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Über dieses Buch

This book discusses the innovative and efficient technological solutions for sustainable smart societies in terms of alteration in industrial pollution levels, the effect of reduced carbon emissions, green power management, ecology, and biodiversity, the impact of minimal noise levels and air quality influences on human health. The book is focused on the smart society development using innovative low-cost advanced technology in different areas where the growth in employment and income are driven by public and private investment into such economic activities, infrastructure and assets that allow reduced carbon emissions and pollution, enhanced energy, and resource efficiency and prevention of the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. The book also covers the paradigm shift in the sustainable development for the green environment in the post-pandemic era. It emphasizes and facilitates a greater understanding of existing available research i.e., theoretical, methodological, well-established and validated empirical work, associated with the environmental and climate change aspects.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Smart Cities: Building Sustainable Cities

Abstract
Thinking about sustainable actions for big cities is one of the problems of the twenty-first century. This demand is faced by cities in the different dimensions that make it up: social, economic, and environmental. Just as companies should think about adopting and investing in Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG), cities need to become smart cities, an important step to transform themselves into sustainable cities with a higher quality of life. ESG, in companies, refers to the three central factors for measuring the sustainability and social impact of an investment process. Cities need to focus, in addition to modernizing their infrastructure, on strengthening the circular economy, investing more in education, reducing school dropout, which is closely linked to the area of security in cities, and based on these measures, seek balance in all areas of society. The concepts of smart cities and sustainable cities will be presented, showing the interconnection of both concepts. The purpose of this chapter is to show how to build smart cities and how they are transformed into sustainable cities. Thus, a systematic and integrative review was carried out in the Scopus database, in order to answer the following questions: (1) What are smart cities? (2) How to transform cities into smart cities? (3) What is the interconnection between the two concepts: smart cities and sustainable cities? (4) How do smart cities contribute to building a sustainable city? The results converge in the relationship between intelligence and sustainability, being the basis for a new type of city that directs its growth in an intentional, collaborative, and inclusive way to transform urban centers into a place with a higher quality of life. This chapter brings two examples of smart cities: one in Portugal and another in Brazil, explaining how the national legislation of each country and its social reality interfere in the construction of smart cities. The main innovation presented is the indicators for transforming smart cities into sustainable cities. For this purpose, the chapter is divided into eight sections, which are entitled: Introduction, Smart Cities, Sustainable Cities, Methodology, Relationship Between Sustainable Cities and Intelligent Cities, From Smart Cities Toward Sustainable Cities: Inclusion and Life Quality, Case Studies: Smart Cities from Brazil and Portugal, and Conclusions.
Andreia de Bem Machado, João Rodrigues dos Santos, Marc François Richter, Maria José Sousa

Wearable Sensors for Smart Societies: A Survey

Abstract
Lately, numerous new well-being Global Positioning System beacons and smart watches have shown up in a few worldwide electronic item shopper displays. The idea of wearable gadgets keeps on being hot, and the market request keeps on developing. As of now, the item types of wearable gadgets fundamentally incorporate brilliant glasses, smart watches, keen wristbands, and so on. By interfacing with the web-service and consolidating with different programming, we can furnish customers with some significant essential signs data and keep clients in contact. In any case, in down-to-earth clinical applications, wearable gadgets ought to guarantee the exactness of securing and guarantee comfort during the time spent employing. By lessening the volume of implantable devices, it improves their biological compatibility and perseverance. The solace insight of customer’s influences by the soundness of battery power gracefully, administration life, sensor position, power utilization, precision, and so forth. The proposal provides a summary of various contributions in the wearable devices domain. The contributions of various authors are analyzed and summarized.
N. Ambika

Postpandemic EdTech (Educational Technology) on Perspectives of Green Society

Abstract
The aim of this chapter is to describe how education system is being changed with the advancement of emerging technology in postpandemic situation. Smart society is incomplete without advancement of the education system driven by smart and sustainable technologies. Green society is being created with sustainable green technology. Education based on green technology is the latest trend for creating skilled person about “Go Green” and generating jobs with green technological education. Education and technology both are complementary with each other without any of them the smart society could not be built. This chapter illuminates the future of smart education system in the form of EdTech, operated by virtual technologies such as Education 4.0, Hologram technology (7D) in post-Covid-19 pandemic situation. When blended teaching-learning encourages faculties and students to be connected directly with each other for sharing range of information, at the same time, technology advancement is blooming globally. Education industry in India, or in other countries, will implement AI/IoT-based digital learning with Industry 4.0 or future version in next few years after this global pandemic. Industry is capable to digitalize business process in Industry 4.0, which includes automation, production, operation, and services by merging virtual and real world. In AI/IoT-based teaching-learning, faculties are capable to analyze mental state of students and act accordingly. As digital age learning is comprehensible through mobile phones, future 5G technology will enable mobile device to access digital platform “anytime anywhere.” Visual interactive learning through holographic technology enables students to visualize and experience real-time physical classroom in virtual environment with virtual entities. It is projected that after 25–30 years, there will be no fence among countries in case of education, skill enhancement, and certification with Virtual Institution concept.
Patrali Pradhan, Paromita Mitra, Swati Chowdhuri, Biswarup Neogi, Sila Singh Ghosh

