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This book comprehensively describes essential research and projects on climate change and biodiversity. Moreover, it includes contributions on how to promote the climate agenda and biodiversity conservation at the local level. Climate change as a whole and global warming in particular are known to have a negative impact on biodiversity in three main ways. Firstly, increases in temperatures are detrimental to a number of organisms, especially those in sensitive habitats such as coral reefs and rainforests. Secondly, the pressures posed by a changing climate may lead to sets of responses in areas as varied as phenology, range and physiology of living organisms, often leading to changes in their lifecycles (especially but not only in reproduction), losses in productivity or even death. In some cases, the very survival of very sensitive species may be endangered. Thirdly, the impacts of climate change on biodiversity will be felt in the short term with regard to some species and ecosystems, but also in the medium and long term in many biomes. Indeed, if left unchecked, some of these impacts may be irreversible.

Many individual governments, financial institutes and international donors are currently spending billions of dollars on projects addressing climate change and biodiversity, but with little coordination. Quite often, the emphasis is on adaptation efforts, with little emphasis on the connections between physio-ecological changes and the lifecycles and metabolisms of fauna and flora, or the influence of poor governance on biodiversity. As such, there is a recognized need to not only better understand the impacts of climate change on biodiversity, but to also identify, test and implement measures aimed at managing the many risks that climate change poses to fauna, flora and micro-organisms. In particular, the question of how to restore and protect ecosystems from the impact of climate change also has to be urgently addressed.

This book was written to address this need. The respective papers explore matters related to the use of an ecosystem-based approach to increase local adaptation capacity, consider the significance of a protected areas network in preserving biodiversity in a changing northern European climate, and assess the impacts of climate change on specific species, including wild terrestrial animals. The book also presents a variety of case studies such as the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative, the effects of climate change on the biodiversity of Aleppo pine forest in Senalba (Algeria), climate change and biodiversity response in the Niger Delta region, and the effects of forest fires on the biodiversity and the soil characteristics of tropical peatlands in Indonesia.

This is a truly interdisciplinary publication, and will benefit all scholars, social movements, practitioners and members of governmental agencies engaged in research and/or executing projects on climate change and biodiversity around the world.



Water Management and Climate Change in the Focus of International Master Programs in Latin America and the Carribian

Water is regional priority around the world but synthesis of water resource management aspects from local-to-global scales is currently not included in not currently included higher education curriculua of Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) universities. This leaves local populations vulnerable to future shifts in climate at global scales and changes in land usage at regional scales. To close this gap, the project “WATERMAS—Water Management and Climate Change in the Focus of International Master Programs”, is financed by the European Union. The project will develop and establish a new standard of higher educational and scientific knowledge exchange between Europe and Latin America as well as the Caribbean. This will be done leveraging existing Master’s courses/programs of Water Management at the various partner universities in Latin America (LA), respectively in Cuba and in Ecuador. The scope of the project is to enable the development of strategies for the adaptation of local water management facilities and the biodiversity with regard to future challenges in the partner countries targeting a Society-Education-Research Nexus. The project addresses sustainability under the Teaching-Research-Practice Nexus, particularly the UN Sustainability Development Goals (SDG) 4 (Quality Education), 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), and 13 (Climate Action). Besides the water management aspects the biodiversity guaranties the functionality of eco system services, which plays an important role by considering the value of the nature for the mankind.
Frido Reinstorf, Petra Schneider, Raymundo Rodriguez Tejeda, Leslie Santos Roque, Henrietta Hampel, Raul F. Vazquez

Mangrove Conservation Policies in the Gulf of Guayaquil

In the last decade, the Ecuadorian government has designed and implemented a variety of policies to enhance the conditions of mangrove forests and their ability to provide ecosystem services. The present work aims to identify the different policies related to mangrove conservation and evaluate the extent to which they produce different outcomes to the population in the Gulf of Guayaquil, a coastal region hosting more than 70% of mangroves in Ecuador. The main assumption underlying this effort is the notion that mangrove conservation might be critically linked to subjective measures of welfare improvement for populations that live in and depend on this ecosystem, in addition to their original conservation purposes. Based on evidence of recent studies, an institutional economic analysis using the Situation, Structure and Performance framework is conducted. Results report evidence supporting the original assumption, as well as identified challenges to the continuity of current policies and new but urgent avenues for future research.
Daniel Ortega-Pacheco, Maria J. Mendoza-Jimenez, Paul Herrera

