sub-contractors, and others involved in infrastructure projects have responded to the survey. Using Rasch Model Analysis, the significant complexity factors with logit measure ranges show that these complexity factors are critical and vastly impact infrastructure project cost performance. The following six (6) most significant pre-construction complexity factors affecting cost performance (PRECO) have been identified: original design errors, low bid award that is qualified or non-compliant, redesign because over-budgeted, lack of optimization cost and time, lack of design coordination information between consultant and client, and unit prices that are not properly specified or evaluated. This study contributes to integrating complexity assessment for infrastructure projects during the pre-construction life cycle in line with the Twelfth Malaysia Plan for the construction industry.
Akhtarul Norfaiza Che Nen, Che Maznah Mat Isa, Che Khairil Izam Che Ibrahim, Mohamad Shakri Mohmad Shariff
Performance Measurement Criteria: Conceptual Framework for Subcontracting Management in the Malaysian Construction Supply Chain
The construction industry employs workers of all levels and roles, from professionals to skilled and unskilled labourers. Subcontracting is increasingly being used in the construction industry to transfer risk from the main contractor to the subcontractor, and it will have a positive impact on specialisation in construction work. However, failure in subcontracting management may result in a negative relationship between them, uncoordinated on-site supervision, a lack of quality, and improper planning and scheduling. This chapter focuses on the identification of performance measurement criteria that contribute to successful subcontracting management in Malaysian construction projects, impacting the three dimensions of project performance, namely time, cost, and quality. This research used mixed methods, which included both quantitative and qualitative non-experimental components. The perception of subcontracting of main contractors was sought through a questionnaire survey. Next, semi-structured interviews with highly experienced contractors were conducted to validate the quantitative findings and the proposed subcontracting management assessment framework. The key determinants and the scales of subcontracting management were analysed using SEMPLS software. The established performance measurement criteria will provide a reference to drive continual improvement and break down silos of thinking by performance measurement criteria of subcontracting management domains.
Daniel L, Siti Hamidah Abdull Rahman, Che Maznah Mat Isa, Musmuliadi Kamaruding, Fatin Najwa Mohd Nusa
Building Information Modelling Implementation Framework (BIMIF) for Government Building Construction Among Civil and Structural Engineering Consultants in Malaysia
Implementing Building Information Modelling (BIM) into part of the design process is beneficial for civil and structural (C&S) engineering consultants involved in construction projects to ensure the project completion is within the stipulated time, cost, and quality of product delivery. However, there is still a lack of a systematic BIM process in Malaysia. Recent studies indicate that the BIM process has significantly influenced BIM implementation alongside other factors. This paper presents the initial stage of establishing a BIM implementation framework (BIMIF) for government building construction projects based on the conventional contract approach and focuses on developing the BIM process from a chosen case study. With the availability of BIMIF, the C&S consultants will have clear guidelines on the BIM process in government projects using conventional contracts to improve BIM implementation in Malaysia.
Mohd Rashid Ya’acob, Che Maznah Mat Isa, Siti Hamidah Abdull Rahman, Salmaliza Salleh
Integrating Value Management: Determine Project Management Knowledge—Addressing Theory–Practice Gap
Value management (VM) is a discipline in ensuring that the projects planned to be executed and implemented can meet the project's objectives, especially against cost, schedule, and quality. Although VM has been around for decades, the theory–practice gap has constrained the successful implementation of value management, especially in the technique used when conducting VM. On the other hand, project management (PM) practices are aligned with the implementation of VM to ensure that the projects intended to be implemented the goals and meet the project performance. Nevertheless, PMBOK is the standard for PM that can guide a project team throughout the PM process and safeguard it from shattering failure. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the PM knowledge areas that can be adopted in value management methodology. An interview was conducted with 5 Malaysian Construction Industry experts to identify significant VM activities and determine the relationship between PM processes that can be adopted into VM activities. Findings revealed that there is a relationship between the integration of PM processes into the VM process construction industry professional applied PM. This study provides evidence of the advantages of adopting PM knowledge into VM methodology.
