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This book describes the implementation of green IT in various human and industrial domains. Consisting of four sections: “Development and Optimization of Green IT”, “Modelling and Experiments with Green IT Systems”, “Industry and Transport Green IT Systems”, “Social, Educational and Business Aspects of Green IT”, it presents results in two areas – the green components, networks, cloud and IoT systems and infrastructures; and the industry, business, social and education domains. It discusses hot topics such as programmable embedded and mobile systems, sustainable software and data centers, Internet servicing and cyber social computing, assurance cases and lightweight cryptography in context of green IT. Intended for university students, lecturers and researchers who are interested in power saving and sustainable computing, the book also appeals to engineers and managers of companies that develop and implement energy efficient IT applications.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Development and Optimization of Green IT Systems

Frontmatter

Including Software Aspects in Green IT: How to Create Awareness for Green Software Issues

Abstract
While counteracting the increasing demand for natural resources and especially energy of ICT, first successes have become apparent by activities comprised by the term “Green IT”. Nowadays, many of the current activities lay emphasis on the hardware side of Green IT. However, software issues play a significant role in defining system and hardware requirements as well as the amount of energy consumed by ICT devices and the underlying infrastructure. Thus, the following chapter introduces the idea of green software and its engineering. Complementary to definitions and models in the addressed field, a more practical insight is given by illustrating exemplary energy measurements of software products. While these aspects show that the research is increasingly dealing with software issues of Green IT, these mainly scientific ideas have hardly reached practical relevance, so far. Hence, following the life cycle perspective of software products, we present two exemplary concepts on how to increase awareness of green software: addressing especially software engineers, we propose to implement continuous energy efficiency measurements during the development phase. With regards to software users, we propose to create an eco-label for software products to inform about their environmental issues and thus create more transparency in this context. To do so, we present and evaluate criteria and indicators, upon which a label could be based. The chapter concludes with a summary and proposes future activities in the addressed field. Overall, the aim of the chapter is to point out solutions that might lead to a more environmentally friendly way of developing software, a well-informed procurement behavior regarding software products, and a more sustainable user behavior concerning ICT.
Eva Kern, Achim Guldner, Stefan Naumann

Information Technology for Evaluating the Computer Energy Consumption at the Stage of Software Development

Abstract
This chapter describes an information technology and practical implementation of the absolute value estimation of the computer devices energy consumption. The evaluation based on the program source code and can help to choose the most optimal solution from the viewpoint of energy saving at the Software development stage. When estimating, the energy that is consumed by the RAM and CPU is determined. These two components are a necessary equipment for the all computer devices, especially for the various devices of the Internet of Things. For estimation of the computer devices energy consumption is using source assembler code of the program and the types of CPU and RAM. There are three stages for energy consumption estimation in proposed information technology. First stage is the scanning of assembler code and determination types of each assembler instruction and their volume in bits. On the second stage, the method for computer’s estimating power consumption based on RAM types is applying. The third stage is estimating of full energy consumption. For the implementation of information technology, the program tool is developed. This tool helps to create a green software checking the computer devices energy consumption on all stages of development.
E. D. Stetsuyk, D. A. Maevsky, E. J. Maevskaya, R. O. Shaporin

Green IT Engineering: Green Wireless Cooperative Networks

Abstract
With the development of IP (Internet Protocol) based next generation of wireless communication, wireless capacity in the physical layer faces unprecedented challenges. Thanks to the coordinated multi-point (CoMP) networks, the performance of wireless transmission can be largely enhanced. To sufficiently explore the performance of CoMP, two key issues of resource allocation, user scheduling and power allocation, should be appropriately determined. In this chapter, we first introduce the heuristic schemes of resource allocation in CoMP based on the Nash non-cooperative game to improve the wireless capacity. Then, we further propose a novel PFM mechanism (power-fractionizing mechanism) to transform the optimization problem of resource allocation of CoMP into a SP (signomial programming) optimization model. Based on GP (geometric programming) approximation, we obtain the local optimization solution of resource allocation in CoMP, empirically, the local optimization solution is also the global optimization solution. By simulation, we verify the effectiveness of our algorithms. In this chapter, we employ Nash non-cooperative game, geometric programming and convex optimization, etc., to improve the performance of the next generation of wireless cooperative networks. All the algorithms fit for the existing framework of network. Moreover, all the algorithms we proposed in this chapter can be also used for other wireless networks for achieving better interference management and energy efficiency.
Shu Fu, Jinsong Wu

