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2011 | Buch

Green IT: Technologies and Applications

herausgegeben von: Jae H. Kim, Myung J. Lee

Verlag: Springer Berlin Heidelberg


Über dieses Buch

This book is the first of its kind in presenting comprehensive technical issues and solutions for rapidly growing Green IT. It brings together in a single volume both green communications and green computing under the theme of Green IT, and presents exciting research and developments taking place therein in a survey style. Written by the subject matter experts consisting of an international team of recognized researchers and practitioners in the field, Green IT: Technologies and Applications will serve as an excellent source of information on the latest technical trend of Green IT for graduate/undergraduate students, researchers, engineers, and engineering managers in the IT (Electrical, Communications, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Information Science) as well as interdisciplinary areas such as sustainability, environment, and energy.

The book comprises three parts: Green Communications, Green Computing, and Smart Grid and Applications. Part I Green Communications deals with energy efficient architectures and associated performance measures in wireless communications. It covers energy issues in PHY, MAC, Routing, Application layers and their solutions for a variety of networks. Part II Green Computing deals with various energy issues in data centers, computing clusters, computing storage, and associated optimization techniques. Energy management strategies are presented to balance between energy efficiency and required qualities of services. Part III Smart Grid and Applications presents an overview and research challenges for smart grid. Applications include modeling of urban pollutant for transportation networks, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) architecture with long range radio, and Green IT standards.



