Skip to main content

Über dieses Buch

This handbook pursues an integrated communication approach. Drawing on the various fields of organizational communication and their relevance for CSR, it addresses innovative topics such as big data, social media, and the convergence of communication channels, as well as the roles they play in a successfully integrated CSR communication program. Further aspects covered include the analysis of sector-specific, cross-cultural, and ethical challenges related to the effective communication of CSR.
This handbook is unique in its consistent focus on integrated communication. It is of interest not only for the scientific discourse, but will also benefit those corporations that not only seek to operate in a socially responsible manner, but also to communicate their efforts to their various stakeholders. Besides its significant value for researchers and professionals, the book can also be used as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students interested in successful CSR communication.



Theoretical Foundations of Integrated CSR Communication


Integrated CSR Communications

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has developed over the years from being a mere social idea to becoming a corporate concept and philosophy. In recent years, it has gained a remarkable amount of attention from top management as a strategic concept that is designed to promote the competitive competence of a corporation by espousing the principle of social legitimacy. A company’s public commitment to cooperate with a socially accepted ethical code improves its reputation and brand image, enhances its relationships with stakeholders and with the public, and thereby helps it to achieve better long-term performance. To fully exploit its strategic potential, CSR requiresmore than any other strategic program or initiativea credible and consistent communications management system. Although Integrated CSR Communications risks being seen as a vehicle for window-dressing or green-washing owing to the increasing information and options that internal and external stakeholders have access to, it is, nevertheless, an underestimated strategic tool. This article reflects on different perspectives in managing Integrated CSR Communications at different organizational levels. On the basis of an Integrated Communications concept, it discusses how companies can plan CSR Communications as a strategic communications approach, as well as how they can implement it as a more content-based approach, by targeting specific departments or using specialist CSR teams.
Manfred Bruhn, Anja Zimmermann

CSR as Common Sense Issue? A Theoretical Exploration of Public Discourses, Common Sense and Framing of Corporate Social Responsibility

The article aims to explore and define Corporate Social Responsibility as common sense related discourse in corporations and amongst organizations and their stakeholder and discusses the potential of CSR as “communication content” for media and communication studies. To theoretically capture CSR as “common sense”, issues in general are conceptualized as ‘fields’ in Bourdieu’s sense, complemented by an innovative concept of framing. From a content related perspective, the theoretical reflections enable the definition of CSR as common sense issue by differentiating it from neutral positions and hegemonic frames.
Franzisca Weder

CSR as an Economic, Ethical, and Communicative Concept

This article gives an overall picture of CSR as economic, ethical, and communicative concept. It differentiates between CSR, Corporate Governance, and Corporate Citizenship, and locates CSR in the heart of organizational strategy. Business ethical considerations demand that responsibility of organizations in a mediatized economy are to be taken seriously by giving ethics a place in organizations. A rational and responsible way to meet these tasks is stakeholder management and integrating ethics on the institutional level of organizations. As organizations are “publicly exposed” institutions, we argue further that the only way of legitimizing organizational actions and strategies is through communication with an (unlimited) public, and this not only via strategic communication, but also with ethical deliberation and via integrated communication.
The goal of the article is to make readers familiar with the history and basic concepts of CSR and to stimulate thoughts about the connection of CSR and (integrated) communication.
Matthias Karmasin, Michael Litschka

Communicative Dilemmas of CSR: Towards an Integrative Framework of CSR Communication

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is said to be resting on a fundamental dilemma: a dilemma between ethical obligations towards society versus economic duties of maximising profits. In other words: A clash occurs between business and morality. In this chapter, we explore how this fundamental dilemma is replicated in CSR communication contexts. The purpose is to conceptually explore CSR dilemmas in communication contexts in order to develop an integrative framework for understanding the complexity of and communicative dilemmas embedded in CSR. Framed by three communication disciplines (integrated marketing communication, organisational communication and corporate communication), we outline how CSR is applied, and how it changes and redefines key concepts within each discipline. CSR generates new stakeholder demands and social expectations towards the organisation; the question is how the organisation manages and communicates this new role of responsibility. On that basis, we discuss how the CSR dilemma manifests as three communicative dilemmas: A self-promotion dilemma related to challenges of promoting CSR without simultaneously demonstrating its organisational anchoring; an identification dilemma related to the challenges of creating CSR value for employee identification without becoming a normative tool of employee identity control; and a relation dilemma, which is concerned with the challenges related to stakeholder engagement and the balancing of how to integrate the multivocality of different, opposing stakeholders without compromising the ideal of representing one unified corporate entity. The insights of the chapter contribute to the literature on CSR and CSR communication by providing a more nuanced understanding of the challenges and complexity of CSR communication, manifested as communicative dilemmas.
Sophie Esmann Andersen, Anne Ellerup Nielsen, Christiane Marie Høvring