Checkable FPGA Design: Energy Consumption, Throughput and Trustworthiness

Abstract
Green FPGA design represented in the directions of energy efficiency and safety which are tightly connected in the areas of critical application is considered. The array structures that are traditionally used in digital components of safety-related systems, reduce a checkability of circuits, creating a problem of the hidden faults which can be accumulated in a normal mode and reduce the fault tolerance of the circuit and safety of system in the emergency mode. Soft and cardinal ways of array structure reduction are offered. The soft way consists in development of the truncated arithmetical operations implementing into reduced array structures. The cardinal way consists in paralleling of calculations in serial codes with the use of bitwise pipelines. The comparative analysis in complexity, throughput and energy consumption of the iterative array and bitwise pipeline multiplier is executed experimentally with use of Altera Quartus II. Methods of on-line testing in checking of mantissas by inequalities are developed for the truncated operations. A method of increase in safety of FPGA circuits in opposition to accumulation of the hidden faults and a method of monitoring in integrity of FPGA project are suggested on the basis the program code diversity use.
Alex Drozd, Svetlana Antoshchuk, Julia Drozd, Konstantin Zashcholkin, Miroslav Drozd, Nikolay Kuznietsov, Mohammed Al-Dhabi, Valery Nikul

A Prospective Lightweight Block Cipher for Green IT Engineering

Abstract
This chapter provides general requirements to modern block ciphers required for implementation at lightweight cryptographic transformations for critical distributed environment applications with Green IT conformance. It is given an overview of well-known block ciphers and lightweight primitives PRESENT and CLEFIA, defined at ISO/IEC 29192-2. It is given a specification of the lightweight block cipher Cypress that was recently developed and presented in Ukraine. Cypress does not use heavy computation operations, nor require any precomputed tables that allows efficient hardware implementation. The Cypress performance in software is approximately three times higher than AES one on Windows, Linux and Android platforms.
Alina Andrushkevych, Yurii Gorbenko, Olexandr Kuznetsov, Roman Oliynykov, Mariia Rodinko

Lightweight Stream Ciphers for Green IT Engineering

Abstract
At the moment the most widely used are symmetric cryptographic transformations, in particular, stream ciphers. The development of an efficient synchronous stream cipher is reduced to the construction of a pseudo-random sequence generator with defined cryptographic properties. It should be noted that in devices with limited computing power, low volume and low power consumption the implementation of reliable cryptographic methods is extremely complicated. Limited physical parameters, low power consumption, low computing power and other characteristic attributes of “green” IT engineering forces the use of new approaches for designing cryptographic protection tools. The main cryptographic transformations are considered and experimental studies of performance and statistical security are conducted. We propose new methods and hardware and software tools for lightweight stream encryption that meet the current requirements of “green” IT engineering. It is proposed synthesis method for the construction of nonlinear-feedback shift register, which allows creating nonlinear registers with design features that correspond to the certain predefined criteria.
Olexandr Kuznetsov, Olexandr Potii, Artem Perepelitsyn, Dmytro Ivanenko, Nikolay Poluyanenko

Modelling and Experiments with Green IT Systems

Frontmatter

Semi-Markov Availability Model for Infrastructure as a Service Cloud Considering Energy Performance

Abstract
This paper addresses a stochastic approach based on Semi-Markov Process modeling in order to determine availability level and energy performance for Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud. It is generally agreed today that Cloud Service Providers try to offer diverse IT services, using large number of physical machines (PMs). It really is created serious energy performance issue for cloud computing systems. In this situation we also propose to use information of Technical and Information State Control System in order to improve monitoring process for IaaS Cloud. Therefore, main part of the efforts has been devoted to the development of a monolithic Semi-Markov Availability model for IaaS Cloud and the evaluation power consumption for non-failed, that is available PMs. Semi-Markov Availability model for the cloud infrastructure considering sudden failures of physical and virtual machines are considered, too. Mathematical modeling results will be present in order to give certain clarifications on the possible use of approach suggested.
Oleg Ivanchenko, Vyacheslav Kharchenko, Borys Moroz, Leonid Kabak, Ivan Blindyuk, Kyrylo Smoktii