Toward Sustainability 4.0: A Comprehensive Analysis of Sustainability in Corporate Environment

Abstract
Sustainability is one of the key requirements for any business, and continuously changing business requirements and the environment are the main drivers of sustainable business practices. However, there exist gaps in recognizing and aligning these sustainable practices with everyday operational activities. This study’s aim is to explore the current awareness level in business leaders and stakeholders about corporate responsibility toward sustainability and reflects on the obstacles encountered by them in diverse built environments, laying the groundwork for addressing these hurdles and contributing toward the overall sustainable development. The study has two major findings: the analysis revealed that there is a paradigm shift in the understanding of sustainability; in contrast to earlier publications, newer publications focus on technological advancements such as the use of “Green Building Information Management” and “Green Internet of Things” illustrating the real-time implications of sustainable practices. Further analysis found a knowledge gap that exists among business leaders in understanding the concept of sustainable development. This, in essence, poses a burden for corporate leaders to keep up with ongoing technological developments. The study concludes that to achieve sustainable growth, leadership in the corporate environment needs a 360-degree view of sustainability, allowing them to assign equal value to the environment, social, and economic pillars of sustainability to address the current issues leveraging from the state-of-the-art technological innovations.
Varynia Wankhar, Leena Fukey, Mudita Sinha

Smart Health Care for Societies: An Insight into the Implantable and Wearable Devices for Remote Health Monitoring

Abstract
Advancement in digital health-care system has enthused to develop wearable and smart sensor with high-performance index. Mobile health-care technologies induce great potential for reducing health-care cost and provide assurance in continuous health monitoring of a critical patient from a remote location. The major demand in this domain is to establish a secure, harmless, and reliable medical device for accurately monitoring important signs of the human organ or the environment inside/outside of the human body through flexible sensors. Nevertheless, it is expected that the wearable or implantable medical devices do not possess additional health risks and allow the patient for daily activities; thus, biocompatibility of the sensor is the other essential consideration. In this chapter, a comprehensive review of the latest progress concerning these smart wearable sensors is presented with a focus on biosensor and the telemetry link. In addition to these several issues related to the device reliability, safety of human health has also been addressed.
Jeet Ghosh, Gopinath Samanta, Chinmay Chakraborty

Power Management Technique for Energy-Efficient Communication Systems in Telemedicine

Abstract
An embedded system is a specialized computer that is resource constrained to sense and control its environment. Embedded systems usually consist of hardware and software. The mostly used hardware materials are processors, peripheral communication devices, actuators, sensors, power supplies, and memory storage. The application-specific algorithms, device drivers, and operating systems are the typically used in software section. Normally need a standard protocol to communicate the particular type of embedded system, for example, nodes in sensor networks are the specialized embedded systems. Sensor nodes with wireless communication capabilities can form wireless sensor networks (WSN). Normally two types of wireless networks are used, such as personal area networks (PAN) and wireless sensor networks (WSN). The WSN can contain hundreds or even thousands of sensor nodes. The WSN used in industrial applications and can be deployed in hazardous environments, such as in battlefields, volcanoes, and wildfires. Personal area networks usually require measurement, and minimization devices are implemented in small numbers. PAN devices are designed for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth common-use technologies and standard protocols, for use such as web browsing, file transfer application, audio and video streaming application. Today’s research in WSN focuses on generating large-scale network system of electricity using very specialized algorithms. They usually feature exhibits for science, hospital, military, and professional use usage scenarios. Therefore, this research work introduces hybrid method to reduce the power consumption of WSN used in hospital based on patient healthcare monitoring system. To reduce the power consumption in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for healthcare systems has generated tremendous efforts in recent years. In any case, in a large portion of these investigations, sensor information handling assignments, for example, health decision-making and emergency reaction, the message is sent by the remote server. The proposed system consists of sensor nodes, central processing control module, and transmitter with indicator and receiver module. This research work uses direct power management technique to control the base station – to disable the working of unused nodes, and self-executing path resource allocation (SERA) method is used to detect the active nodes through WSN in receiver side. The direct power management (DPM) technique is used to reduce the power consumption in sensor nodes for base station. The DPM is the effect of initializing the energy of each sensor node without significantly degrading performance when reducing system power consumption. The basic idea is to turn off or not need to sleep mode devices and wake them up when needed. If the energy and performance overhead of the sleep-state transition is negligible, the genetic algorithm is executed so that the idle speed will be perfect when the system enters deep sleep state. A large sensor networks that are environments also require the deployment of a large number of sensors such as for intelligent patient monitoring, object tracking, and low power consumption or high battery life using energy-efficient cluster formation algorithms. The proposed wireless sensor network system using self-executing path resource allocation (SERA) strategy is used to implement in the hardware implementation using ARM Cortex-A 72 controller. This implements an analysis of the energy consumption of the system. The experimental and simulation results of proposed system shows low-power energy-efficient data transmission with security, reduce the packet losses, and improve the throughput ratio.
K. Sujatha, N. P. G. Bhavani, Rajeswary Hari, K. Senthil Kumar, N. Jayachitra, S. Krishnaveni, K. S. Thivya, A. Kalaivani, B. Rengammal Sankari

