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Über dieses Buch

This new edition of Guide to Process Based Modeling of Lakes and Coastal Seas brings the modeling up to date, taking into account multiple stressors acting on aquatic systems. The combination of acidification and increasing amounts of anoxic waters associated with eutrophication puts severe stress on the marine environment. The detection and attribution of anthropogenic changes in coastal seas are therefore crucial and transparent modeling tools are increasingly important. Modeling the marine CO2–O2 system makes systematic studies on climate change and eutrophication possible and is fundamental for understanding the Earth system. This second edition also includes new sections on detection and attribution and on modeling future changes, as well as improved exercises, updated software, and datasets.

This unique book will stimulate students and researchers to develop their modeling skills and make model codes and data transparent to other research groups. It uses the general equation solver PROBE to introduce process-oriented numerical modeling and to build understanding of the subject step by step. The equation solver has been used in many applications, particularly in Sweden and Finland with their numerous lakes, archipelago seas, fjords, and coastal zones. It has also been used for process studies in the Polar Seas and the Mediterranean Sea and the approach is suitable for applications in many other environmental applications.

Guide to Process Based Modeling of Lakes and Coastal Seas:

• is a unique teaching tool for systematic learning of aquatic modeling;

• approaches lake and ocean modeling from a new angle;

• introduces aquatic numerical modeling using a process-based approach;

• enables the thorough understanding of the physics and biogeochemistry

of lakes and coastal seas;

• provides software, datasets, and algorithms needed to reproduce all

calculations and results in the book;

• provides a number of creative and stimulating exercises with solutions;

• addresses the interaction between climate change and eutrophication

and is a good basis for learning Earth System Sciences.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The use of computational fluid dynamics to analyze and predict environmental changes has increased considerably in recent decades. Numerical models are now standard tools in research and in a wide range of practical applications.
Anders Omstedt

Chapter 2. Background Physics and Biogeochemistry

Abstract
Conservation equations can be formulated for most aquatic properties (ϕ). For transient three-dimensional problems, the general differential equation is.
Anders Omstedt

Chapter 3. Physical Aspects

Abstract
The physical processes occurring in water bodies are often of major importance for predicting environmental changes. For example, the water quality in a bay is dependent not only on the load but also on the effectiveness of water exchange with the surrounding sea areas. Typical physical aspects are currents, mixing, water levels, waves, tides, density (which is determined by temperature, salinity, and pressure), sea ice, sea spray, and marine optics and acoustics. In many geophysical applications, a full dataset of relevant parameters is often lacking. Instead, one must combine a number of direct and indirect observations.
Anders Omstedt

Chapter 4. Biogeochemical Aspects

Abstract
Biogeochemical modeling of the sea calls for the consideration of many important processes (Fig. 4.1). The description of a marine system is often divided into physical, chemical, and biological components.
Anders Omstedt

Chapter 5. Construction of Nets of Sub-basins

Abstract
In many aquatic applications, geometry and dynamics split a water body into regions controlled by different physical processes (Fig. 5.1). A useful approach is to model the system as a net of sub-basins and separately examine the effects of local factors and the interactions between surrounding basins. This approach is an obvious choice for water bodies with complex geometries due to straits, bays, islands, estuaries, and semi-enclosed seas, but it could also be used in mass balance studies of large water bodies such as oceans; for example, we could examine the water balance by looking at the exchange of water between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans. In this chapter, we will first learn how to couple two coastal basins and how to include a moving grid for calculating changes in water levels. From the exercise, we will learn how to expand the two-basin model to a three-basin model.
Anders Omstedt

Chapter 6. Solutions Manual

Abstract
The mean depth of the Baltic Sea is 54 m and its surface area is 3.9 × 105 km2. How much would the level of the Baltic Sea increase over a year with river water inflow of 15,000 m3 s−1 and no outflows? If the outflowing volume flow were 30,000 m3 s−1, how large would the inflowing volume flow need to be to keep the sea level unchanged? If the salinity of the inflowing water were 17 salinity units, what would the salinity be in the basin?
Anders Omstedt

Chapter 7. Summary and Conclusions

Abstract
The intent of Guide to Process-Based Modeling of Lakes and Coastal Seas is to introduce its readers to the subject and provide them with a basic scientific understanding of and tools needed for aquatic studies. The book encourages the reader to solve geophysical problems using a systematic, process-based approach. This approach divides the studied water body into dynamically relevant parts or natural sub-basins and identifies the major processes involved in the water body. Based on field observations and simplifications, the dynamics of the water body are then expressed mathematically and tested carefully against relevant analytical solutions, extremes, and observations.
Anders Omstedt

Backmatter

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