Improving Big Data Centers Energy Efficiency: Traffic Based Model and Method

Abstract
Green aspects of data centers (DCs) which provide the appropriate hosting services and data storage are considered. Various approaches to transmission control of integrated data streams (IDS), which are the result of traffic aggregation, being transmitted in a DC related to Big Data processing, are analyzed. It is proposed a complex, which includes several models and a method; it uses traffic samples of several sessions as input data to perform short-term traffic prediction. For the case of elastic traffic, the application of the developed complex will reduce the DC’s resources usage, which are required to process data, down by 3%. As a result of the resources reallocation of the DC on the basis of the short-term prediction, the gain on the effectiveness of their use with such type of traffic will be 4–8%. Application of the proposed complex allows using the resources of the DC in more efficient way (reduces transmission time and, correspondingly, increases energy efficiency of the whole system).
Georgiy Kuchuk, Andriy Kovalenko, Iraj Elyasi Komari, Artem Svyrydov, Vyacheslav Kharchenko

A Markov Model of IoT System Availability Considering DDoS Attacks, Patching and Energy Modes

Abstract
An important task in the conditions of the rapid spread of the Internet of things (IoT) is the assessment of its availability under the impact of various attacks. The chapter analyzes the energy modes of network devices operating system (OS) in the smart business center (SBC), and specifies the organization of the energy-efficient IoT-SBC subsystem. The aim of the research is to develop and study Markov models of SBC availability in view of energy regimes, the impact of cyber-attacks, the reliability of SBC components and patches on the firewalls vulnerabilities. The main questions of the chapter’s research are an analysis of possible methods for reducing the power consumption of SBC devices, estimating the availability factor of SBC in the conditions of successful attacks.
Maryna Kolisnyk, Vyacheslav Kharchenko

Assessing the Impact of EEE Standard on Energy Consumed by Commercial Grade Network Switches

Abstract
This book chapter is adapted from El Khoury in Assessing the benefit of deploying EEE on commercial grade network switches, Unpublished PERCCOM Masters Dissertation, University of Lorraine, Nancy, France, 2017, [1] and it is closely linked to work published in Kharchenko et al. (eds.) in Green IT engineering: concepts, models, complex systems architectures. Studies in systems, decision and control, vol. 74. Springer, Cham, 2017, [2], Kharchenko et al. (eds.) in Green IT engineering: components, networks and systems implementation. Studies in systems, decision and control, vol. 105. Springer, Cham, 2017, [3]. Reducing power consumption of network equipment has been both driven by a need to reduce the ecological footprint of the cloud as well as the immense power costs of data centers. As data centers, core networks and consequently, the cloud, constantly increase in size, their power consumption should be mitigated. Ethernet, the most widely used access network still remains the biggest communication technology used in core networks and cloud infrastructures. The Energy-Efficient Ethernet or EEE standard introduced by IEEE in 2010, aims to reduce the power consumption of EEE ports by transitioning Ethernet ports into a low power mode when traffic is not present. As statistics show that the average utilization rate of ethernet links is 5% on desktops and 30% in data centers, the power saving potential of EEE could be immense. This research aims to assess the benefits of deploying EEE and create a power consumption model for network switches with and without EEE. Our measurements show that an EEE port runs at 12–15% of its total power when in low power mode. Therefore, the power savings can exceed 80% when there is no traffic. However, our measurements equally show that the power consumption of a single port represents less than 1% of the total power consumption of the switch. The base power consumed by the switch without any port is still significantly high and is not affected by EEE. Experiment results also show that the base power consumption of switches does not significantly increase with the size of the switches. Doubling the size of the switch between 24 and 48 ports increases power consumption by 35.39%. EEE has a greater effect on bigger switches, with a power (or energy) gain on the EEE-enabled 48-port switch compared to 2× EEE-enabled 24-port switch. On the other hand, it seems to be more energy-efficient to use 2 separate 24-port switches (NO EEE) than 2 separate 24-port switches (With EEE).
Joseph El Khoury, Eric Rondeau, Jean-Philippe Georges, Ah-Lian Kor