Influence of Reduced Noise Levels on Human Health During Quarantine Lockdown

Abstract
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is one of the greatest challenges humanity must overcome and a defining global health crisis of our time. With the initial outbreak in December 2019, the acute respiratory disease has had an exponential rate of infection and a staggering death toll. There is experimental evidence suggesting an interaction between environment and virus mechanism using the aggregation-disaggregation process. As a result of this, risks factors for humans being infected increases. For example, in the current scenario, the COVID 19 virus and air pollutants both result in acute respiratory infection among humans. Hence, it becomes impendent to understand the interactional patterns of relationship between the environment and human beings. With the advent of urbanization and technological advancement, there has been a high amount of depletion rate of the environment in terms of pollution, climate change, inadequate natural resources. This chapter brings in a distinct focus on environmental noise and its impact on humans. Noise is an unwanted sound characterized by intensity, frequency, periodicity and duration. Environmental noise pollution has become widespread in the form of industrial noise, traffic noise, to name a few. Chronic noise can be placed at parallels with chronic psychological stress and can affect general health and well-being. Further, noise pollution has also been seen to lead to medical, psychological and social issues. To minimize the spread of community transmission of the disease, several countries including India underwent periods of lockdowns and everyone was confined to their homes. The pandemic with its chaos and unpredictability also brought a drastic change in the environment as man-made activities were at its lowest during the quarantine/lockdown periods. This chapter aims to highlight these changes concerning decreased environmental noise. Further, using the lockdown activities as baseline, we propose a positive psychology perspective and principles of mindfulness that can bring about the pro-environmental behaviour during this crucial period.
T. S. Shwetha, Husena Dhariwala

Green Technologies for Handling and Management of Biomedical Waste

Abstract
Biomedical waste management is of great significance because biomedical waste can adversely affect health, causing serious implications for people who come into contact with it. Segregation, storage, and safe disposal of biomedical waste is the key to effective management of it in a workplace. The health of a community or a society is estimated according to the health status of each individual residing in it. Various factors affect community health. One of the major factors associated with it is waste generated by health care institutions. Waste generated by health care activities includes a broad range of materials, from used needles and syringes to soiled dressings, body parts, diagnostic samples, blood, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and radioactive materials. The biomedical waste that is generated may carry risks of various infections and diseases (typhoid, cholera, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis, etc.) in the long run. Therefore, use of proper storage, disposal, and treatment techniques are needed in order to minimize waste generation by hospitals. Effective management procedures should be employed for proper prevention and control of these types of waste. Various methods are used for treatment of biomedical waste, such as chemical methods, mechanical processes, biological processes, and irradiation processes. Green technologies—such as water treatment, solid waste treatment, and air purification—also play major roles in management of biomedical waste. Governments need to make arrangements for dedicated trash bins to be provided for disposal of hazardous waste. Appropriate management strategies are crucial for preservation of an equilibrium between the environment and mankind.
Rakesh K. Sindhu, Harnoor Kaur, Kritika Sharma, Chander Parkash Dora, Gaber El-Saber Batiha