Communicating Responsibility: Responsible Communication

Taking the theoretical concept of CCR into consideration, the following chapter follows an integrated approach to CSR communication. Basically, responsible stakeholder relations are perceived as condition for and outcome of CSR activities; furthermore, CSR is described as both, strategy and framework of internal as well as external communication processes and structures. After providing a critical introduction to CSR, the Quadruple Bottom Line of Responsibility is introduced, where communicating CSR and communicating responsibly complement each other. Thus, the chapter presents and discusses a concept of integrated CSR communication as condition for the realization of CSR in an organization.
Franzisca Weder, Matthias Karmasin

Managerial Aspects of Integrated CSR Communication


Investigating Internal CSR Communication: Building a Theoretical Framework

Using an integrated CSR communication perspective, this chapter examines the role of internal CSR communication in achieving a successful, participative CSR approach. The special characteristics of CSR communication in general, and the distinctive challenges of internal CSR communication in particular, are identified. This allows a focus on and discussion of the challenges of the attitude-behavior gap regarding sustainable behavior in the work context. This perspective produces findings for how best to develop effective internal CSR communication that narrows the attitude-behavior gap. First, employees’ attitudes towards sustainability and the consequences for communication strategies that aim at changing these employee attitudes are discussed. Second, we investigate to what extent subjective norms and perceived behavioral control influence sustainable behavior at the workplace, in addition to the influence of attitudes toward sustainability and CSR. These discussions outline that every company has its own CSR specific environment and CSR specific organizational conditions for developing an effective, internal CSR approach. This chapter, however, identifies important antecedents and characteristics, which should be taken into consideration for an effective, internal CSR communication.
Sigrid Bekmeier-Feuerhahn, Paula Maria Bögel, Carina Koch

Organizing CSR Communication: Challenges for Integrated CSR Communication from a PR and Organizational Communication Perspective

In today’s interconnected society, organizations are challenged by new “social” communication structures and internal processes of decision making, communication and sensemaking; accordingly, process and practice approaches to organizational communication as well as public relations and stakeholder management are constantly changing. In parallel, organizations are stimulated to rethink their values as corporate citizen and meet their social responsibility. Assuming that every organization related interaction can be described as process of organizational self-structuring and that, furthermore, every interaction in an organization and between organizations is operated communicatively, in this paper we state that every responsibility is allocated and taken communicatively. Inspired by core values like trust, transparency and dialogue, communication management has to be refined. At the intersection of CSR and Communication theory a new concept of integrated CSR communication arises, fueled by PR theory as well as concepts of managing responsibility. These complementarities of theoretical concepts and practical implications are discussed in this chapter.
Stefan Jarolimek, Franzisca Weder

Toward a Conceptual Integration of Corporate Social and Financial Performance

We describe the potential for an integrative perspective on corporate social performance in two distinct models. The first builds on previous research to demonstrate the theory building possibilities for conceptual integration. By extension, the second model of value attunement shows how an organization can become responsible when the executive strives to embed values in organizational decisions that facilitate the triple bottom line of social, environmental, and economic performance. According to the attunement model, the executive who strives for these goals will necessarily understand the significance of establishing means of communicating value information in the organization and between the organization and its external constituents. We move toward an integration of corporate social and financial performance by summarizing the various competitive benefits that attunement may yield for the socially and environmentally responsible firm.
Diane L. Swanson, Marc Orlitzky

Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility for Brands

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has developed to become one of the top priority issues in brand management and research. Brands can benefit from CSR activities and its communication in many ways such as an improvement of reputation, an increase in willingness to pay and intention to buy. However, inappropriately applied CSR communication can significantly harm the brand. To ensure a positive effectiveness of the CSR engagement, the article provides an extensive set of guidelines for brand managers.
Christian Boris Brunner, Tobias Langner

Communicating CSR Through Corporate Image Advertising

The purpose of this chapter is to review the state of play in regard to corporations’ advertising of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, policies, and/or achievements as an identity-building exercise. An organisation’s use of advertising to lay claim to socially-responsible operations is bound to be contentious and inspire responses of scepticism and/or cynicism, especially if such advertising claims appear at odds with stakeholder perceptions of the organisation’s performance. The contentiousness of CSR advertising claims is enlarged by confusion over what constitutes CSR and what does not. Cause-related marketing campaigns, for example, are a form of sales promotion technique yet are enlisted in the hope of a corporation addressing its responsibility to society. Ultimately CSR performance must stand on impacts and outcomes, and anything less will be adjudged spin, greenwashing, or mere impression management. This chapter regards CSR advertising, and indeed other elements of the brand’s integrated marketing communications, in this light.
Alan Pomering