Mohd Hilmi Malek, Che Maznah Mat Isa, Aini Jaapar
Strategies of Carbon Reduction Management in Construction Operations
There is a significant demand in curbing the generation of carbon emissions globally due to the detrimental effects of climate change all over the world. The construction industry was among the largest contributors to carbon emissions. However, the previous efforts of reducing carbon emissions were only focused on quantifying embodied carbon from building operations, while less study focused on the construction stage. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the current carbon emissions management practices and key strategies for reducing emissions effectively. The study was conducted by using a brief questionnaire survey of 42 targeted construction stakeholders. Relative important index analysis was used in this study to rank the criteria according to their relative importance as an indicator of the carbon reduction strategies. This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the current Malaysian construction industry’s carbon practices and provides a reference to the industry in managing its carbon reduction.
Verona Ramas Anak Joseph, Nur Kamaliah Mustaffa, Che Maznah Mat Isa
Green Infrastructure Development in Malaysia: A Review
Infrastructure development is critical to the country’s economic integration goal, and sustainable infrastructure is a vital enabler of economic, social, and environmental development. Several assessment frameworks and tools have emerged in response to growing concerns about sustainability. Despite this, a comprehensive study has yet to examine the key characteristics of developing a sustainable assessment tool for infrastructure projects. This study investigates the Malaysian government’s top-down initiatives to encompass all attempts to transform Malaysia into a nation with green infrastructure development. The paper highlights the development of green development in Malaysia over the previous three decades by incorporating fiscal, institutional, legislative, and regulatory mechanisms into the nation’s national plan. Malaysia’s progress towards constructing green infrastructure and becoming a climate-resilient nation is assessed holistically as a result of the detailed study of incorporating green techniques into current assessments. This paper found that most studies on assessment tools have focused on identifying potential indicators to measure the sustainability of infrastructure projects for decision-making purposes. This paper provides information on the sustainable infrastructure attributes to facilitate sustainability development goals and the impact on infrastructure development directions and strategies, which can be a reference for future sustainable infrastructure development studies.
Nur Shuhada Nor Shahrudin, Nur Kamaliah Mustaffa, Che Maznah Mat Isa
Why Current Procurement Systems Require Modifications to Suit the Natures of Malaysian Pre-fabricated Construction
The Malaysian government has put many efforts into improving the performance and quality of local projects and one of the steps was using prefabrication construction. Worldwide, this concept has gradually overtaken the traditional construction and as evidence, many prefabricated companies have emerged with plenty of innovative products, making the prefabricated method a preferred choice. Various advantages of using this method, as it changes from wet in situ construction into applying a manufacturing style that is simpler, safer, faster, and better quality. It brings more than just cost savings as this method will take less than half of the time compared to using conventional cast in situ, and it accelerates projects toward achieving sustainable construction and fulfilling the green concept regulations. However, in Malaysia, this concept hardly achieves its maximum benefits because prefabricated projects still use current procurement system which is not developed to suit prefabricated characteristics. When prefabricated projects apply unsuitable procurement, it exposes them to claim and payment hurdles, warranty disputes, weak supply chain, market monopoly, rigid project flow process, flawed understanding, and rivalry relationships. As a result, the prefabricated projects ended with higher costs, more risk, and unfair treatment to certain parties despite having contributed significantly. Much research has proved that the current procurement systems do not welcome the crucial role of prefabricated companies. Besides, it disallows prefabricated companies to be involved since the detail design stage and neglects the supervision during and after installation, causing prefabricated projects more exposed to quality disputes, defects in installation, and warranty conflicts. Current procurement also treats the prefabricated companies as a minority despite their role constituting 70–90% of the building’s structure. Since IBS Roadmap (2007), there has been urgency to develop suitable procurement that is unswerving and can cater good flow of the supply chain, empowering the roles of the prefabricated design team, codifying skills transfer, proper logistics, and increase higher productivity. This research aims to highlight the necessity and nature of prefabricated projects in Malaysia, and why the current procurement system needs to be adjusted so that it can help the projects to reap maximum benefits from the prefabricated concept.