Patients’ Health Surveillance Model Using IoT and 6G Technology

Abstract
To upgrade the healthcare infrastructure, it is now possible to collaborate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the medical field together. After the pandemic of Covid-19 worldwide, it has been more crucial to renovate a new dimension to make the healthcare system more predictable, controllable, and handy. This chapter focuses on a patients’ health monitoring system model based on the advantages on IoT and 6G technology. It identifies a cluster of patients for whom a continuous surveillance over health is priority. About 30–35% of deaths occur each year because of the time delay in getting the right treatment or having obstacles and less facilities in the rural area. Lack of an even distribution of a sound treatment everywhere in the country is a big challenge. To overcome the geographical barriers and human intervention, we propose a wireless health monitoring model where treatment is possible from any location without thinking about physical distance or networking barriers. On one hand, Internet of Things (IoT) is making life easier in every sector including healthcare and disease management system. On the other hand, 6G technology is a newly known terminology in the field of wireless cellular communication. It can provide a sustainable healthcare system for the citizens and make wireless devices more viable to the community, even in the remote area. This chapter aims to combine the idea of these two utmost new technologies to provide a better health monitoring system for a sustainable future and also discusses healthcare system establishing challenges and possible solutions for a better health service and support. The major contribution we provide here is the deployment of two biggest technologies in the health sector to provide higher degree of automation, reduced operating costs, and fastest decision-making process.
Sifat Nawrin Nova, Md. Sazzadur Rahman, Chinmay Chakraborty

Application of Innovative Eco-Friendly Energy Technology for Sustainable Agricultural Farming

Abstract
Agriculture is very important to human beings because it is the sole provider of basic human food. However, agricultural process requires constant energy resources in machinery’s operation, pumping water for irrigation, greenhouse heating, and so on, conventionally operated with fossil fuel energy sources that release greenhouse gases. It is, therefore, essential for farmers to adopt innovative eco-friendly techniques in various operations of food production, including agricultural farming, to meet the growing consumption of the growing population and also to save energy and water usage so as to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from using fossil fuel energy. This made scientists to find alternative environmentally sustainable and cost-efficient agricultural farming, using innovative eco-friendly energy technology, that is, green renewable energy technology to mitigate the environmental problem and also to solve the alarming fear of exhaustion of fossil fuel energy. The authors present this chapter by reviewing literature from various available sources and is organized on the following objectives: (1) the importance of innovative eco-friendly energy technologies for sustainable agricultural farming; (2) application of different eco-friendly energy technology in agricultural farming; (3) how innovative eco-friendly energy technology is used for sustainable agricultural farming; (4) the advantages and disadvantages of using eco-friendly technology and recommendation as an innovative solution. The chapter is finally concluded with the need to promote and optimize the combination of eco-friendly energy technology application and agricultural cultivation among the agricultural farmers due to its environmental as well as economic feasibility.
Sayam Aroonsrimorakot, Meena Laiphrakpam, Warit Paisantanakij

Review on Smart Farming and Smart Agriculture for Society: Post-pandemic Era

Abstract
Smart farming is one kind of application of modern communication technologies in agriculture, leading to the third green revolution. The third green revolution will transform agriculture into a new dimension with Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, and sensor technologies. These technologies, like robotics, unmanned aerial vehicles, machine learning, and artificial intelligence, increase crop quality. Today’s agriculture industry is precise, smarter, and data-centered. The Internet of Things is evolving rapidly, and IoT technologies have redesigned many sectors in the real world, including smart agriculture. These redesigned methods have changed the conventional agricultural practices and developed new opportunities for many researchers with different challenges. This chapter mainly highlights the IoT architecture’s capabilities post-pandemic in the real world and smart agriculture sensors’ potential and challenges while integrating the technology with conventional farming practices. Sensors were mostly available for agriculture applications such as soil identification, crop status, pesticide detection, etc. The IoT technology that helps sow crops, packing, and transportation is broadly explained in this chapter. Furthermore, the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or drone usage is described broadly for applications such as surveillance of crop and crop yield. The types of sensors that are suitable for farming will be explained extensively in this subsection. The requirements of the UAV’s and future applications of using drones in smart farming are broadly discussed. Finally, based on this chapter, the researchers can identify smart agriculture and farming’s future trends.
Nagarjuna Telagam, Nehru Kandasamy, M. Arun Kumar