Integrated CSR Communication and New Media


The World Wide Web and the Social Media as Tools of CSR Communication

The increasing development of the Web 2.0 and the Social Networks has opened a wide range of tools for communication and public relations. Today, online communication has become a key aspect in the Integrated Communication management of every organization, changing the way they communicate and establish relationships with their stakeholders.
The impact of the Internet in CSR communication has a relevant difference before and after the massive access to the web technology, moving from unidirectional CSR communication to interactive CSR communication.
This chapter points out the main traits that define the communication of Corporate Social Responsibility through the Internet. This may contribute to identifying the key challenges that the communication has as a relevant function in the management of corporate responsibility, nowadays and in the near future.
Paul Capriotti

Big Data and CSR Communication

This chapter discusses corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the area of digital media culture. Social media networks and online platforms are massive data collectors and have become the most important data source for collecting statistical data social large amount of data (i.e. big data) can be generated from all online communication. These data are, for example, used to identify moods and trends. Big data research has become very diversified in the past years by using machine-based processes for computer-based social media analysis. This article first summarizes current research on social networks, online communication and big data. Then three case studies are presented, focusing on (1) health monitoring and big data aggregated from Google search and social media monitoring, (2) Facebook data research and the analysis of data structures generated from this social network, and (3) big data research on Twitter. Finally, future developments, challenges and implications with regards to health communication, communication management and CSR are discussed.
Ramón Reichert

Virtual Corporate Social Responsibility Dialog: Seeking a Gap Between Proposed Concepts and Actual Practices

This chapter provides an initial conceptualization of virtual social corporate responsibility (CSR) dialog and a preliminary examination of global firms’ Twitter CSR communications. Combining Web 2.0 and customer engagement, virtual CSR dialog could be a powerful tool to establish participative and collaborative relationships between the firm and its clients. However, our analysis of 8 global firms’ Twitter CSR accounts reveals that the level of firm–customer interactions is extremely low, while the level of customer–customer interactions is relatively active.
Shintaro Okazaki, Hector D. Menendez

Intercultural Integrated CSR Communication


Integrated Corporate Social Responsibility Communication: A Global and Cross-Cultural Perspective

Based on a brief history and a short overview of global rankings, country-specific and comparative studies, this chapter discusses the impact of cultural differences of CSR communication in the global context. We relate CSR communication to a typology of the multinational enterprise, discuss implications for the ethical framing of CSR communication, and present different options for action before we identify needs for further research.
Matthias Karmasin, Gerhard Apfelthaler

Integrated CSR Advertising: With a Special Focus on the Intercultural Perspective

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is becoming ever more important in today’s business world. For consumers, the knowledge that a company engages in CSR is increasingly a crucial factor in their decision-making. However, for consumers to know about CSR activities, it requires that companies communicate about their engagement to their stakeholders. Advertising is but one means of communicating CSR efforts. In the academic literature, CSR advertising has received disproportionally little attention, in comparison to the bulk of CSR literature. This chapter provides a review of the current literature dealing with the topic of CSR advertising, with a special focus on intercultural CSR advertising. Qualitative and quantitative studies have been conducted in this area, with the majority of quantitative studies involving experiments. Directions for further research are provided, as significant research gaps in the area of CSR advertising, and in particular in the area of integrated and intercultural CSR advertising, exist.
Andrea Ettinger, Ralf Terlutter, Sandra Diehl, Barbara Mueller

Knowledge Integration in the European CSR Communication Field: An Institutional Perspective

By inspecting contemporary macro-level developments concerning the phenomenon of CSR communication in parallel to scholarly contributions on CSR communication this chapter aims to outline the main institutional logics that shape the field of CSR communication in Europe. The chapter reveals that on both levels a struggle between communicative and non-communicative interpretations of CSR communication is taking place. This conflict is then contextualised both from the perspective of cultural and socio-economic factors, which have conditioned the current state of the European CSR communication field, and from the viewpoint of its future challenges.
Urša Golob, Nataša Verk, Klement Podnar

Corporate Social Responsibility Communication in North America: The Past, Present and Future

Since the establishment of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between Canada, Mexico, and the United States, corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts across borders have been encouraged. Although NAFTA itself has been heavily studied, the comparative development of CSR programs and their related communications across borders remain relatively unexamined. This chapter examines the historical development of CSR in the post-industrial United States and Canada and compares it to its development in Mexico. This historical perspective provides a foundation for understanding the current state of CSR communication and sets the stage for the future CSR communication across North America.
Karen Becker-Olsen, Francisco Guzmán