Ahmad Abd Jalil, Mastura Jaafar, Fadhilah Md Fazil, Nurina Nawi, Mohd Amir Shazwan Hashim
A Review of Green Open Space Implementation Towards Green City Development in Developing Countries
Green open space (GOS) has an imperative ecological act to the success of green city development (GCD). It is evident that currently many GOS are plunging and transmitted due to distinct conditions. In Malaysia and Indonesia, the maximum allocation of GOS in every city development area is 10 and 30%, respectively. However, developers’ adherence to this procedure extend to decay in recent years succeeding in the minimization of GOS. Consequently, there is a compelling requirement for systemic preliminary planning to preclude the eradication of existing and future green spaces in urban areas. This study aimed to understand the advantages and implementation of GOS in GCD in Malaysia and Indonesia. Through the systematic literature review method—there are four types of ecosystem services (ES) that highlighted the advantages of GOS on GCD, while 19 services were listed for the improvement of urban ecosystem quality.
M. Nabilaa, V. Thenmolli, M. Z. Zarina
Environmental Impacts of a Forensic Unit Construction at a Teaching Hospital in Malaysia
This study aims to understand the material waste generation, energy and water consumption, and total carbon emissions from constructing a forensic unit at a teaching hospital in Malaysia before the COVID-19 pandemic. The material waste magnitude identified using the material flow analysis approach showed that bricks have the biggest share (88.6%) in construction waste, whereas the smallest proportion is derived from sand (1.5%). Meanwhile, the highest and lowest water consumption to construct the forensic unit was 519 kL in May 2019 and 155 kL in December 2019, respectively. The annual electricity-related energy consumption at this site was 112,826.28 MJ, which was the lowest compared to other energy usages, such as operating the bulldozer, which consumed 914,191.71 MJ of energy per year. Interestingly, the energy source that emitted the lowest amount of carbon was the excavator, which contributed 5% (equivalent to 12,420.86 kgCO2e) to the total emissions of the forensic unit construction, while the source with the largest carbon footprint remained the bulldozer (28%, equivalent to 64,463.04 kgCO2e). Our findings will help develop strategies, policies, and rules to effectively manage waste and carbon emissions from construction activities in Malaysia.
Nur Syafiqah Nabila Shaari, Nurul Syazwani Khuzaini, Fatin Nurhanani Adenan, Nimi Dan-Jumbo, Farah Ayuni Shafie
Mechanical Properties of Concrete Containing POFA as Cement and Sand Replacement
The cement demand in the construction industry in Malaysia reached 19.49 million metric tons in 2020 (Müller J (2021) Malaysia: Cement Production 2020 | Statista. Statista), giving a perfect view that the price of the material will rise following the re-opening of the industry after the Covid-19 pandemic. The main problem with using cement is that the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from the cement production industry gets higher as the cement volume increases. Hence, waste material such as Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) was used to reduce the use of cement. Only a few studies have used POFA in concrete applications. This research aims to analyze the mechanical properties of POFA in concrete as a partial replacement for cement and sand. The influence of POFA content in the range of 0 to 20% of cement and sand replacement on the slump test and strength characteristic level of concrete was identified. The concrete specimens were tested for strength at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days. The curing for this research is water cured. The result indicated that the compressive strength of concrete containing POFA replacement as cement and sand performs better than the normal concrete.
Arif Fahmi Baharom, Mohd Afiq Mohd Fauzi, Muhd Norhasri Muhd Sidek, Rabitah Handan
A Review of Graphene Research and Its Outputs: Waste Carbon Source and Synthesis Technique
Graphene is a novel material that emerged following the era of carbon nanotubes and is an extraordinary two-dimensional (2D) material. The consumption of materials derived from petroleum has highlighted numerous sustainability concerns. New approaches to graphene production and waste management have recently emerged. This study focuses on the characterization of graphene produced from carbon-rich waste materials using bottom-up and top-down techniques. Considering graphene is primarily made up of chemically bonded carbon atoms, starting materials employed must contain high carbon as their main element. In this study, the carbon-rich waste materials are of natural and synthetic waste categories, such as waste cooking oil, waste engine oil, coconut shells, and plastic. These carbon-rich wastes are highly potential to be converted to high-quality graphene. Using waste materials can indirectly reduce the environmental impact by lowering the quantity of abandoned waste that accumulates in landfills and reducing the toxic composition of the land. Producing graphene from abundant waste materials would be a game-changing invention, especially given how attractive graphene has been.