Applications of Machine Learning and Internet of Things in Agriculture

Abstract
With the rapid advancement of technology, people are passionate to get more intelligent living. Since agriculture is one of the significant industries that need to be developed in order to feed rapidly growing population. Thus, there is a need to support agriculture with technology in order to get the best yield. In recent years, automated field irrigation systems have been introduced to replace the traditional agricultural system. Lots of research have been carried out in smart agriculture. The intelligent agriculture is becoming one of the biggest applications of the Internet of things (IoT). IoT and machine learning have helped researchers to develop smart and reliable systems. There are many different systems such as crops irrigation system and crop health predication systems. These systems assist farmers to increase the productivity. The irrigation system can be categorized either manually or automatically. Manual irrigation needs a lot of time and effort. In comparison with automated irrigation, the automated irrigation system can conserve water and increase productivity because water is supplied only when it is needed with limited or no human assistance. Moreover, the plant may suffer from diseases, which negatively affects the yield. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the disease in the early stages and find an appropriate cure. Machine learning allows systems to learn and improve automatically from experiences. Hence, intelligence can be applied in interpreting agricultural data obtained and accordingly analyze data for predicting the output. This chapter highlights the work done in agriculture field using machine learning and IoT.
Arij Naser Abougreen, Chinmay Chakraborty

Automation, Modern Tools and Technique for Sustainable Agriculture – An Important Parameter Toward Advance Plant Biotechnology

Abstract
Recent study reveals that the world’s population will land at 9.6 billion by 2050. Among challenges such as extreme atmosphere conditions and climatic changes, new innovation is addressing these troubles and assisting us to address the worry of improving food production. Throughout the world, mechanical developments have been brought into agribusiness functions in the late twentieth century, incorporating inventive technology with cultivation. Brilliant farming fundamentally depends upon advanced innovation that will decrease the actual work of ranchers and cultivators and consequently extend the productivity in every possible way. With the progressing cultivating designs dependent on agriculture, new innovation has brought monster points of interest like capable use of water, headway of wellsprings of data and some more. What made qualification were the giant favorable circumstances and which has gotten a disturbed cultivating in the continuous days. Web of Technology will improvise the agriculture by noticing the field ceaselessly. With the help of sensors and interconnectivity, the Internet of Things in Agriculture has saved the hour of the ranchers just as decreased the extraordinary usage of resources. Having unseemly data about climate estimate will overwhelmingly separate the sum and nature of the yield of the harvests. Notwithstanding, present day tech plans enable ranchers to understand the progressing atmosphere conditions. Sensors are set inside and outside of the yield fields. They assemble data from the atmosphere which is used to pick the right gathers which can create and uphold in the particular climatic conditions. Creative movements have almost changed the cultivating exercises, the Ground and Aerial robots are used for evaluation of reap prosperity, crop checking, planting, crop sprinkling, and field examination. We are living in a modern world with full of gadgets, the primary work of these is to help us and make our life more comfortable. Well farming is extremely important for humankind to grow, if we combine these two fields of technology and farming; one will get a tool to design and reshape the future of agriculture and farmers.
Ritambhara, Shiv Kant Shukla, Susmita Shukla

Advance Security Schemes for Smart Societies

Abstract
Internet technology has become a boon to humans as it transformed our way of thinking and changed our way of living. What looked like a scene from a sci-fi movie has become a reality within a span of a few decades. A handheld device, such as a smartphone, can connect an individual to the world. A smart transportation system provides the solution to several public conveyance-related problems within a city. However, we have limited natural resources and must preserve them while marching into a new digital world. The concern for the future of next-generation and the planet provided the way to divert toward green technology. The new-age investors are looking for startups with innovative ideas involving green technology to encourage budding talents. Smart cities are now transforming into smart societies as the public-centric solutions are gradually transforming to individual-centric solutions. The tech-giants believe that the new scenario would create increasing volumes of data, and provide multiple services to an individual consumer. The service providers and smart device manufacturers may look more earnestly to consumer demands and behavior realizing an exciting future. But there exists another side of the same coin that remains a big area of concern in the present day. The new world opens the doors for digital crimes, frauds, data breaches, security issues, and privacy and authentication concerns. We also require robust mechanisms to manage, control, and process the enormous volume of data generated by multiple smart devices possessed by each individual in the society. This chapter discusses various technologies that can reshape the new digital world into a safer and increasingly secure place for every user.
Mahesh Joshi, Bodhisatwa Mazumdar, Somnath Dey