Biodiversity Issues Should Be Better Taken into Account in the Energy Transition

Climate and biodiversity issues cannot be considered one without the other because of the multiple interactions and interdependencies between them. Solutions for climate mitigation relying on the evolution of the energy sector should take this intertwining into account. The French Foundation for Research on Biodiversity (FRB) and ORÉE, a multi-stakeholder NGO advocating the sharing of good environmental practices among stakeholders, explored potential ways to approach the complexity of climate, energy and biodiversity issues in order to develop sustainable solutions. They have been studying the links and interactions between renewable energy and biodiversity through, among others, a conference organized by FRB and a book published by ORÉE. In both the conference and the book, energy producers and suppliers discussed their level of awareness on the issue and presented measures taken to avoid, reduce or offset biodiversity impacts when installing renewable energy infrastructures. This experience sharing highlighted several ways forward in order to reconcile biodiversity protection with the shift towards sustainable energy. Thus, the need to better take biodiversity into account in the energy transition was voiced both by businesses and the research community. This paper presents the first outcomes of the reflections led at the national level by multiple stakeholders, in order to generate further ideas for research to support the design and implementation of integrated climate change and biodiversity policies.
Agnès Hallosserie, Hélène Soubelet, Hélène Leriche, Patricia Savin, Jean-François Silvain

Approaches to Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity Assessment in Belarus

Purpose—Sustainable economic development requires consideration of economic, social and environmental factors. Since the last decade of the twentieth century, there has been a demand for statistical data reflecting the state of the natural environment and the impact on it of human society. At the same time, statistics are required that reflect the impact of ecosystems on the economy. Due to human activities there is an increasing uncertainty about the amount of environmental assets that are currently available in any country. The goal of the work is to consider the world trends in the definition of ecosystem services, their evaluation and accounting, and implementation of ecosystem services in the Republic of Belarus. Design/methodology/approach—Descriptions of trends related to quantifying the natural resources in EC countries and worldwide are provided. Comparative study of Belarus approaches to implementation of the best ecological practices was developed. Findings—Belarus has some unique practices in the field of ecosystem services management, which also may be analyzed and disseminated as good practices of ecosystem accounting and management, including forest resources management related with wild medical plants, berries and mushrooms, as well as cultivation of lands contaminated with radionuclides after Chernobyl disaster and monitoring of radioactive contamination and biodiversity, especially related with cross-boarder contamination between Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Originality/value—The comprehensive analysis of modern tendencies in natural capital and ecosystem services assessment and biodiversity was suggested.
Siarhei Zenchanka, Nikolai Gorbatchev

Community Action for Biodiversity and Forest Conservation and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Wild Coffee Forests (CAFA)

The Afromontane cloud forests of the Kafa Biosphere Reserve in southwest Ethiopia are considered to be the origin and centre of Coffea arabica’s genetic diversity and home to many rare species. Together with the area’s numerous wetlands, they form a carbon sink of superregional importance. However, studies have shown that the habitats are threatened by overexploitation and climate change. In addition, the natural connectivity of the local population, in particular of young people to their natural environment and the loss of knowledge on traditional use and cultivation systems is notable. NABU, a German NGO, therefore started working towards climate and biodiversity conservation and supports the local population to independently ensure the long-term conservation of key ecosystems and their services for livelihoods. This paper gives an insight into Participatory Forest Management at the wild coffee forests at Kafa Biosphere Reserve. The authors outline the proactive planning process, constraints and limitations for management as well as lessons learned from practical implementation of the concept. The results may be used by practitioners such as representatives from NGOs, administrations of protected areas and communities.
Svane Bender, Mesfin Tekle

Impact of Climate Change on Sawfly (Suborder: Symphyta) Polinators in Andalusia Region, Spain