M. Z. Nurfazianawatie, H. Omar, N. F. Rosman, N. S. A. Malek, A. N. Afaah, M. Maryam, I. Buniyamin, M. J. Salifairus, M. F. Malek, M. M. Mahat, M. Rusop, N. A. Asli
Influence of Waste Paper Sludge Ash on Mechanical and Durability Properties of Self-consolidating Lightweight Foamed Concrete
Self-Consolidating Lightweight Foamed Concrete (SCLFC) is a combination of two technology of concrete which is Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC) and Lightweight Foamed Concrete (LFC). This SCLFC offers great potential for improved ease of positioning and scaled-down cost through reduced time and labour. Generally, a large amount of waste or paper sludge is generated every day from the paper industry and at the same time brings potential and devastating harmful impacts to the surroundings. For this reason, the search into the use of waste paper sludge ash (WPSA) in the SCLFC is looked into. This research aims to study the effect of the addition of WPSA concerning workability, strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, porosity, and water absorption characteristics of SCLFC. The effect of the addition of WPSA in the range from 0 to 15% on the workability, strength physical, and absorption characteristics of SCLFC was established and compared to the normal SCLFC. The concrete specimens were subjected to strength at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days. The curing for this research is ambient conditions. The result indicated that the WPSA tends to be adding to the beneficial workability, strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, porosity, and absorption characteristics of SCLFC.
Mohd Afiq Mohd Fauzi, Muhd Norhasri Muhd Sidek, Aidan Newman, Nurliza Jasmi, Muhamad Syahmi Norizan, Muhammad Amirul Razin Roslan
The Effect of Tendon Directions to The Analysis and Design of Transfer Slab—A Case Study
The focus of this study is to analyze and design a post-tensioned transfer slab by using RAM Concept as a finite element analysis tool. The analysis and design of transfer slab were in accordance with BS8110:1997—Structural use of concrete Part 1: Code of Practice for Design and Construction. Two types of tendon directions in terms of banded and distribution direction were applied. Basically, the procedure in analyzing and designing this element requires numerous calculations in order to reach the most desired and economical design. RAM Concept has the capability of analyzing problems related to moment, stresses, and deflection in a short time. This makes design calculations and procedures easier. It can be concluded that tendon direction does affect the analysis and design of the transfer slab studied. From the stresses and deflection results of two types of tendon directions, Type 1 is fully recommended. Whereas, for punching shear of the column surface, not much difference between the two types of tendon directions; both cases complied with the standard shear limit.
Ahmad Suhaimi Abdul Mutalib, Anizahyati Alisibramulisi, Norliyati Mohd Amin, Ekarizan Shaffie, Adiza Jamadin
Perception on Impact Land Reclamation from Pan Borneo Highway Project—Pilot Study
“Land reclamation” is defined as creating new land from the sea, lake, or riverbed. Land reclamation occurs to construct residential areas, commercial or industrial estates, major roads, or other public purposes. In the context of road and highway construction, the effects of land reclamation have always been overlooked. Therefore, in this research, the perceptions of industry players were obtained to determine the perspective on the land reclamation project for the Pan Borneo Highway project. This paper presents some of the effects of land reclamation resulting from the Pan Borneo Highway Project. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software was used to analyse the questionnaire survey data. The results showed that for socioeconomic impact, two variables were significantly associated with the profession: resettlement for locals who had their homes demolished and an increase in land value. In terms of environmental impact, five variables were significantly associated with the profession: disturbance of flora and fauna habitats due to deforestation, soil erosion, floods, landslides, and noise pollution.