Internet of Things for Environment Protection and Sustainable Living

Abstract
With the growing years, rapid changes are seen in both technology and the environment. But the issue is that these both diverse factors were never in hand with each other, that is, whenever growth is seen in technology, harm happened to the environment and considering the present pandemic situation where nature is reclaiming, all sectors are halted. So, the question arises as to how technology and the environment go hand in hand with each other. An intelligent answer to this would be the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT is a combination of different things such as devices, smart wearable objects, and interiors, which are embedded with sensors, actuators, software, and other technologies where interaction happens between them. Due to the connectivity between them, data are transferred. This book chapter presents algorithms that would help in the prevention of environmental issues and how the Internet of Things would help in the reduction of the harm that happened to the environments as well as how we protect the environment using technology. One of the important features of IoT is its ability to monitor real-time systems which would help us in keeping track of the environment’s actions. Vast disasters can be avoided, immediate rescues can be performed, and proper maintenance can be taken using the IoT. The main focus of this book chapter is on three factors – prevention, reduction, and protection. Each factor would display different algorithms and systems which would help in protecting the environment. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) and fault tree analysis can be used in evaluating and preventing any damages beforehand. After preventing the damage, reducing the harm is crucial. The waste reduction algorithm (WAR) helps in evaluating environmental impacts. Later on, the protection is done using IoT models.
B. Prathyusha, D. Ajitha

Energy-Efficient Smart Cities with Green Internet of Things

Abstract
With governments of different countries having a vision of smart cities, the technology adoption and implementation are at its peak and the current increase in the usage of advanced technology for a smart city has led to an increase in the carbon imprint across the globe, which needs immediate attention for the environment sustainability. Although the Internet of things (IoT)-enabled devices have changed our world by bringing an ease to our lifestyle, it has to be kept under consideration that they also have adverse effects on the environment. Over the past few years, enabling energy conservation via Internet of Things in the growth of smart cities has received a great deal of attention from researchers and industry experts and has paved the way for an emerging field called the green IoT. There are different dimensions of IoT, in which an effective energy consumption is needed to encourage a sustainable environment. This conceptual paper focuses on the key concept of green IoT and sustainability, knowledge of Smart cities’ readiness to Green IoT (G-IoT)-enabled sustainable practices, and identifying the Green IoT sustainability practices for smart cities.
Mudita Sinha, Elizabeth Chacko, Priya Makhija, Sabyasachi Pramanik

Materials Development for Energy Storage Applications

Abstract
This chapter proposal deals with the electrochemical energy storage using batteries. Indeed, industry professionals throughout the world and state authorities are continuously looking for the most performing batteries because these are found in almost all industrial and service sectors, whether for nomadic energy storage, such as automotive industry and smartphones, or stationary energy storage such as renewable energy.
This chapter proposal aims to develop batteries capable of storing electrochemical energy. The system must be optimized and adapted to electrode materials (anode and cathode) and to the electrolyte used.
The quality and performance of the designed batteries depend directly on the choice of the material for the positive and negative electrodes.
Furthermore, the crystallographic structure, mechanical, electronic, and transport properties as a function of temperature are fundamental characteristics to optimize the capacity of the electrodes using the energy storage in batteries devices, for example.
Moreover, the electrochemical reactivity of the electrode materials with the electrolyte is substantial with regard to the aging phenomena that occur at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces.
In addition to these considerations, one may add the economic and environmental needs, which are necessary for the development of future applications of the battery technology, such as transport (electric vehicles), solar cells, photoelectric, electric energy, pyroelectric, triboelectric nanogenerator, thermoelectric [1] devices, and renewable energy storage.
This chapter presents the theoretical and experimental study of current and future electrode materials and is more particularly oriented toward understanding the physical/chemical mechanisms for the purpose of designing electrodes and electrolytes intended for more efficient Li-ion and Na-ion batteries.
Souheyr Meziane

An Integrated Constructed Wetland System for Society

Abstract
A constructed wetland is used to treat wastewater. It involves free water surface flow and subsurface flow. The subsurface system has two types of flow: horizontal flow and vertical flow. For treatment, wastewater and sewage from houses, industries, agriculture, etc. flow through the constructed wetland for removal of pollutants through the processes of sedimentation, filtration, and some chemical processes. This work describes pollutant removal using Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis with soil and sand. Samples were tested and their chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, and levels of total suspended solids, total nitrogen, and total phosphate were determined. Further, computations in MATLAB software were used to validate hydraulic retention time coefficients of 96–144 hours for total phosphate and total nitrogen. The analysis revealed that the integrated wetland design is suitable for forming constructed wetlands in developing countries.
J. S. Sudarsan, S. Nithiyanantham

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