Mobile Phones and Energy Consumption

Abstract
This paper is an extension of (Cristea et al. in International SEEDS conference, 2015) [1] and abstracted from (Cristea in Energy consumption of mobile phones, 2015) [2]. This research contributes to the potential of greening software application as discussed in (Kharchenko et al. in Green IT engineering: concepts, models, complex systems architectures, vol 74, 2017a) [3] and (Kharchenko et al. in Green IT engineering: components, networks and systems implementation, vol 105, 2017b) [4]. Additionally, green design principles abstracted from this research will be relevant for designing the systems in (Kondratenko et al. in Green IT Engineering: Components, Networks and Systems Implementation, 2017) [5] and (Kuchuk et al. in Green IT Engineering: Components, Networks and Systems Implementation, 2017) [6]. Battery consumption in mobile applications development is a very important aspect and has to be considered by all the developers in their applications. This study will present an analysis of different relevant concepts and parameters that may have impact on energy consumption of Windows Phone applications. This operating system was chosen because there is limited research even though there are related studies for Android and iOS operating systems. Furthermore, another reason is the increasing number of Windows Phone users. The objective of this research is to categorize the energy consumption parameters (e.g. use of one thread or several thread for the same output). The result for each group of experiments will be analyzed and a rule will be derived. The set of derived rules will serve as a guide for developers who intend to develop energy-efficient Windows Phone applications. For each experiment, one application is created for each concept and the results are presented in two ways: a table and a chart. The table presents the duration of the experiment, the battery consumed in the experiment, the expected battery lifetime and the energy consumption, while the charts display the energy distribution based on the main threads: UI thread, application thread and network thread.
Cristea Vlad Vasile, Colin Pattinson, Ah-Lian Kor

Energy-Efficient Multi-fragment Markov Model Guided Online Model-Based Testing for MPSoC

Abstract
Term greenware capitalizes the energy efficiency, performance of processes and durability of hardware. Online monitoring/testing is a measure to support these features in autonomous mission critical systems (AMCS). The amount of time needed for sampling AMCS service quality modes has direct impact to energy consumption. We propose an efficient online testing method of AMCS service modes where the Multi-Fragment Markov Models (MFMM) are used for specifying the system reliability and quality related behavior on high level of abstraction, and the more concrete state and timing constraints are specified explicitly using Uppaal Probabilistic Timed Automata (UPTA). To interrelate these models we demonstrate how the MFMM is mapped to UPTA. Second contribution is the test case selection mechanism for online identification of AMCS service modes by model-based conformance testing. The efficiency of active mode sampling is achieved by serializing the test cases for each sampling session using hypotheses provided by MFMM. The hypotheses are tested using UPTA for online conformance. The approach is illustrated with the Bonfire Multi-Processor System-on-Chip (MPSoC).
Jüri Vain, Leonidas Tsiopoulos, Vyacheslav Kharchenko, Apneet Kaur, Maksim Jenihhin, Jaan Raik, Sven Nõmm

Decrease of Energy Consumption of Transport Telecommunication Networks Using Stage-by-Stage Controlling Procedure

Abstract
A new approach to the development of advanced automatic monitoring system and adaptive control of transport telecommunication network, allowing to reduce energy consumption of switching centers during the analysis and identification of faults and failures in equipment operation is offered in this paper. Energy reduction is achieved due to the use of step-by-step procedure of finding out abnormal situations, errors optimization of identification system states, the use of multi-agent and permission of agents dependent on hierarchy level of transport telecommunication network.
Gennady Linets, Sergey Melnikov

Model and Methods of Human-Centered Personal Computers Adaptive Power Control

Abstract
The problem of economical use of modern PCs’ electric energy is solved at all levels, starting with hardware. Power consumption of the computing platform can be structured by dividing it into two parts: static and dynamic, where last of them is defined by processor load. There are two main approaches in solving the problem of reducing the computers’ power consumption at the hardware and at the operating system levels:
  • the dynamic change of the processor voltage and frequency;
  • the advanced configuration’s interface and power management technology.
Only a few publications that take into account the user’s model when power saving PC’s control are known. Mostly, the terms «user’s model», «user’s behavior model» are used in works on ergonomics of the user’s interface, in search and advisory systems, in systems of user’s authentication, and also in tasks of identifying abnormal behavior of computing systems. Proposed solutions use models based on the measurement of the user’s motor activity with typical and most used devices for entering information: a keyboard and a manual manipulator «mouse». Also the existing models ignore the semantic and target components of the user’s behavior for which the elementary motor activity is carried out. Such components are manifested at the level of the operating system in the form of application’s starts/stops, switching of focus, etc., and they are also an integral part of the general model of user’s activity of the PC. The purpose of the article is to develop a model of user’s activity and the method of its identification in the system of PC’s power consumption. In addition the evaluation of the implementation of this model and methods in the system of the PC’s power consumption is of interest.
Igor Turkin, Oleksandr Vdovitchenko