Green Communications Technology

Evolving Communications Architectures: More Local Is More Green
Current mobile communications architectures have increasing energy costs on both a unit, and often a per bit, basis. As requirements for bandwidth to mobile devices increases, it is important that the linear growth in energy consumption be avoided, or mobile communications will become an increasing source of energy consumption, and visual obstruction. This chapter discusses the potential evolution of mobile architectures that can be both more responsive to usage growth and provide lower energy consumption through more localized access to mobile points of presence. This transition will dependent on a number of technology developments that can be foreseen in the reasonable future. These technologies include cognitive radio and networking, interference tolerance , and advanced wireless system architectures.
Preston F. Marshall
Towards Green Wireless Communications: Metrics, Optimization and Tradeoff
This chapter provides an overview on the current research progress in the green wireless communication field. Three key issues are discussed on green wireless communications. First, the metrics and the corresponding evaluation methods are discussed as the basis of energy efficiency optimization for wireless networks. Second, several methods are adopted to optimize the energy efficiency. For reducing the energy consumption, the methods can be categorized into two types, decreasing the equipment usage and adjusting the resource allocation. Third, the energy consumption increases and the energy efficiency decreases with the increasing transmit data rate. It is necessary to balance the tradeoff between energy and performance in practical wireless networks. Finally, the technical challenges are discussed towards green wireless communications.
Wei Wang, Zhaoyang Zhang, Aiping Huang
Energy-Aware Link Adaptation for a MIMO Enabled Cognitive System
Circuit designers have put substantial effort to reduce the energy consumption of specific blocks in wireless communication devices. However, much more significant increase in energy efficiency can be achieved at the system level by proper choice of transmission parameters. Choosing the best mode to transmit given the channel conditions in a wireless link is referred to as link adaptation. In this chapter, we present the state-of-the-art on link adaptation protocols for emerging Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, and we provide a novel energy-aware fast link adaptation protocol which provides orders of magnitude gain in energy efficiency of the communication link.
Eren Eraslan, Babak Daneshrad, Chung-Yu Lou, Chao-Yi Wang
Energy Efficient MAC
In short range and low-rate wireless networks, energy saving has been one of the hottest issues. Compared to high-rate networks designed for multi-media data streaming, the low-rate networks mainly focus on monitoring and control applications. In most of the applications, nodes are expected to operate on battery. For saving energy in those types of networks, medium access control (MAC) protocols have been considered as one of the most essential and actively researched areas. In this chapter, we investigate the energy saving MAC issues and protocols of short range and low rate wireless networks.
Tae Rim Park, Myung J. Lee
Energy-Efficient Routing in Delay-Tolerant Networks
The lifetime of a wireless network is significantly affected by the energy consumed on data transmission. One approach which allows reduction of the transmission energy consumption is the new networking paradigm - the Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). The topology of DTNs consists of nodes with short transmission range, thus allowing the reduction of energy consumption. However, this short transmission range leads to sparse network topologies, raising the challenge of an efficient routing protocol. Epidemic Routing Protocol (ERP), in which data packets are replicated on nodes that come in contact, is one of such DTN routing protocols. The basic ERP exhibits the shortest delay in packet delivery, but this short delay comes at the expense of large energy consumption. In our past publications, we have proposed a number of new variants of ERP for DTN - the Restricted Epidemic Routing (RER) protocols - which allow to efficiently tradeoff between the energy consumption of a single packet and the packet delivery delay. In this chapter, we extend our study to determine and to compare the overall lifetime of a network when the various RER protocols are used.
Zygmunt J. Haas, Seung-Keun Yoon, Jae H. Kim
Relay Selection Strategies for Green Communications
This chapter presents a microeconomic-based ‘green’ radio framework, in which a network operator contracts with one of its inactive end-users, with the specific intention of reducing the transmitted power of its source nodes and the costs incurred in providing the service. The proposed approach bears comparison with a tender process, where each inactive end-user submits a tender to the operator, describing the energy- and cost-savings that may be provided if selected to relay data to the intended destination. The operator will then associate additional measures to each submitted tender that quantify the downsides which may result from cooperating with that specific end-user. Finally, there is the tender evaluation and selection procedure, which may be compared with solving a multi-objective optimization problem. Our results disclose that the proposed framework can attain up to 68% energy savings and up to 65% cost savings over the direct transmission benchmarker.
Nicholas Bonello
Cooperative Relay Scheduling in Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks
This chapter studies relay scheduling in wireless sensor networks with energy harvesting and cooperative communications capabilities. Sensor networks are increasingly deployed in inaccessible and remote regions for applications such as environmental monitoring, relief operations, and defense. In such networks, energy harvesting and cooperative communication paradigms are used simultaneously to design energy-efficient relay scheduling strategies. The following scheduling problem is formulated to maximize the network utility: Given an estimate of the current network state, should a source sensor node transmit its data directly to the destination sensor node, or should it use a relay sensor node to help with the transmission? An upper bound is obtained on the performance of an arbitrary scheduler. Scheduling policies are then developed to choose the appropriate transmission mode depending upon the available energy at the sensors as well as the states of their energy harvesting and data generation processes. Two separate scenarios are considered where the state of the relay node is either fully or partially observable at the source node, and the scenarios are modeled using a Markov Decision Process (MDP) and a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) respectively. It is shown that the POMDP can be transformed into an equivalent MDP. Optimal scheduling strategies are evaluated using value iteration algorithm, and various insights towards optimal relay scheduling are discussed. Simulation results are used to show the performance of the proposed strategies.
Huijiang Li, Neeraj Jaggi, Biplab Sikdar
Energy-Efficient Parallel Packet Forwarding
As the Internet traffic continues growing rapidly, parallel packet forwarding becomes a necessity in Internet infrastructure to meet the throughput requirement. On the other hand, energy/ power consumption has been a critical challenge for Internet infrastructure. It has been shown that two thirds of power dissipation inside a core router is due to packet forwarding. This chapter studies the problem of energy-efficient parallel packet forwarding in Internet Infrastructure. According to whether the data structure is shared or duplicated amongmultiple engines, two types of parallel packet forwarding systems are discussed. For the system with shared data structure, we study how to partition the data structure and map onto multiple engines, so that the worst-case energy/ power consumption is minimized. For the system with duplicated data structure, we formulate as an optimization problem how to distribute traffic load onto multiple engines to minimize the overall power consumption while satisfying the throughput demand.
Weirong Jiang, Viktor K. Prasanna
Energy Consumption Analysis and Adaptive Energy Saving Solutions for Mobile Device Applications
Recent trends, motivated by user preferences towards carrying smaller and more complex devices, have focused on integrating different user-centric applications in a single general-purpose mobile hand-held device. Hence, Laptops, smart phones and PDAs are rapidly replacing computers as the most commonly-used Internet-access devices. This has resulted in much higher energy consumption and consequently, a reduced battery life of a wireless device. In fact, the biggest problem today in the mobile world is that they are battery driven and the battery technologies are not matching the required energy demand. This chapter focuses on different energy consuming components in the high-end wireless devices, with specific emphasis on adaptive energy efficient display and decoding mechanisms.
Martin Kennedy, Hrishikesh Venkataraman, Gabriel-Miro Muntean
Energy Efficient GPS Emulation through Compasses and Accelerometers for Mobile Phones
This paper identifies the possibility of using electronic compasses and accelerometers in mobile phones, as a simple and scalable method of localization. The idea is not fundamentally different from ship or air navigation systems, known for centuries. Nonetheless, directly applying the idea to human-scale environments is non-trivial. Noisy phone sensors and complicated human movements present practical research challenges. We cope with these challenges by recording a person’s walking patterns, and matching it against possible path signatures generated from a local electronicmap. Electronicmaps enable greater coverage,while eliminating the reliance on WiFi infrastructure and expensive war-driving. Measurement on Nokia phones and evaluation with real users confirm the anticipated benefits. Results show a location accuracy of less than 11m in regions where today’s localization services are unsatisfactory or unavailable.
Ionut Constandache, Romit Roy Choudhury, Injong Rhee
Energy-Efficiency Networking Games
The concept of energy efficiency has moved in and out of favor with the public over the years, but recently has gained renewed broad-based support. The confluence of economic, environmental and fairness concerns around offering the same quality of service by reducing energy has moved efficiency to the fore. In the context of networking and communications, there are different energy-efficiency issues in terms of quality of service, quality of experience, energy consumption, pricing etc. This chapter will focus primarily on the game theoretical formulations of energy-efficiency metrics, with applications to networking problems.We will first present a broadly inclusive notions of energy-efficiency and then explore a variety of ways to analyze the strategic behaviors of the players depending on the information and the dynamics of the system. Applications to power management with stochastic battery state modelling and network selection problems with energy-efficiency criteria are presented.
Manzoor Ahmed Khan, Hamidou Tembine