Sawflies (Symphyta) are insects widely distributed throughout the world, but mostly abundant and diverse in the temperate regions of the Northern hemisphere. In Spain, they are linked to vegetation typical for aquatic environments (e.g. ponds and streams). While many sawfly species are serious pests of horticulture and forestry, all sawflies found in the Andalusia Region are important pollinators. In order to evaluate if climate change affects sawflies in Spain, their present appearance and distribution sampled form 2013 to 2016 was compared with the data collected from 1920s to 1971. The results showed that biological cycle of some Symphyta species was advanced 20–30 days when compared with the dates of their usual presence in 1950–70s. While some species have been frequently found in the same areas as 50 years ago, changes in climate affected vertical displacements to higher altitudes of other studied sawfly species. The most important findings of this study showed that in the 21st century four species (Megalodontes bucephalus, Macrophya militaris, Strongylogaster multifasciata, Dolerus (Poodolerus) puncticollis) were not observed in any location nor sampling area, meaning that these species (important specialized pollinators) disappeared from the Andalusia region.
Jelena Barbir, Luis Oscar Aguado Martín, Xavier Rodriguez Lloveras

Coffee, Climate and Biodiversity: Understanding the Carbon Stocks of the Shade Coffee Production System of India

In the light of climate change, the ecosystem services of traditionally maintained shaded Arabica coffee farms become prominent largely for increasing carbon removal. The most important function of the shade-grown coffee agroforestry system is the reduction of the concentration of Carbon in the atmosphere. It is estimated that one-hectare shade-grown coffee farm with large forest trees can sequester 70–80 tonnes of carbon per hectare, which is more or less equivalent to the carbon stored in an equal area of forest. A full sun–grown or open coffee in one hectare can only store less than 10 tonnes of carbon. “Monsooned Malabar Arabica Coffee is a specialty coffee of India, sourced from shade coffee plantation and has geographical indication (GI) protection. Shade grown coffee also serves as a refuge for biodiversity and its diverse and complex structure has a high potential to retain biodiversity in the changing climate scenarios. In this context, this paper discusses the nexus of coffee, climate and biodiversity and its implications with Wayanad, Kerala, India as a case study. This paper emphasizes the need for promoting sustainable production and consumption of coffee as a carbon neutral brand and promotion of shade grown, biodiversity rich and climate resilient coffee can emerge as a highly valued commodity in the world coffee market. Attempts at revival of the shade grown coffee system amongst the small growers with appropriate steps in marketing the coffee as a specialty product (carbon neutral and grown in bio-diverse environment) are discussed.
Nadesa Panicker Anil Kumar, Amsad Ibrahim Khan Saleem Khan, Vaniyan Balakrishnan

Implications for Biodiversity of Potentially Committed Global Climate Change (from Science and Policy)

Climate change impacts on biodiversity that are observed today are substantially less than those predictable in the future. Vital policy-relevant information regarding global climate change and biodiversity includes the sources of increased future global warming commitment, which stem from both climate change policy and climate science. Full, long-term (over many 100s of years) equilibrium global warming commitment, calculated by the constant atmospheric greenhouse gas composition, is put at ‘about 2 °C’ by the IPCC 2014 assessment. Significant further committed warming at 2 °C is expected due to weakened terrestrial carbon sinks and large planetary sources of carbon feedback emissions. Committed climate change due to policy is calculated from national emissions targets. Together these policy targets lead to over 3 °C global warming by 2100, which will increase much more after 2100. Commitment clearly shows the climate, oceans and biodiversity global emergency, requiring the immediate decline of emissions with supporting responses that are well known and universally recommended.
Peter D. Carter

Ensuring Co-benefits for Biodiversity, Climate Change and Sustainable Development

Significant investments are required by Parties to the three Rio Conventions—Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), as well as the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (2030 Agenda), to meet the ambitious goals that countries have agreed to. When the development of national and subnational frameworks to meet global commitments are conducted in isolation, the opportunity is lost to: (1) leverage co-benefits from the same investment; (2) use resources more efficiently; and (3) ensure that one action does not negatively affect another policy priority. For example, investments in greenhouse gas reduction have the potential either to positively impact biodiversity and sustainable development, or to result in unintended negative consequences; chances of positive synergies are greatly increased by cooperation and joint policy, planning and implementation. The challenge now is to learn lessons from the vast and diverse number of approaches being tried around the world and to enhance co-benefits. This paper describes the major inter-linkages between global commitments for conservation and development. It demonstrates the importance of enhancing synergies among global agreements and avoiding unintended and negative consequences, particularly on biodiversity, by providing examples of best practices and describing some of the pitfalls that occur when implementation of one agreement does not explicitly seek to enhance co-benefits with other agreements. In conclusion, the paper presents the case for the central role of nature-based solutions in simultaneously attaining global commitments for biodiversity, climate change and sustainable development.
Risa Smith, Oscar Guevara, Lauren Wenzel, Nigel Dudley, Valeria Petrone-Mendoza, Martin Cadena, Andrew Rhodes