Industry and Transport Green IT Systems Applications

Frontmatter

Green Assurance Case: Applications for Internet of Things

Abstract
The article discusses Assurance Case methodology for its implementation for Green Information Technology (IT) domain related with Internet of Things (IoT). We name this approach as “Green Assurance Case”. The fundamentals of Assurance Case are explained as the initial part of the article. Safety and security requirements are considered as a part of typical Assurance Case. Green Assurance Case for IoT includes: sustainability assurance part, safety and security assurance part, Green IT principles, power consumption parameters part as well as requirements to green features of each of the four IoT layers. An example of the proposed Green Assurance Case methodology application for medical IoT system is represented.
Vladimir Sklyar, Vyacheslav Kharchenko

Synthesis and Optimization of Green Fuzzy Controllers for the Reactors of the Specialized Pyrolysis Plants

Abstract
This paper presents the developed by the authors generalized step-by-step method of synthesis and optimization of green fuzzy controllers (FC) for the automatic control systems (ACS) of the reactor’s temperature of the specialized pyrolysis plants (SPP). The proposed method gives the opportunity to synthesize and optimize Mamdani type green FCs of the temperature modes of the SPPs reactors that provide (a) high accuracy and quality indicators of temperature control, (b) low energy consumption in the process of functioning as well as (c) relatively simple software and hardware implementation. The initial synthesis of the structure and parameters of green FCs is implemented on the basis of expert assessments and recommendations. Their further optimization for improving the quality indicators, reducing energy consumption and simplification of soft/hardware realization is carried out using specific optimization procedures by means of mathematical programming methods. In order to study and validate the effectiveness of the developed method the design of the Mamdani type green FC for the temperature ACS of the pyrolysis reactor of the experimental SPP has been carried out in this work. The developed green FC has a relatively simple hardware and software implementation as well as allows to achieve high quality indicators of temperature modes control at a sufficiently low energy consumption, that confirms the high efficiency of the proposed method.
Oleksiy Kozlov, Galyna Kondratenko, Zbigniew Gomolka, Yuriy Kondratenko

Models and Algorithms for Prediction of Electrical Energy Consumption Based on Canonical Expansions of Random Sequences

Abstract
The given chapter is devoted to the development of the mathematical support, in particular, mathematical models and algorithms, which can be successfully used for solving prediction tasks in various areas of human activity, including energetic and ecological management. The development peculiarities and the use of models and algorithms as elements of green technology to predict electric energy consumption based on mathematical apparatus of canonical expansions of random sequences are currently being discussed. Developed calculation method doesn’t impose any limitations on the qualities of random sequences of the change of electric energy consumption (requirement of linearity, Markovian behavior, monotony, stationarity etc.) and has maximal accuracy characteristics in this connection. Block diagrams of algorithms and results of the applied realization of the developed models and algorithms, for example the prediction of electric energy consumption by one of the local neighborhoods in Mykolaiv, Ukraine are introduced in the work. Comparative analysis of the results of a numerical experiment with the use of a Kalman filter and the linear prediction method confirms the high efficiency of the developed models and algorithms (relative error of prediction of electric energy consumption is 2–3%).
Igor Atamanyuk, Volodymyr Kondratenko, Yuriy Kondratenko, Vyacheslav Shebanin, Marina Solesvik

On Quantitative Assessment of Reliability and Energy Consumption Indicators in Railway Systems

Abstract
Stochastic model-based approaches are widely used for obtaining quantitative non-functional indicators of the analysed systems, as for example reliability, performance and energy consumption. However, a critical issue with models is their validation, in order to justifiably put reliance on the analysis results they provide. In this paper, we address cross-validation on a case study from the railway domain, by modelling and evaluating it with different formalisms and tools. Stochastic Activity Networks models and Stochastic Hybrid Automata models of rail road switch heaters, developed for the purpose of evaluating energy consumption and reliability indicators, will be evaluated with Mobius and Uppaal SMC. We will compare the obtained results, to improve their trustworthiness and to provide insights on the design and analysis of energy-saving cyber-physical systems.
Davide Basile, Felicita Di Giandomenico, Stefania Gnesi

