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Über dieses Buch

This book presents an in-depth review of the state of the art of cyber-physical systems (CPS) and their applications. Relevant case studies are also provided, to help the reader to master the interdisciplinary material. Features: includes self-test exercises in each chapter, together with a glossary; offers a variety of teaching support materials at an associated website, including a comprehensive set of slides and lecture videos; presents a brief overview of the study of systems, and embedded computing systems, before defining CPS; introduces the concepts of the Internet of Things, and ubiquitous (or pervasive) computing; reviews the design challenges of CPS, and their impact on systems and software engineering; describes the ideas behind Industry 4.0 and the revolutions in digital manufacturing, including smart and agile manufacturing, as well as cybersecurity in manufacturing; considers the social impact of the changes in skills required by the globalized, digital work environment of the future.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Introduction to Systems

Abstract
This chapter begins with a brief overview of the study of systems, in Sect. 1.1, which is based on four steps: modeling, setting up mathematical equations, analysis, and design. Section 1.2 introduces the second step of the study of systems, setting up mathematical equations to describe the system, referring to the standard forms of input-output and state-variable descriptions of systems. Section 1.3 introduces the principal concept of component analysis of linear systems based on the theory of controllability, observability, and identifiability of systems with regard to their mathematical forms of notation, showing what can be achieved under their assumptions. Section 1.4 introduces the analytical solutions of linear systems by analyzing their behavior and/or composite structure to examine the system response to an input demand. Section 1.5 refers to the approach determining the steady-state error of systems, an analysis method which defines the difference between input and output of a system in the limit as time goes to infinity. Section 1.6 provides a case study on the implications of the concept of system stability analysis. Section 1.7 contains comprehensive questions from the introduction to systems topics, and followed by references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller

2. Introduction to Embedded Computing Systems

Abstract
This chapter begins with a brief overview of embedded computing systems in Sect. 2.1, taking into account the introduction to systems in Chap. 1. Thereafter, Sect. 2.2 introduces the hardware architecture of embedded computing systems. Section 2.3 is an introduction to the methodology for determining the design metrics of embedded computing systems, a method which defines the preciseness of a design with regard to the requirements specifications. Section 2.4 introduces the concept of embedded control with regard to the respective mathematical notation formulations of the different control laws. Section 2.5 introduces the principal concept of hardware-software codesign. Since the expected growth rate of design productivity in the traditional way is far below that of system complexity, hardware-software codesign has been developed as a new design methodology during the past decade. Section 2.6 presents a case study of the concept of system stability analysis. Section 2.7 contains comprehensive questions from the system theory domain, followed by references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller

3. Introduction to Cyber-Physical Systems

Abstract
This chapter begins with an overview of cyber-physical systems in Sect. 3.1 taking into account the introduction to systems in Chap. 1 and embedded computing systems in Chap. 2. Thereafter, Sect. 3.2 concentrates to recommendations with regard to cyber-physical systems design. In Sect. 3.3 cyber-physical system requirements are described to emphasize disciplined approaches to their design. Section 3.4 introduces the opportunities created applying the cyber-physical technology in a wide range of domains, offering numerous opportunities in products and applications. Section 3.5 refers to smart cities and the Internet of Everything. The case study in Sect. 3.6 focuses on cyber-physical vehicle tracking. Section 3.7 contains comprehensive questions from the cyber-physical systems domain, followed by references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller

4. Introduction to the Internet of Things

Abstract
This chapter begins with a brief introduction to the Internet of Things in Sect. 4.1, which identifies the enabling technologies for its use. Section 4.2 introduces radio frequency identification (RFID), a wireless automatic identification technology whereby an object with an attached RFID tag is identified by an RFID reader. Section 4.3 introduces the principal concept of wireless sensor network technology which has important applications, such as remote environmental monitoring and target tracking. This technology has been enabled by the availability of sensors that are smaller, cheaper, and intelligent. Section 4.4 introduces powerline communication technology that enables sending data over existing power cables. With just power cables running to an electronic device, it can be powered up, and, at the same time, data can be controlled/retrieved from it in a half-duplex manner. Section 4.5 refers to RFID applications. Section 4.6 introduces a case study on the concept of the Internet of Things. Section 4.7 contains comprehensive questions from this chapter, followed by references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller

5. Ubiquitous Computing

Abstract
This chapter begins with a brief overview of ubiquitous computing. Section 5.1 defines ubiquitous computing and illustrates some of its applications. Section 5.2 introduces ubiquitous communication fundamentals and key research areas that are shaping the field. Thereafter, Sect. 5.3 describes smart devices and services in ubiquitous computing. Section 5.4 covers the important topics of tagging, sensing, and controlling in ubiquitous computing and possible applications. Section 5.5 focuses on autonomous systems, analyzing their behavior and composite structure and describing fault-tolerant behavior. A case study of the use of ubiquitous computing with robotic manipulators is described in detail in Sect. 5.6. Section 5.7 contains comprehensive questions from the ubiquitous computing area, followed by references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller

6. Systems and Software Engineering

Abstract
This chapter begins with a brief introduction to systems engineering in Sect. 6.1, which describes systems engineering as an interdisciplinary field of engineering primarily focused on how to successfully design, implement, evaluate, and manage complex engineered systems over their life cycles. It also introduces the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) ISO/IEC 15288:2008 standard. Section 6.2 describes the design challenges of cyber-physical systems (CPS) and their impact on systems engineering with reference to requirements definition and management using Cradle Cradle is a requirements management and systems engineering tool that integrates the entire project life cycle into one, massively scalable, integrated, multiuser software product. Section 6.3 introduces the principal concept of software engineering with special focus on the V-model and Agile software development methodology. Section 6.4 introduces the different requirements in software design in CPS It also includes the software requirements standard American National Standards Institute/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (ANSI/IEEE) 29148-2011. Section 6.5 provides a maritime area case study which focuses on tracking and monitoring containers at ports and on ships as well as tracking and monitoring containers transported from a sea gate port to a dry port. Section 6.6 contains comprehensive questions from the introduction to systems engineering topics, followed by references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller

7. Digital Manufacturing/Industry 4.0

Abstract
This chapter begins with a brief introduction to manufacturing in Sect. 7.1, identifying the enabling technologies and opportunities with regard to the sequence of industrial revolutions. It also introduces the reader to Digital Manufacturing, referring to smart and agile manufacturing and smart factories, one of the major concepts of Digital Manufacturing/Industry 4.0. Section 7.2 introduces the principal concept of individualized production, an important application area in smart factories. Section 7.3 describes networked manufacturing and the concept of smart supply chains that enable the sending of product data over the Internet for service purposes and more. Section 7.4 introduces the paradigm of concurrent open and closed production lines. The topic of Sect. 7.5 is cybersecurity, and Sect. 7.6 introduces several case studies on Digital Manufacturing/Industry 4.0. Section 7.7 contains comprehensive questions from the area of Digital Manufacturing/Industry 4.0, and followed by references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller

8. Social Impact on Work Lives of the Future

Abstract
This chapter is a brief introduction to the social impact on the work lives of the future. Section 8.1 introduces the changes in manufacturing skills from those historically required to the modern global, digital working environment. Section 8.2 refers to the economic, social, and organizational challenges of the future of work with regard to the requirements of digitized and automated manufacturing processes. Section 8.3 focuses on the changing demands in the world of work and attempts to answer questions resulting from the effects of Digital Manufacturing/Industry 4.0. Section 8.4 introduces the principal aspects of greater product individualization and the shifting factors of global influence with regard to Digital Manufacturing. Section 8.5 contains comprehensive questions regarding the social impacts on work lives in the future, and section “References” includes references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller

Backmatter

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