Sustainable Hydropower: Using Ecosystem-based Adaptation to Increase Local Adaptation Capacity in Brazil

Recent observed changes in climate patterns in Brazil has increased the importance of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) in order to reduce the effects of drought and floods. The energy (hydropower) sector is specially starting to be affected by those changes. Changing rainfall patterns, rising temperature, droughts and extreme weather events may affect hydroelectricity generation, causing damages to the infrastructure or disruptions in service. EbA is mentioned in the Brazilian NDC, highlighting the need to increase national capacity in water security (National Water Security Plan), conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity (NBSAP). In addition, the Energy Sector Strategy of the NAP mentions the environmental issues, especially regarding the protection and recovery of natural resources (fauna, flora and physical environment). This paper discusses how the hydropower generation in Brazil can shift to a sustainable hydropower pattern, capable of dealing with climate change issues and, additionally, contributing to increase local adaptation capacity using an ecosystem approach, as accorded on Paris Agreement. A set of EbA measures are presented as opportunities to reduce the climate vulnerability and/or increase the resilience of local ecosystems and of the communities depending on them, where hydropower projects are installed or are being planned.
Katia Cristina Garcia, Alexandre Mollica, Denise Ferreira de Matos, Luciana Rocha Leal da Paz

The Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative as an Adaptive Response to Climate Change

The need for connectivity across large areas has long been a core principle in the field of conservation biology. Whereas early rationales for conserving connectivity included the maintenance of genetic health and the protection of ecosystem processes, the more recently recognized threat posed by climate change to biodiversity has only amplified the focus on connectivity. Within the last decade, the term “large landscape conservation” has become a generic term applied to efforts intended to align on-the-ground conservation programs with the scale of the potential changes resulting from climate change. An early example of such an approach was the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative (Y2Y), spanning the Rocky Mountains between Canada and the United States. First conceived in the early 1990s, Y2Y connoted not only a region, but also a science & advocacy network, a conservation organization, and—particularly in its early years—a challenge to the conservation community to broaden its vision of what will be required for effective wildlife conservation over the coming century. This includes consideration of how, under conditions of climate change, biological communities may disarticulate and then reorganize across time and space, and of the consequent need for intact land conservation networks to allow species to move through increasingly human-occupied landscapes. Accordingly, a key aspect of the programmatic work under Y2Y focuses on protecting ecologically intact landscapes as a core approach to effective biodiversity conservation. Today, Y2Y has become widely cited for its groundbreaking efforts to expand the conceptual scale of effective conservation landscapes in North America and the world.
Charles C. Chester, Jodi A. Hilty

Saving the Last Endemic-Church Forests in Ethiopia: The Case of Lake Tana Biosphere Reserve

The restoration of degraded forests to maintain ecosystem services, conserve endemic biodiversity and to enhance climate change adaptation is a major concern in developing countries. In Northern Ethiopia, large forests have been converted into arable land; today the last remaining refugia for native woody plant species are found around churches. The so-called church forests are considered as the last natural seed banks for native trees species, reference areas for local endemism and last corner stones for species distribution. Against this background, NABU, a German originated NGO, initiated a conservation programme and investigated the species and structural composition of 10 pilot church forests. A total of 74 woody species (41 tree, 26 shrub and 6 liana species) representing 32 families were recorded. Differences between forests were strongly expressed in species number (14–35) and number of seedlings (150–4150/ha). Similarities between forests decreased following the altitude difference. It was found that for successful restoration of the pilot forests, interconnecting them by vegetation corridors, creating buffering areas and livestock fencing as well as and reforesting were suitable measures. NABU therefore implemented a restoration programme for safeguarding the last green forest islands together with the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.
Teowdroes Kassahun, Svane Bender

Factors Affecting Communication and Information Sharing for Water Resource Management in Lake Victoria Basin (LVB)

Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) is a very important resource for the five riparian countries: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi. The basin provides resources for fishing, agriculture, medicine, forestry, water transport and other economic activities. However, its area is grossly affected by climate change due to population growth, urbanization, industrialization, increasing commercial activities and inadequate provision of sanitation services which have caused a lot of pollution. This climate change is likely to lead to loss of biodiversity in terms of species richness. Moreover, the increase in the population growth around Lake Victoria Basin is associated with an increase in economic activities that lead to ecosystem vulnerability and social-ecological disequilibrium. Climate change is likely to affect biodiversity as species struggle to adapt to climatic changes. In order to address the issue of climate change, proper communication and information sharing among the stakeholders around the Lake Victoria Basin is paramount. This paper addresses this need, by discussing major socio-economic activities taking place around this Basin, their impact on climate change and its impact on biodiversity thereof, and problems related to resource management. The study took place in the districts of Buikwe and Mayuge in Uganda. Qualitative and quantitative research approaches were used, data collected was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science research software. From the findings, there are variations in access to communication gadgets, mobile phones being top on the list of accessibility. The study concludes by identifying the best option for communication and information sharing based on the factors evaluated and recommends an integrated web-based and mobile application tool for better management of resource in Lake Victoria Basin.
Odongtoo Godfrey, Ssebuggwawo Denis, Lating Peter Okidi

Climate Sentinels Research Program: Developing Indicators of the Effects of Climate Change on Biodiversity in the Region of New Aquitaine (South West, France)

Understanding local effects of climate change on biodiversity are essential for environmental policy orientation. Lacks of knowledge at regional level have led to the development of a research program: “Climate sentinels” (www.​sentinelles-climat.​org). A research hypothesis is that the effects can be studied from indicators of species that have weak displacement. These “sentinel” species will be the first to respond to local climatic variations by adaptation or local extinction. In France, New Aquitaine region is a relevant research laboratory. It offers both sensitivity to climate change and a variety of natural ecosystems. The approach to understanding the response of these indicators to climate change is based on observations in a whole region, standardized protocols in relationship with models using mainly abundance data, validated data linked to associated sufficient coverage and relevant observations in connection with time and space scales. In this paper, we will present 3 points characterizing this project: (1) the research-action approach of the program brings together different types of actors (decision makers, naturalists, managers, researchers and the public), within an independent organisation and catalyst “Cistude Nature”, (2) the method of establishing a list of development indicators called “Climate sentinels”, (3) the protocols and data analysis of multi-ecosystems, multi-species at different scales that are used to support projections of climate change impacts on biodiversity. The aim is to share feedback on this topic concerning the structuring of the program at the interface between science and society.
Fanny Mallard, Laurent Couderchet

Introducing Spatio-Temporal Conservation Units: Models for Flexible Optimization of Species Persistence Under Climate Change

Anticipating the effects of climate change on biodiversity and integrating them in planning protocols for the future are fundamental strategies to increase the effectiveness of conservation efforts. With climate change, species require dispersal skills to follow displacements of their suitable climates and therefore, spatial conservation interventions need to consider such dynamics. In general, common planning frameworks identify networks of conservation areas seemed important for species range shifts. However, it is highly unlikely that all the areas in a network present synchronous conservation value. Furthermore, given the continuous (spatial and temporal autocorrelated) nature of threats and ecological processes, the value of each area is largely dependent on the state of the neighboring areas in the recent past. In this study, a family of three models centered on the prioritization (not of single areas but) of temporal chains of areas as conservation units is presented. These models drive the use of financial investments through time in order to maximize the persistence of biodiversity in dynamic environments. Alike the most typical approaches, the here introduced models allow investments to be transferred between areas losing conservation relevancy to the areas that gain relevancy. A fictitious (but plausible) conservation plan for ten mammal species in Iberian Peninsula up to 2080 is used to illustrate the setting-up and outputs of the models. Results evidence that the conservation effectiveness achieved in each model depends on singular spatio-temporal distribution relationships among species and between species and distinct land-uses. Planners should then investigate the sensitivity of their goals to distinct decision-support tools even when driven by similar designs and constraints.
Diogo Alagador, Jorge Orestes Cerdeira

The Impact of Climate Change and Variability on Wild Terrestrial Animals in Selected Rural Coastal Regions of Kenya