Practices of CSR in China and Hong Kong

China and Hong Kong have a long history of practicing corporate giving and caring, guided by the deeply ingrained pursuit of the collective good. This chapter begins with a brief description of the historical and philosophical roots of corporate social responsibility in the Chinese context. Differences in the political system and economic development have shaped the courses that China and Hong Kong tread in practicing corporate social responsibility (CSR). In recent decades, CSR in China has been driven by government initiatives and the introduction of mandatory environmental and social responsibility reporting. It is also more visible among large-scale corporations. CSR in Hong Kong is more likely to be driven by company initiatives assuming a bottom-up approach among large corporations, as well as by small and medium-sized enterprises. The chapter goes on to discuss public perceptions of CSR. It ends with two case studies of CSR practices, one a negative example, and the other positive.
Liane Lee, Kara Chan

The CSR Communications and Reporting Landscape in Developing Countries

Despite the global trends shaping Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Communications and Reporting (CSR C&R), which trends advocate for quality, reliable and accurate CSR messages, developing countries’ CSR C&R is still lagging behind. For example, much as the most common channels of CSR C&R are annual reports, website postings, newsletters, etc., , to a large extent, these CSR C&R fail to differentiate between material and non-material CSR issues that should be communicated. This is evidenced by most of the CSR C&R messages from companies and organizations in these countries, produced and issued to the audiences at below Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI) 4 minimum standards. In a promising development though, traces of the relationship between ‘Speech Act Theory (SAT)’ and ‘Sense-making Theory (SMT)’, have been found to be helpful in understanding how stakeholders targeted by these CSR messages in developing countries endeavor to extract and make meaning and use of this information/message. Hence, as a contribution to knowledge, this chapter provides the ‘Kata-Nkiko Framework.’ This framework explains the state of Integrated CSR Communications and Reporting (CSR C&R) in developing countries. Additionally, it advances critical points, which, if observed, will allow the CSR C&R from these countries to be credible, and sense can be made out of it. Lastly, from this framework, a concept, “Sense-Act” of CSR information is fronted in the debate on CSR C&R for the first time. It is derived from roots of “Sense-making Theory,” and “Speech Act Theory”.
David Katamba, Cedric M. Nkiko

Special Topics of Intercultural Integrated CSR Communication

Corporate Social Responsibility and the Portrayal of Minority Groups in Advertising

The portrayal of racial and ethnic minority groups in advertising is an important issue that has implications for both business and society. Both expectancy theory and cultivation theory suggest negative impacts of repeated exposure to stereotypes in the media or advertising. At a societal level, integrated CSR communications should portray minority groups in a variety of contexts that allow both members of the minority group and the society at large to have a less stereotyped and more complete view of the minority group. The extant research suggests that significant progress has been made in terms of the frequency of appearances of various minority groups in ads as well as some improvements in the types of portrayals shown. As a result, recent studies have shifted to issues such as the prominence of portrayed characters and the types of roles and settings that minorities are featured in. The authors conclude that integrated CSR communications should strive to give more complete and varied portrayals of minority groups rather than relying on stereotypes that potentially decrease the effectiveness of advertisements and risk significant social consequences.
Charles R. Taylor, John P. Costello

Corporate Environmental Responsibility Communication: Implications from CSR and Green Advertising Research

Even though environmental topics are among the main themes addressed in CSR communication (CSRC), research on specific environmental themed CSRC has been scarce so far. This paper discusses the lessons that can be learned from previous CSR communication and green advertising research for corporate environmental responsibility communication (CERC) aims, channel selection and message strategy. The review of relevant literature reveals that, while stakeholders seemingly demand that companies engage in environmental initiatives, CERC potentially can backfire. If adequately implemented, CERC can have beneficial effects on corporate image, brand equity, stakeholder attitudes and consumer purchase intentions. Key factors of CERC success are discussed.
Patrick Hartmann, Vanessa Apaolaza, Clare D’Souza, Jose M. Barrutia, Carmen Echebarria

Integrated CSR Communication of NGOs: The Dilemma to Communicate and Cooperate in CSR Project Partnerships