Green Computing Technology

Energy Efficiency of Data Centers
As the power consumption has a significant and continuously increasing part of the operational expenses of data centers, energy efficient data center networking has received special attention from the academic and industrial research community recently. The complex design of data centers provides several directions toward more energy efficiency, including the consumption of servers and network equipments. We address the issue of power consumption of data centers from a higher-level point of view by analyzing the energy efficiency of data center architectures. We review the state-of-the-art data center architectures including BCube, DCell, fat-tree, and Scafida and present evaluate their energy-efficiency quantitatively. In addition, the trade-off between the power consumption and the performance of the data center is investigated. Next, other aspects of data centers’ energy efficiency is revealed including thermal control techniques, energy management systems. Finally, a standard data center energy efficiency metric called PUE (Power Usage Effectiveness) is presented.
László Gyarmati, Tuan Anh Trinh
Energy-Conservation in Large-Scale Data-Intensive Hadoop Compute Clusters
Data-intensive computing is gaining rapid popularity given the rampancy and fast growth of Big Data. It’s myriad use cases range from clickstream processing, mail-spam detection, credit-card fraud detection to meteorology, and genomics. Google’s MapReduce is a programming model designed to greatly simplify Big Data processing. Hadoop, an implementation of MapReduce is increasingly becoming popular because of its open-source nature. The ever-increasing and largescale deployments of Hadoop clusters bring in their wake huge energy costs, thereby making energy-conservation a priority. Scale-down is an attractive technique to conserve energy and it also allows energy proportionality with non-energy-proportional components such as the disks. Hadoop presents unique challenges to the popular scale-down based cluster-energy-management techniques. The same features that lend high performance to Hadoop, such as fine-grained load-balancing of data across servers in the cluster and data-locality of computations, also complicate scale-down. In this chapter, we go over the scale-down approaches that have been proposed specifically for the Hadoop clusters. Then, we present a case study of GreenHDFS, which uses a data-centric scale-down approach to save overall operating energy costs in a Hadoop compute cluster.
Rini T. Kaushik, Klara Nahrstedt
Energy-Efficient Computing Using Agent-Based Multi-objective Dynamic Optimization
Nowadays distributed systems face a new challenge, almost nonexistent a decade ago: energy-efficient computing. Due to the rising environmental and economical concerns and with trends driving operational costs beyond the acquisition ones, green computing is of more actuality than never before. The aspects to deal with, e.g. dynamic systems, stochastic models or time-dependent factors, call nonetheless for paradigms combining the expertise of multiple research areas. An agent-based dynamic multi-objective evolutionary algorithm relying on simulation and anticipation mechanisms is presented in this chapter. A first aim consists in addressing several difficult energy-efficiency optimization issues, in a second phase, different open questions being outlined for future research.
Alexandru-Adrian Tantar, Grégoire Danoy, Pascal Bouvry, Samee U. Khan
Green Storage Technologies: Issues and Strategies for Enhancing Energy Efficiency
Energy cost in the data center is rising at a steep rate, and a significant portion of that cost comes from the storage system. Storage (disks and memory systems) accounts for more than 30% of the total power consumption. This number is expected to rise to 50% of the overall IT budget in the future. Enhancing the power efficiency of storage systems is of utmost importance, and, many techniques have been proposed and are being explored in both component and system levels. This chapter starts by providing a brief introduction on the basic power characteristics of storage components from a device-level perspective. Then several architectural and high-level power management techniques are covered.
Hyung Gyu Lee, Mamadou Diao, Jongman Kim
Sustainable Science in the Green Cloud via Environmentally Opportunistic Computing
The energy consumed by data centers is growing every year. Significant energy and cost savings are possible through modest gains in efficiency. These leverage solutions for both economical gains and improvement of their environmental footprint. One solution is Environmentally Opportunistic Computing (EOC), which is a sustainable computing concept that capitalizes on the physical and temporal mobility of modern computer processes and enables distributed computing hardware to be integrated into a facility to optimize the consumption of computational waste heat. In this work, we will review the EOC methodologies as applied in the Green Cloud (GC) framework, and describe application of the EOC concepts to the local and global grid infrastructures.
In-Saeng Suh, Paul R. Brenner