Mohamad Shakri Mohmad Shariff, Nazaruddin Abdul Taha, Mohd Azizul Ladin, Azwa Safiqah Darawati, Akhtarul Faiza Che Nen, Che Maznah Mat Isa
Challenges, Characteristics, and Success Factors in Implementing Green Highway Using SEM-PLS Model
Green highway differs from conventional due to their concept, fundamentals, characteristics, technologies, and innovations. Although the Malaysian Highway Authority (MHA) has been introducing guidelines for green highways, the implementation in Malaysia is still far behind because of the challenges faced by the highway concessions in complementing the guideline requirement. This study comprises four objectives: (1) to investigate the green highway challenges faced by highway concessions in Malaysia; (2) to determine the green highway characteristics in the Malaysian context; (3) to identify the green highway success factors implementation in Malaysia; and finally (4) to develop a relationship model between characteristics and challenges towards the success factors impacting green highway. This study used triangulation research to obtain the primary data using unstructured interviews and questionnaire surveys. The data were analysed using content analysis, descriptive analysis, Criticality Index assessment, and Structural Equation Modelling-Partial Least Squares (SEM-PLS). 12 unstructured interviews and 63 usable postal questionnaires were received to establish the model. Results show that (1) legal and regulatory; technical and physical; financial and cultural are the green highway challenges; (2) planning, design, construction; operation, and maintenance stages are characteristics of implementing green highways; (3) innovation; construction activities; material and resources are success factors in implementing green highway and proposes; and (4) a relationship model shows that the green highway characteristics and challenges have a significant and positive effect in implementing green highway.
Fatin Najwa Mohd Nusa, Che Maznah Mat Isa, Siti Zaharah Ishak, Intan Rohani Endut
Proposed Development of an Integrated Framework for Public–Private Partnership and Value for Money Evaluation System of Urban Rail Transit in China
With the advancement of urbanization in China, the construction of rail transit has become an important choice for urban transportation infrastructure. The continuous and rapid construction of rail transportation is becoming the epitome of China's promotion of the urbanization process. However, considering the macroeconomic background, China's economic growth rate has gradually changed from rapid to steady growth due to upgrading its industrial structure, which has led to a decline in tax revenue growth and increased pressure on local government debt. At the same time, the central government continues to emphasize the importance of “reducing leverage” and pressure on local government financing, so there is an urgent need for social capital to participate in rail transportation construction through public–private partnership (PPP) projects. Currently, China's value for money (VFM) qualitative evaluation is based on the Ministry of Finance documents, with many shortcomings in the actual operation. Various issues are related to the content of the indicator system that involves primarily economic benefit-oriented evaluation, with less concern about social and environmental problems caused by the PPP, and less consideration is given to technical, legal, and policy factors. Thus, this paper proposed a study toward developing a framework integrating the PPP model and the VFM evaluation system for urban rail transit projects in China.
Gao Ying, Che Maznah Mat Isa, Nur Izzati Ab Rani, Nur Kamaliah Mustaffa
Pavement Maintenance in Malaysia: The Key to Pavement Sustainability
A road network needs to be maintained continuously to be able to continue providing an acceptable level of service to road users. Maintenance reduces road deterioration, lowers road user costs, and keeps the road open on a continuous basis. This paper presents the various pavement maintenance techniques used in Malaysia to preserve the condition of road pavements so that the road can be continuously operated without disruption due to major road rehabilitation activities. First, the evaluation and selection of the appropriate maintenance treatment for flexible pavement are discussed. Then, maintenance treatment methods are presented include crack sealing, chip seal, micro-surfacing, thin hot mix asphalt overlay, and hot in-place recycling. Finally, the treatment methods are evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. The approach presented in this paper will assist those involved in road maintenance on the application of appropriate pavement maintenance treatment for flexible pavement.