Cooperative Ecology Human–Machine Interfaces for Safe Intelligent Transport Systems: Cloud-Based Software Case

Abstract
The analysis of the available solutions regarding the cooperative intelligent transport systems (ITS) and their human–machine interfaces (HMI) has been conducted. The standards and recommendations in the area of transport systems interfaces design is analysed. So-called ecology HMI and requirements for such interfaces and features of the application for ITS are discussed. Profiling of the requirements for the cooperative human–machine interface (CHMI) and the cooperative ecology human–machine interface (CEHMI) for such systems including the requirements to usability and safety based on a set of standards for ITSs has been performed. An approach and a design technique of human–machine interfaces for ITSs based on designing the cooperative human–machine interfaces for intelligent transport systems are suggested. The architecture of cloud-based CHMI for intelligent transport systems that consists of three main parts: client end, server end, and core-project and includes data models for the communication protocol and the common utility functions is developed. The prototype of the software system for CHMI for ITS examined in the laboratory conditions is described. The assessment using the GOMS method allowed to calculate the efficiency to execute the task of user interaction with the system.
Aleksandr Orekhov, Anastasia Stadnik, Vyacheslav Kharchenko

Optimisation of Bi-directional Pulse Turbine for Waste Heat Utilization Plant Based on Green IT Paradigm

Abstract
The problem of preservation of the environment is closely connected with issues of rational use of energy and material resources. In this regard, the development of new energy-saving technologies is a top priority. Analyzing the state of modern energy saving technologies, one can conclude that there is a lack of effective solutions for utilizing waste low-temperature and cryogenic heat resources (450–132) K. Thermoacoustic heat machines (TAHM), can effectively use such energy sources. TAHM are characterized by high reliability, relative low cost and environmental safety. The introduction of thermoacoustic technologies is hampered by the low power of TAHM and the difficulty of directly obtaining mechanical work from acoustic waves. There is the possibility of using bi-directional turbines as a converter of acoustic energy in mechanical work. Such approach will enable the creation of thermoacoustic turbine generators of high power. To determine the optimal design parameters of bidirectional thermoacoustic turbines it is necessary to conduct a complex of experimental and theoretical studies. Article presents the results of experimental research of the working processes of the “bi-directional turbine—electric generator—TAHM” complex. For the registration and analysis of experimental information, a special computer based control system was created. System includes MCU-based pulse-phase control subsystem for thermoacoustic engine heater, data acquisition subsystem and SCADA-based PC software for data storage and analysis. Designed with green IT approach paradigm control system is described in detail. Initial processing of measurement results was carried out in real time with the help of special software. The results of physical experiments allowed determining the boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of work processes in the bi-directional turbine. The peculiarities of the medium hydrodynamics in the TAHM resonator during the work of the bi-directional turbine at various load conditions were studied. Based on the results of CFD modeling the structural optimization of turbine is proposed.
Yuriy Kondratenko, Serhiy Serbin, Volodymyr Korobko, Oleksiy Korobko

Social, Educational and Business Aspects of Green IT Systems Application

Frontmatter

Cyber-Social Computing

Abstract
The structures of cyber-social computing are proposed, which are considered as components of cloud-driven technologies for exact monitoring and moral governance of the society. The main trends of the development of the cyber-physical structure presented in Gartner’s Hype Cycle 2017 are described to apply them in science, education, transport, industry and state structures. Prospective directions of the market-feasible technologies, related to green cyber-social monitoring and management of society, are proposed. An expanded description of technologies focused on the creation of the smart digital world, green cities and 5G telecommunications is performed. Recommendations are given for leveraging the top 10 technologies of 2017 in business, scientific and educational processes of higher education. Technologies of emotional-logical computing, a metric for measuring social relations along horizontal and vertical connections, rules of human behavior, focused on creating the emotional logic for modeling and simulation human behavior are proposed. A cyber-physical model of green statehood for the metric management of resources and citizens is introduced; it is based on digital monitoring and assessment of the needs of citizens, including components of social computing (relations, goals, management, personnel, infrastructure, resources), ordered by the degree of their influence on the market success.
Vladimir Hahanov, Oleksandr Mishchenko, Tetiana Soklakova, Vugar Abdullayev, Svetlana Chumachenko, Eugenia Litvinova

