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Über dieses Buch

This machine is destined to completely revolutionize cylinder diesel engine up through large low speed t- engine engineering and replace everything that exists. stroke diesel engines. An appendix lists the most (From Rudolf Diesel’s letter of October 2, 1892 to the important standards and regulations for diesel engines. publisher Julius Springer. ) Further development of diesel engines as economiz- Although Diesel’s stated goal has never been fully ing, clean, powerful and convenient drives for road and achievable of course, the diesel engine indeed revolu- nonroad use has proceeded quite dynamically in the tionized drive systems. This handbook documents the last twenty years in particular. In light of limited oil current state of diesel engine engineering and technol- reserves and the discussion of predicted climate ogy. The impetus to publish a Handbook of Diesel change, development work continues to concentrate Engines grew out of ruminations on Rudolf Diesel’s on reducing fuel consumption and utilizing alternative transformation of his idea for a rational heat engine fuels while keeping exhaust as clean as possible as well into reality more than 100 years ago. Once the patent as further increasing diesel engine power density and was filed in 1892 and work on his engine commenced enhancing operating performance.



The Diesel Engine Cycle


1. History and Fundamental Principles of the Diesel Engine

On February 27, 1892, the engineer Rudolf Diesel filed a patent with the Imperial Patent Office in Berlin for a “new rational heat engine”. On February 23, 1893, he was granted the patent DRP 67207 for the “Working Method and Design for Combustion Engines” dated February 28, 1892. This was an important first step toward the goal Diesel had set himself, which, as can be gathered from his biography, had preoccupied him since his days as a university student.
Klaus Mollenhauer, Klaus Schreiner

2. Gas Exchange and Supercharging

Beginning at the conclusion of the expansion stroke, the gas exchange phase basically performs two functions, namely: – replacing the utilized cylinder charge (exhaust) with fresh gas (air in a diesel engine), a basic prerequisite for an internal combustion engine, and – dissipating the heat as required to conclude the thermodynamic cycle.
Helmut Pucher

3. Diesel Engine Combustion

The preferred drive engines for motor vehicles are based on combustion engines. They utilize the oxygen in the combustion air to convert the fuel-based chemical energy that predominantly consists of hydrocarbons into heat, which in turn is transferred to the engine’s working medium. The pressure in the working medium rises and, by exploiting the expansion, can be converted into piston motion and thus into mechanical work.
Klaus B. Binder

4. Fuels

When Rudolf Diesel developed the first auto-ignition combustion engine at the close of the nineteenth century, he realized that gasoline’s resistance to auto-ignition made it unsuitable as fuel. Comprehensive tests with various fuels revealed that so-called middle distillates were clearly more suitable. These are components that evaporate when crude oil is distilled at higher temperatures than gasoline. Until then, their potential uses had only been limited. In those days, they were typically used as lamp oil and as an additive to city gas, whence the still common designation of middle distillates as “gas oil” originates, which is still a standard customs designation.
Gerd Hagenow, Klaus Reders, Hanns-Erhard Heinze, Wolfgang Steiger, Detlef Zigan, Dirk Mooser

5. Fuel Injection Systems

A description of the processes in injection systems entaills the interdisciplinary application of methods of fluid mechanics, technical mechanics, thermodynamics, electrical engineering and control engineering. Pressures are very high and pilot injection to the main injection requires a minimum delivery of 1.5 mm3 of fuel per injection with a metering accuracy of ± 0.5 mm3 in flexibly selectable intervals. This imposes substantial demands on the quality of models and numerical methods. Moreover, the processes in the compressible fluid are profoundly transient. Thus, components are endangered by cavitation erosion and can be excited to oscillations with high mechanical loads. Substantially influencing fuel properties and bearing or plunger/liner clearances in pumps, the considerable heating of the fuel by throttling and frictional losses must be quantifiable as well.
Walter Egler, Rolf Jürgen Giersch, Friedrich Boecking, Jürgen Hammer, Jaroslav Hlousek, Patrick Mattes, Ulrich Projahn, Winfried Urner, Björn Janetzky

6. Fuel Injection System Control Systems

Rugged and easily serviceable, mechanical governors continue to be used all over the world, especially in off-highway applications and nonroad engines. An inline pump illustrates the basic functions of mechanical control.
The hallmark of closed loop control is feedback of a controlled variable to the actuated variable, e.g. the injected fuel quantity specified by the setting of the inline pump’s control rack. Increasing the injected fuel mass at a constant load causes the speed to increase. In turn, the centrifugal force acting on the control device also increases and reduces the amount of rack travel. This creates a closed loop control circuit.
Ulrich Projahn, Helmut Randoll, Erich Biermann, Jörg Brückner, Karsten Funk, Thomas Küttner, Walter Lehle, Joachim Zuern

Diesel Engine Engineering


7. Engine Component Loading

The determination of the effective loads in a diesel engine is crucially important for the design of its individual engine components and assemblies. The determination of stress is an important prerequisite for sizing components. It forms the foundation for determining the geometric dimensions, the material employed or even the manufacturing process applied. Thus, load analysis plays an important role in cost and capacity estimates in the development process and fundamentally determines a diesel engine’s reliability.
Dietmar Pinkernell, Michael Bargende