Climate change has become a household term in the North and South coastal region of Kenya. The ever increasing temperature conditions and erratic rains have raised concerns among local communities in the region. The changing climatic conditions has affected both man and animal in almost equal measure. Specifically, migration and disappearance of terrestrial animals have been observed. Climate change and biodiversity and specifically terrestrial animals are interrelated. Climate change affects water and pasture which are the lifeblood to terrestrial animals. These animals need water for transport of nutrients and other metabolic processes. They need pasture to acquire nutritional components and for growth and development. Any adverse change on climate therefore affects the animals directly. This paper presents an assessment of the impact of climate change on terrestrial animals. The specific objectives of the paper include: to assess the changing weather and climatic conditions; to document climate change impacts on terrestrial animals, and to explore the strategies put in place by stakeholders to address the problems. The study adopts a descriptive approach including the use of ten local community leaders and conservation agents as key informants to obtain thematic data on terrestrial animals in the selected areas. Four focus group discussions were organized each with ten local community members to give additional information on climate change and terrestrial animals. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented graphically in line with the emerging themes. The study generated knowledge and valuable information to global conservation agents, national governments, policy makers and the academia on climate change and biodiversity and specifically terrestrial animals.
Bertha Othoche

Biodiversity Risks for Belarus Connected with the UV Climate Change

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has a significant impact on human health, state of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, biogeochemical cycles and air quality. International agreements on the protection of the ozone layer have contributed to the development of research in this field and in the expansion of the monitoring network for measurement of the ozone layer depletion and the total ozone. The study of various factors that affect ultraviolet radiation is given great attention. A close link and a mutual influence of climate change and changes in the ozone layer have shown during recent studies. Moreover, changes in the ozone layer lead to changes in UVR and influence on biodiversity. The identification of these relationships, the study of the state of the ozone layer and the intensity of UV radiation has become one of the aims of this article. Another aim of the article is to assess the impact of changing UVR levels over the territory of Belarus on the development of elements of wildlife and agricultural productivity. The analysis showed that the main object of exposure for large animals is the organs of vision, whereas for small animals the degree of their coloring is essential. The basic composition of wild vegetation in all landscapes has changed. Typical crops for Belarus were replaced, which led to a change in agricultural technology. This is due to changes in the distribution of climatic zones on the territory of Belarus. Studies have also shown that over the territory of Belarus, unlike the Western Europe, there is still no restoration of the ozone layer, which increases the risks of exposure of the UVR to biodiversity.
Aliaksandr Krasouski, Siarhei Zenchanka, Elena Loginova, Maxim Andreev

The Impact of Forest Fire on the Biodiversity and the Soil Characteristics of Tropical Peatland

Land use change and forest fire covering millions ha of peat-land in Central Kalimantan are the main factor contribute on forest peatland degradation. This study aimed to determine the impact of forest peatland fire severity level on the plant diversity and soil chemical properties of wet tropical peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The severe peat fire extremely decreased diversity, number of individuals as well as number of plant species. The accumulation of ashes in forest peat fires impacted area instantly increased pH, organic matter, humic acid content, hydrophobicity, available-N and available-K. However, their availabilities had only been temporary as they were easily diminished and washed way which result in long-term land degradation. An opened and dried peatland had low water holding capability and, hence, it was relatively easy to burn during the dry season but flooded during the rainy season. Tropical forest peats fires significantly reduced plant diversity and changed soil chemical properties. This forest peat fire potentially loss its function, particularly moisture storage, carbon, nutrients and biodiversity.
Cahyono Agus, Fatikhul F. Azmi, Widiyatno, Zinda R. Ilfana, Dewi Wulandari, Dony Rachmanadi, Marinus K. Harun, Tri W. Yuwati

Promoting Climate Agenda and Biodiversity Conservation at the Local Level: A Case for Nepal’s Rural and Urban Municipalities

Nepal is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. This paper discusses the impact climate change is having on the biodiversity in Nepal and why local governments need to conserve biodiversity to act on a climate agenda in the coming years. It recommends ecosystem and landscape-based approaches for climate change mitigation, adaptation, and disaster reduction. Large-scale approaches can not only conserve biodiversity but also contribute to the social and economic well-being of local communities. Nepal has this unique opportunity to formulate and implement appropriate policies towards biodiversity conservation at the local level both in rural and urban areas. After 20 years of administrative governance, in 2017, Nepali people have elected new representatives for 264 urban municipalities and 480 rural municipalities. In addition, the newly elected local governments should increase their commitment for biodiversity conservation by involving local communities as stewards. To do that Nepal’s rural and urban governments should develop policies that align with United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 11, 13 and 15 for making cities resilient and sustainable, combat climate change, and protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems and halt biodiversity loss. To achieve them Nepal needs support from the international community to empower local people to monitor changes, to innovate for the future and adopt sustainability in their daily lives.
Krishna Roka

Climate and Biological Diversity: How Should the Effects of Climate Change on Biological Diversity Be Legally Addressed in International and Comparative Law and Solutions?