Smart Grid and Applications

Smart Grid
The basic architecture of the electric grid has not changed much since its development over 100 years ago: it is designed to move power from controllable centrally-generated sources through a transmission and distribution network to end users, supplying power needed to satisfy demand. About 68% of the world’s power is generated from combustion of fossil fuels, and is a major source of CO2 emissions. Additionally, the need to provide enough generation capacity to meet relatively short intervals of peak demand results in a very inefficient system. The “Smart Grid” refers to a modernized electric grid that is capable of supporting a high proportion of “uncontrollable” variable renewable carbon-free sources such as wind and solar, achieving greater system efficiency through simultaneous management of demand as well as generation, and greater reliability through extensive use of sensors and automation. The Smart Grid also promises further environmental benefits by supporting growing use of electric vehicles that can be charged using idle capacity in the grid. The application of information and communications technology is critical to the operation of the Smart Grid, which will operate much more dynamically than the present electrical system. The chapter will discuss the motivation, goals and benefits of the Smart Grid; its conceptual architecture and key enabling technologies; the critical role of standards to ensure interoperability of devices and systems that make up the grid; and discuss the status of its development in different parts of the world.
George W. Arnold
Green Middleware
To foster innovation, address energy independence, react to global warming, and increase emergency resiliency, governments around the world are promoting efforts to modernize electricity networks by instigating smart grid, e-energy and e-mobility initiatives [5, 6, 3, 4]. A smart grid refers to efforts that enhance and extend today’s electric power grids with information processing technology to more efficiently use the world’s scarcest resource, energy [6].
Hans-Arno Jacobsen, Vinod Muthusamy
Semantic Information Integration for Smart Grid Applications
The Los Angeles Smart Grid Project aims to use informatics techniques to bring about a quantum leap in the way demand response load optimization is performed in utilities. Semantic information integration, from sources as diverse as Internet-connected smart meters and social networks, is a linchpin to support the advanced analytics and mining algorithms required for this. In association with it, semantic complex event processing system will allow consumer and utility managers to easily specify and enact energy policies continuously. We present the information systems architecture for the project that is under development, and discuss research issues that emerge from having to design a system that supports 1.4 million customers and a rich ecosystem of Smart Grid applications from users, third party vendors, the utility and regulators.
Yogesh Simmhan, Qunzhi Zhou, Viktor Prasanna
Markov Chain Based Emissions Models: A Precursor for Green Control
In this chapter we propose a new method of modeling urban pollutants arising from transportation networks. The efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of a number of examples. Our models give rise to a number of surprising observations that are relevant for the regulation of pollution in urban networks: different actions are required for the control of different pollutants and low speed limits do not necessarily lead to low pollution.
E. Crisostomi, S. Kirkland, A. Schlote, R. Shorten
Long-Endurance Scalable Wireless Sensor Networks (LES-WSN) with Long-Range Radios for Green Communications
Two paradigm-shifting innovations are presented that have potential to enable an affordable Green Communications (GC) class: large-scale, low-cost environmental and endangered species monitoring using a generation of new unattended, long-duration wireless sensors. We first describe why existing solutions based on short-range radios have failed to address this key GC regime, and how the proposed LES-WSN innovations, namely long-range radios and two-tier (one-radio) architecture, makes low-cost wide-area environmental monitoring a reality. By utilizing high transmission power, long-range radios drastically reduce overall system cost when covering large areas. By combining the latest Long-Term Evolution waveform with this high transmission power radio hardware, we achieve both long communication range and high data rate (2+Mbps) simultaneously and at extremely high battery efficiency. The two-tier, one-radio architecture allows for only a small number of nodes to relay the sensor data, relieving vast number of sensor nodes from the burden of relaying. In addition, it eliminates the need for sensor nodes to wake up frequently and periodically, enabling mobile sensors for endangered species monitoring. Several new GC applications that become possible by the proposed LES-WSN paradigm are described, along with field experiment results that validate the claimed enabling benefits.
Bo Ryu, Hua Zhu
Standardization Activities for Green IT
The problem of global climate change has evolved to a political and economic issue beyond a mere environmental issue and becomes critical for the survival of mankind as well as the stabilization of world economy.
Information Technology (IT) is recognized as an effective means to cope with the climate change issue expediting low carbon world. IT can be utilized as a key technique for the reduction of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for buildings, transportation, logistics, and power grid. These industries are the major sources of GHG. IT can reduce GHG emissions from these sectors five times as much as IT sector produces [1].
IT sector itself is becoming a major source of GHG. Although the proportion of GHG emission by IT sector is only 2% as of 2007 [2], it will be increased to 10 to 15% by 2025 [3] due to the increased use of IT. Making IT green is becoming important.
For these reasons, various IT standardization activities have been initiated since 2008 for improving the environmental friendliness of the IT sector itself as well as other sectors.
Standardization is essential in putting green IT solutions into practical use because it enables the interoperability of various IT products and services. The overview of the standardization activities for green IT is presented in this chapter. In section 22.1, the standardization activities to reduce the impact of telecommunication on climate change are presented. In section 22.2, the IT standards for smart grid are presented as a typical example of using IT to improve the environmental friendliness of other industries.
Gahng-Seop Ahn, Jikdong Kim, Myung Lee
Green IT: Technologies and Applications
herausgegeben von
Jae H. Kim
Myung J. Lee
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
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