8. Crankshaft Assembly Design, Mechanics and Loading

Together with both the piston pins and the crankshaft’s crank pins, the connecting rod in reciprocating piston engines converts oscillating piston motion into rotary crankshaft motion. Running smoothness is a universally important criterion for the design of crankshaft assemblies. High speed has priority in gasoline engines, thus making a minimum of moving masses an absolute imperative. The emphasis shifts somewhat for diesel engines. Firing pressures can be twice as high as in gasoline engines and continue to increase as the size increases. Thus, controlling the effects of the gas force is the primary challenge.
Eduard Köhler, Eckhart Schopf, Uwe Mohr

9. Engine Cooling

Depending on its size, principle of operation and combustion system, a diesel engine converts up to 30–50% of the supplied fuel energy into effective brake work. Apart from conversion losses during combustion, the remaining percentage is released into the environment as heat (Fig. 9.1), predominantly with the exhaust and by the cooling system. Only a relatively small percentage reaches the environment by convection and radiation through the surface of the engine. In addition to the component heat transferred to the coolant, the heat dissipated by a cooling system also includes the heat dissipated in the lubricating oil cooler and intercooler.
Klaus Mollenhauer, Jochen Eitel

10. Materials and Their Selection

Materials engineering is one of the key technologies that have been closely linked with the diesel engine development from its beginnings to the present day. Not only the high firing pressures and temperatures already connected with the basic idea but also corrosive and tribological influences stress engine components very complexly and affect the selection of materials, which is primarily oriented toward the objectives of
Johannes Betz

Diesel Engine Operation


11. Lubricants and the Lubrication System

Diesel engines not impose make maximum demands on the loading capacity of every component but also on the lubricant, i.e. the engine oil, which is therefore a technically complex operating agent [11-1–11-3]. Since the operating conditions of car and commercial vehicle diesel engines and large diesel engines differ considerably, differently optimized lubricating oils are employed for the intended purposes.
Hubert Schwarze

12. Start and Ignition Assist Systems

Early vehicles with diesel engines could only be started at low temperatures with intense smoke formation accompanied by loud knocking noises. Glow and engine starting times of several minutes were common. Therefore, startability was and is an important goal of engine manufacturers and suppliers’ development activities. The refinement of suitable start assist systems and their adaptation to engine characteristics has led to crucial advances in diesel engine starting and cold running performance. Sheathed-element glow plugs (GLP) are used for cars (typically with displacements of less than 1 l/cylinder) to assist engine starting and running at low outside temperatures. Intake air glow systems such as glow plugs, intake air heaters or flame starting systems are used for commercial vehicles with larger displacements.
Wolfgang Dressler, Stephan Ernst

13. Intake and Exhaust Systems

The function of air cleaners is to hinder dust contained in the intake air from entering the engine and thus to prevent premature engine wear. Air cleaners are additionally employed to damp intake noise.
Oswald Parr, Jan Krüger, Leonhard Vilser

14. Exhaust Heat Recovery

Although public awareness of the finiteness of fossil fuel reserves has receded into the background somewhat since it was raised in the 1970s, the impact of pollutant and CO2 input into the earth’s atmosphere is again making the need for a longer range environmentally compatible energy policy with concrete goals evident.
Franz Hirschbichler

Environmental Pollution by Diesel Engines


15. Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions

The direct release of exhaust gas components from combustion processes into the environment, i.e. emission, is the primary and most important process in the chain of emission, transmission, pollutant input and impact. Naturally, a basic distinction is made between emissions from vegetation, oceans, volcanic activity or biomass decomposition for instance and anthropogenic emissions, i.e. emissions caused or influenced by humans, from power generation, traffic, industry, households and farming for instance. The following deals exclusively with anthropogenic emissions from diesel engine combustion processes. Figure 15.1 depicts the functional chain with the major anthropogenic sources [15-1]. Exhaust gas components may be harmful or harmless as well as gaseous, liquid or solid.
Helmut Tschoeke, Andreas Graf, Jürgen Stein, Michael Krüger, Johannes Schaller, Norbert Breuer, Kurt Engeljehringer, Wolfgang Schindler

16. Diesel Engine Noise Emission

Like many other machines, diesel engines also generate variations in air pressure. These variations disperse in the air as longitudinal vibrations. The human ear is able to perceive such pressure variations within a frequency range of approximately 16 Hz to 16 kHz as noise. High and low frequency noise components in this frequency range are perceived to be far less loud than noise in the frequency range of 0.5 kHz to 5 kHz. This frequency-dependent sensitivity of the human ear can be accommodated in a frequency-dependent evaluation curve (A-weighting).
Bruno M. Spessert, Hans A. Kochanowski

Implemented Diesel Engines


17. Vehicle Diesel Engines

The diesel engine came to be used as a car engine relatively late after the first demonstration of its operation in 1897. The introduction of the first mass produced diesel passenger cars in 1936 finally enabled diesel engines to vie with the dominant gasoline engines of the day as an alternative drive concept in this segment too.
Fritz Steinparzer, Klaus Blumensaat, Georg Paehr, Wolfgang Held, Christoph Teetz

18. Industrial and Marine Engines

The industrial single cylinder diesel engine has a history steeped in tradition, which extends from the first operable diesel engine in 1897 up to today’s versatile, air-cooled, small single cylinder diesel engine. It is now only designed as a four-stroke engine, primarily in the small diesel engine segment, because of its low manufacturing costs relative to output, low fuel consumption, good lubrication conditions and better exhaust quality.
Günter Kampichler, Heiner Bülte, Franz Koch, Klaus Heim


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