Architecture for Collaborative Digital Simulation for the Polar Regions

Abstract
Offshore oil and gas operations continuously go to the High North. The ecology of the Arctic area is very fragile. The maritime industry is mainly eco-destructive. In the Arctic, the problems of possible ship accidents and catastrophes are extremely dangerous for the nature. In this paper, we analyse recent literature on new digital simulation technology and propose new ways of the utilization of this novel technology in the maritime industry. We present fresh insights related to the architecture, software and hardware related to joint digital simulation platforms in planning safe maritime operations in the Arctic and effective search and rescue operations. For the facilitation of integrated systems, the project will work towards a cross industry, open platform ecosystem connecting operations with the help of cloud technology: from data collection to storage through analytics. The utilization of the joint digital simulation platforms will allow to minimize pollution effects during navigation and accidents. The study will be interesting for scholars, policy-makers and practitioners from the maritime industry.
Marina Solesvik, Yuriy Kondratenko

Computer Support for Decision-Making on Defining the Strategy of Green IT Development at the State Level

Abstract
It is shown that in the conditions of the fourth industrial revolution and the formation of sixth technological order, Green IT technologies form one of the stable trend because they are classified as breakthrough technologies. The paper presents a complex estimation method of innovative potential of the national economy in order to determine the prospects of Green IT technology development. Methodological basis of the method is cluster analysis. As an example, the estimation of the innovation potential of Ukraine in the aspect of Green IT development is considered. Data analysis used for predicting the development of Green IT technologies on dynamic time series. As a predictive model is used Brown model and special structural parametric synthesis method that implements identification a time series by preliminary analysis and processing of initial data, identify the trend and formation the interval estimates. The results of forecasting are supposed to be used, along with other initial data, for foresight research on the definition of Green IT perspective directions development. A generalized structure of interactive decision support system for the development of Green IT at the state level is presented. In the future, it is supposed to create a generalized methodology of forecasting not only Green IT, but also other advanced technologies in countries with different levels of economic development.
Igor Shostak, Igor Matyushenko, Yuri Romanenkov, Mariia Danova, Yuliia Kuznetsova

The Application of Blockchain Technology in the Maritime Industry

Abstract
The maritime industry is one of the most polluting in the world. In this paper we present fresh insights related to the application of the novel blockchain technology in reducing pollutions. We analyse recent literature on blockchain technology and propose ways of the utilization of blockchain technology in the maritime industry. Special interest for maritime industry specialists represents the perspectives of the utilization of the blockchain technology in improving the environmental efficiency of the maritime industry. The technology has a broad range of applicability, allowing connecting the supply chain more efficiently, providing the exchange and visibility of time-stamped proofed data, decreasing the industry operational costs with intermediaries and increasing security. It also allows full visibility for all parties involved with proof of work, facilitating Class Societies inspections, Port State Control and audits compliance. The results of the study also show that cases on blockchain application in other fields increase the industry willingness to its application on the maritime industry. While having blockchain implementation specialized third parties would increase the implementation possibility and the industry willingness due to reduced costs and friction. The study will be interesting for scholars, policy-makers and practitioners from the maritime industry.
Karen Czachorowski, Marina Solesvik, Yuriy Kondratenko

Software Engineering Sustainability Education in Compliance with Industrial Standards and Green IT Concept

Abstract
The chapter presents a scientific approach to building the course “Software Engineering Sustainability” to introduce the sustainable concept into educational programs for software engineers. The approach is based on the development and harmonization of the professional competence list with the application of formal mathematics and using graph theory along with open source visualization and exploration software for all kinds of graphs and networks. The proposed approach supports the flexible development of curricula, allowing each university to create programs, guided by their own specialties and demographics of their students. The authors demonstrate how they consider different factors to build a harmonized list of professional competencies for software engineers and to develop courses to support sustainability through the higher education system. This list of professional competences meets the requirements of employers, maintains the successful experience of national higher education and professional industry standards, and conforms to the European Union e-Competence Framework. The chapter contains review and analysis of the term “Software Engineering Sustainability” from different viewpoints. Authors provide description of elaborated and applied approach to building the course. They present the design of the course “Software Engineering Sustainability” with description of the course content and visible positioning Green IT. The course has been being delivered by the first author at National Aerospace University “Kharkiv Aviation Institute”.
Igor Turkin, Yuliya Vykhodets
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