International treaties and declarations on climate change have focused almost exclusively on sources of climate change neglectfully the consequences on biodiversity the ultimate foundation for life on Earth. Although extremely appropriate, such approach neglect to the consequences of climate change on biological diversity and on their components (animals, plants, insects, microorganisms and habitats) almost condemned to disappear due their impossibility to move or adapt. Therefore, a lack of legal rules in international law has arisen due to lack of international legal framework to address loss biodiversity by conserving it in a mixture of forms of conservation. An example is reflected in “climate change and the law” a report of the Argentine Association of Comparative Law to the XVIII Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law (author Professor Erkki Hollo). In this report, consequence of climate change on the biological diversity has not been addressed due to lack of legal rules (among other reasons). Sustaining agriculture and agrobiodiversity to maintain food production for human beings is part of the “ecosystem services” of biodiversity that have been completely forgotten when the consequences of climate change has not been properly addressed. In order to fill scientific gap grounds from natural science and juridical sciences particularly, international law will be explained in this article arguing for preventive measures to save biodiversity in danger. It is a conceptual paper as most of our work in sciences. First the paper will establish not only the relationship between n the effects of climate change on biodiversity for legal scholars but solutions to the problem will be discussed. Most of the literature on the subject seems to lack the importance of international law and public policy on facing the aforementioned problem and it is not possible to “act” without legal rules.
Sergio Peña-Neira

Is Adaptation to Climate Change Threatening Forest Biodiversity? A Comparative and Interdisciplinary Study Case of Two French Forests

France is highly covered by forests, upon which rely numerous jobs and natural habitats. Therefore, the country adopted a strategy of adaptation to climate change, leaning on a rich silviculture history to offer foresters various means to adapt (rotation shortening, species mixes, …). Still, different adaptations can be interesting in a given forest, depending on the trade-off between ecosystem services: timber production, biodiversity conservation, water quality preservation, … Hence, how do French foresters decide of the adaptation to implement? What are the impacts of their choices on biodiversity? The following explores how adaptation in the field occurs—a complementary approach of providing better understanding of the impacts of climate change on forest biodiversity. It analyses how biodiversity is included in field adaptations, and how this concords with guidelines of sustainable forestry. Results come from semi-structured interviews led in two French forests differing in anthropization, making use of ecology and geographic sciences. The analysis discriminates two non-exclusive positions on biodiversity: “utilitarists” adapting thanks to biodiversity and “conservationists” adapting for biodiversity. Utilitarists rely on species selection or introduction of allochtonous species to resist windstorms or biological attacks for instance, a potential threat for local populations. On the opposite, conservationists favor Darwinian adaptation over interventionist strategies. Conservationists would for example prioritize spontaneous evolution, at the risk of tree species running short of time because of the speed of climate change. These results are integrated in a wider project including natural parks managers for decision-taking in forest management.
Timothée Fouqueray, Antoine Charpentier, Michel Trommetter, Nathalie Frascaria-Lacoste

Hypotheses from Recent Assessments of Climate Impacts to Biodiversity and Ecosystems in the United States

Climate change poses multiple threats to biodiversity, and has already caused demonstrable impacts. We summarize key results from a recent national assessment of observed climate change impacts to terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems in the United States, and place results in the context of commonly articulated hypotheses about ecosystem response to climate change for global implications. Specific impacts we consider include: range shifts; phenological shifts; phenotypic changes; primary production changes; biological invasions; and novel communities. Significant effort has been made recently to incorporate adaptation measures into land and water management at both national and international scales, but the scale of impacts and associated uncertainties pose challenges to existing management institutions. Using commonly articulated hypotheses about climate change, biodiversity, and ecosystem response can provide context for informed decisions at multiple scales and can help to provide a clearer understanding of the ecological and mechanistic linkages between climate change and biodiversity.
Shawn L. Carter, Abigail J. Lynch, Bonnie J. E. Myers, Madeleine A. Rubenstein, Laura M. Thompson

Significance of Protected Area Network in Preserving Biodiversity in a Changing Northern European Climate