Ahmad Kamil Arshad, Ekarizan Shaffie, Mohd Izzat A. Kamal, Mat Zain Hussain, Nuryantizpura Mohamad Rais
Evaluation on Volumetric Properties of Stone Mastic Asphalt Mix Containing Steel Fibre Using Response Surface Method
This paper presents the effects of different amounts of steel fibre on the volumetric properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures. Central composite design (CCD) method was used to design the experiments based on the response surface method (RSM) using Design Expert Software. Steel fibre (SF) content (0.3, 0.5 and 0.7%), degree of compaction (%) and stiffness (kg/mm) were selected as independent variables, while bulk specific gravity, Marshall stability, flow and air void of asphalt mixtures were chosen as dependent variables. In this research study, volumetric properties of SMA mixtures were measured by using Marshall Mix Design. The RSM analyses showed that all independent variables were significant factors for influencing the volumetric properties of the mixtures. In addition, analysis of the test results showed that the mixtures containing 0.3% steel fibre are the most optimum value to be used as a modifier in the SMA mixture. Furthermore, the developed models between the independent and dependent variables demonstrated acceptable levels of correlation. It was concluded that optimization using RSM is an effective approach for providing an appropriate empirical model for relating parameters and predicting the optimum performance of an asphaltic mixture.
Fionna Shiong, Ekarizan Shaffie, Nuryantizpura Mohamad Rais
Envisaging the Potential Use of Resistance Micro Drilling on Wood Density Assessment: A Review
Recurrent assessment of in-situ tree conditions through destructive methods has resorted to the critical need to adopt a more convenient and practical technique. Due to this, a Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) is indispensable to predict the wood density (WD) of trees without jeopardizing the tree itself. Resistance micro-drilling is a promising non-destructive tool, provided by its broad application in forestry to the extent of tree care industry assessment. Applying a Resistograph to assess the wood resistance is a breakthrough in sustainable forest management operations. This paper provides an insightful review of the research methodologies on Resistograph. It will discuss the use of a micro-drilling device measuring WD in standing trees, including the potential use of resistance micro-drilling to predict WD for the forest AGB and its possible use in the context of green infrastructure and sustainable management.
J. Joseph, R. D. Maripa, M. H. Phua
Phytochemical Research for the Sustainability of Moringa Species Using Different Extraction Methods
Different extraction methods to screen the phytochemicals of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves extracts have been conducted. This study aims to employ both maceration and ultrasonic-assisted techniques, followed by the phytochemical screening of the extracts by using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Compared to sonication, the maceration produced a larger yield of extracted material. The TLC analysis showed that a mobile phase consisting of toluene, butanol, and methanol (90:5:5) was the best solvent system for separating most of the constituents in the extracts. The TLC and HPLC profiles demonstrate that neither extraction procedure exhibits notable differences. The HPLC profile of gradient elution with the addition of 0.3% formic acid resulted in greater peak separation and more peak detection, as compared to the isocratic system. Quercetin was not identified as a significant constituent in this research sample, due to the relatively low absorbance. The findings can provide information on the pharmacological function of M. oleifera leaves, which are potentially valuable source in pharmaceutical and traditional medicines.
Hannis Fadzillah Mohsin, Nurul Atika Bacho, Kathleen J. Jalani, Ibtisam Abdul Wahab
Performance of Kapok Fibres and Kapok Ash Wood as Oil Absorption Materials
Degradation of waste cooking oil in pipes may cause corrosion of metal and concrete elements. Research detected that the capacity of sorbent material to clean-up cooking oil from produced water towards different factors is associated with surface characteristics, oil type, oil film thickness, sorption time, and the temperature. Kapok (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn) fibre is a plant biomass used as sorbent material. The kapok fibre has a hollow structure with a large lumen that leads to its excellent oil absorbency and retention capacity. Due to its biodegradability, Kapok fibre can be ultimately disposed of for biomass energy recovery, thus leaving no secondary waste to pollute the environment. This study examined the absorption capacity of kapok fibre and kapok wood ash as well as a combination of both these materials into waste cooking oil. Economically, kapok is relatively cheap compared to polypropylene. The result shows that 10 g of kapok fibre, kapok ash wood, and a combination of both materials give a maximum absorption capacity of 25.70 g/g, 0.47 g/g, and 7.83 g/g respectively compared to the 20 and 30 g weight that gives lower value than 10 g weight of the material.