Climate change is a major threat to biodiversity, causing species to move to new climatically suitable areas, and thus increasing the extinction probability of species inhabiting fragmented landscapes. This highlights the need for climate-wise conservation strategies. With such strategies, a well-connected network of protected areas (PAs) is one of the most important means to support species survival. An extensive and representative PA network can enhance the resilience of regional populations of species, resulting in slower species loss in landscapes with a significant proportion of area of habitat being protected. This paper presents analyses of both the observed (1974–2010) and the predicted changes (by 2051–2080) in boreal bird populations in Finland. Firstly, the results show some general patterns of climate change on bird species: (1) species are shifting their ranges towards north, (2) range sizes of many species are declining, and (3) these changes are different in northern and southern species and in species occupying different habitats. Secondly, the paper looks more into the role of protected area (PA) network in securing birds in a changing climate and concludes that at least in Finland, open habitats, such as open mires and mountain heaths, change more rapidly in their species composition in protected areas than for example old-growth forests. However, generally, species decline less within than outside PAs showing that protected areas alleviate climate change effects on bird species of conservation concern. This finding, further supported by results from elsewhere in Europe, provides evidence for the resilience of PA networks in preserving species under climate change. Representative PA network that includes high cover for key habitats is hence needed in all latitudinal zones. The projected efficiency of the PA network in maintaining biodiversity was partly dependent on the strength of climate change varying with respect to future scenarios. This suggests that a flexibly adaptive climate-wise conservation planning is required to be better prepared for preserving biodiversity in the face of uncertain climate change. Thirdly, the paper discusses several aspects of climate change studies and avian biodiversity that have been hitherto understudied especially in the northern biomes. The paper suggests that future studies should concentrate on (1) abundance-based models and prioritisations, (2) species’ adaptive capacity (ability to avoid the impacts of climate change through dispersal and/or evolutionary change) and sensitivity (limited potential to persist in situ under changing climate) to climate change, (3) the role of the landscape matrix around the PAs and (4) the effects of the biogeophysical features of the PAs themselves. In conclusion, we envision that improved assessments regarding the ability of PA networks to maintain biodiversity in northern biomes are needed to enhance our ability to perform climate-wise conservation planning.
Raimo Virkkala, Risto K. Heikkinen, Saija Kuusela, Niko Leikola, Juha Pöyry

Wild Power, Biodiversity and Solar Farms: A Business Model to Encourage Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation at Scale

The UK is facing a sustained decline in biodiversity while struggling to meet its targets for renewable energy production. Wild Power is a new approach to renewable energy supply that requires native biodiversity to be restored on its generating sites as a core component of the business model. A customer pays a small premium which is used to encourage biodiversity, and in return receives a guarantee of renewable energy supply and biodiversity benefit. Solar farms are the ideal vehicle for delivering biodiversity benefits as the panels oversail the land, most of which is available for ecological enhancement. Furthermore, solar farms are spread across the landscape and collectively cover a significant land area. Core to Wild Power’s approach is engaging local communities with solar farms to raise awareness of the multiple benefits of this technology, but also as a means of reconnecting people with nature. The Wild Power approach has been designed for UK solar farms, with aim to expand to wider renewable technologies, and countries in time. It is believed that this approach is novel and has global implications for biodiversity and sustainable development. This chapter presents the Wild Power model and describes its intent to encourage renewable energy as a means of mitigating climate change and promote adaptation through the creation of biodiversity-rich sites that should also enhance ecosystem services delivery.
David Gazdag, Guy Parker

Handling the Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity

This final chapter describes the need for and outline some of the ways via which the impacts of climate change on biodiversity may be handled. It also suggests some measures which may be helpful in reaching different groups, so as to better engage them in adaptation efforts.
Walter Leal Filho
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Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen

Die Entwicklung des mitteleuropäischen Energiesystems und insbesondere die Weiterentwicklung der Energieinfrastruktur sind konfrontiert mit einer stetig steigenden Diversität an Herausforderungen, aber auch mit einer zunehmenden Komplexität in den Lösungsoptionen. Vor diesem Hintergrund steht die Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen symbolisch für das ganze sich in einer Umbruchsphase befindliche Energiesystem: denn der Notwendigkeit einer Schaffung und Bildung der Hybridnetze aus systemischer und volkswirtschaftlicher Perspektive steht sozusagen eine Komplexitätsfalle gegenüber, mit der die Branche in der Vergangenheit in dieser Intensität nicht konfrontiert war. Jetzt gratis downloaden!