Abdul Hadi Firuz Ahmad, Rohana Hassan, Nurbaiah Mohammad Noh, Nor Jihan Abd Malek, Anizahyati Alisibramulsi, Ezahtul Shahreen Ab Wahab
Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Podo Wood-Xylem Filtered
Pine trees were found to successfully filter water through their wood-xylem. This study focuses on filtering water using wood-xylem of tropical timber, i.e. Podo species. Samples from Podo branches were cut for 20 mm diameter with 40 mm length. The water was filtered with normal drip without pressure. The filtered water was tested for physical and chemical characteristics of water quality. The physical characteristics tested were colour and turbidity whilst the chemical characteristics were tested on dissolved oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and pH value. The observations on the physical properties of Podo xylem were visualized using Dino-Lite Digital Microscope before and after the filtering process. After filtration, the suspended material from the water samples appeared as a dark spot at the inlet of the tracheid. It was clearly spotted from the cross-section view. From the water quality test, it shows that the characteristics of both physical and chemical characteristics of the filtered water were not improved and failed to comply with the characteristics as stipulated in Drinking Water Quality Standard respectively.
Rohana Hassan, Marfiah Ab Wahid, Jurina Jaafar, Nor Jihan Abd Malek, Ezahtul Shahreen Ab Wahab, Adlin Sabrina Muhammad Roseley
Effect of Tunnel Form Building Under 10 Past Earthquake Records Analyzed Using Ruaumoko 2D
Countries that experience regular earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 7 on the Richter Scale are currently recognized to suffer significant destruction. These unpredicted calamities can have detrimental effects on both people and structures. However, by identifying the threat that might be damaging the current structures, the effect of seismic can be lessened. As a result, the effectiveness of tunnel form building (TFB) has been evaluated under seismic events of varying intensities. To establish the safety level of a tunnel form building, ten numbers from previous ground vibrations are chosen. Six previous earthquake records were chosen from East and West Malaysia, while four previous earthquake records were chosen from nations outside of Malaysia. The maximum lateral displacement and lateral loading capacity of the prototype building have been modeled and studied to determine the structural deformation of the TFB at peak ground acceleration for a few historical earthquake histories. It may be concluded that while this sort of structure survives local earthquakes, mass earthquake that originates in other countries than Malaysia causes severe damage or even cause the building to collapse.
A. Shamilah, A. S. Aweis, R. Che Amat, N. Hamid
Experimental Analysis of Seismic Responses Interior Beam-Column Joint with and Without Fuse Bars Under In-Plane Lateral Cyclic Loading
Two full-scale super assemblage of interior beam-column joints with and without fuse bars were designed, constructed, analyzed, modeled and compared their performances under in-plane lateral cyclic loading. Based on experimental results, the interior joint with fuse bars performed better than without fuse bars in terms of structural damages, ultimate lateral strength capacity, elastic stiffness, secant stiffness, ductility and equivalent viscous damping. It was observed that the interior beam-column joint with fuse bars performed better than without fuse bars in terms of visual observations such as cracks propagation, width of cracks, spalling of concrete and mode of failure. Furthermore, experimental hysteresis loops were also validated with modeled hysteresis loops using Pampanin RC beam-joint (IHYST = 44) and HYSTERES Program. The percentage difference between these two hysteresis loops lies between 2 and 20%, which is acceptable because only one specimen was conducted and analyzed. Therefore, it is recommended to use fuse bars for construction of the RC buildings under moderate seismic regions especially in Sabah, Malaysia.
Nor Hayati Abdul Hamid, Nurfarhana Diayana Hadi, Kay Dora Ghani, Patrick L. Y. Tiong, Rini Kusumawardani, Norisham Ibrahim
Green Infrastructure
herausgegeben von
Ummu Raihanah Hashim
Ahmad Kamil Arshad
Nor Hayati Abdul Hamid
Rohana Hassan
Ekarizan Shaffie
Anizahyati Alisibramulisi
Norshariza Mohamad Bhkari
Muhd Norhasri Muhd Sidek
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
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