Integrated communication has expanded as a concept during the last 10 years. It is not about tightly controlling communication tactics any more, but instead it involves the strategic integration of stakeholders. On the other hand, CSR has become a common part of management practice, and CSR communication is an ongoing challenge that needs to be embedded in an overall integrated marketing communication (IMC) framework. The chapter describes the development of the recent IMC discourse, discusses the chances and challenges that IMC holds for NGO communication—and applies the IMC framework to the CSR communication of NGOs. The chapter lays out the role of NGOs in relation to businesses and focuses on the intersection of NGOs and CSR—and how this affects the communication aspect. It systematically unfolds what CSR means to NGOs and proposes a communication-collaboration challenge for NGOs in cooperating with businesses.
Lars Rademacher, Nadine Remus

CSR and Political Communication

This chapter argues that there is a close relationship between the development of CSR policies (from a shareholder to a stakeholder model) and the political environment, particularly the changing forms of the public sphere (from liberal to participatory approaches). At all stages of this development, communication as a constitutive element of the public sphere plays an important role in CSR, but the more people are engaged in an active public discourse, the more emphasis companies have to place on efforts to communicate their CSR strategies and activities. The trend towards stakeholder engagement in CSR reflects a general shift in political communication, which—over the past years—has revealed a growing interest in the potentials of citizen participation in the political process, particularly with the support of digital media. Up to now, however, central questions in this field of research remain unanswered.
Maren Beaufort, Tobias Eberwein, Josef Seethaler

Corporate Social Responsibility Communication and Consumer Gender

We investigate the role of the consumer gender in CSR communication. Based on Gilligan’s work stating that female individuals are more care-oriented whereas male individuals are more justice-oriented we analyze whether female consumers respond more favorably to care-oriented and male consumers respond more favorably to justice-oriented CRS activities. Moreover, we posit that these gender-specific preferences for CSR activities spill over onto brand evaluations when communication formats are used that do not contain intense product-related information. In our study, we found that male consumers’ brand attitudes are positively affected by justice-related CSR activities if ads are used for communication that focus on CSR-related information. Moreover, we show that females’ brand attitudes are positively influenced by care-related CSR activities independently of the medium used for CSR communication.
Heribert Gierl, Tanja Schneider

Insights into the Impact of CSR Communication Source on Trust and Purchase Intention

The communication of “green CSR activities” offers companies the possibility to enhance consumer trust and increase consumers’ purchase intentions for their products. However, research on different sources and types of CSR communication is still scarce and little is known about the influence of these on trust and purchase intention outside of the Western world. In this article we explore the influence of different types of communication about environmental CSR activities on consumer trust and purchase intention in the context of Hong Kong consumers. We suggest that although positive CSR communication both in the form of advertising and publicity will have a beneficial effect on consumer trust and purchase intention, there will be a significant difference between these different types of CSR communication sources.
Ulrike Krisch, Sonja Grabner-Kräuter

Health Communication and Integrated Corporate Social Responsibility

Health communication has experienced a revival in the twenty-first century, which has been labeled the “health communication renaissance”. At the same time, public concern regarding social causes is on the rise. In response, pharmaceutical marketers have begun to publicly proclaim their support for social and environmental causes. Due to declining public trust in their products as well as their commercial messages for these products, together with increasing legal restrictions, pharmaceutical marketers are being forced to rethink their business and promotional strategies. Consumers’ roles have changed as well; today’s “new consumers” are more skeptical and demanding, renowned for rewarding corporations for their sustainable and future-oriented projects, while punishing those who fail to engage in them. This chapter examines whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) appeals—defined as socially and/or environmentally-oriented efforts promoted as part of corporations’ advertising messages—present a fruitful strategy for the health communication field in general, and for pharmaceutical manufacturers in particular. To this end, two studies are presented here, which investigate how integrated promotional CSR messages are utilized and perceived in a cross-cultural setting. Results indicate that (1) to date, social and green appeals do not constitute a dominant message appeal category in the pharmaceutical industry, and, (2) while CSR appeals in pharmaceutical ads resonated with consumers in the U.S. and Brazil, they were looked upon less favorably by German respondents. This suggests that pharmaceutical marketers intending to incorporate CSR appeals in their commercial messages should tailor such messages to the respective country. In conclusion, limitations are addressed and suggestions for further research are provided.
Isabell Koinig, Sandra Diehl, Barbara Mueller


Weitere Informationen

Premium Partner

BranchenIndex Online

Die B2B-Firmensuche für Industrie und Wirtschaft: Kostenfrei in Firmenprofilen nach Lieferanten, Herstellern, Dienstleistern und Händlern recherchieren.



Voraussetzungen für die wirtschaftliche additive Fertigung

Viele Unternehmen stellen die technische Umsetzbarkeit oder die Wirtschaftlichkeit additiv gefertigter Produkte in Frage und zögern bei der Anwendung. Mit einer neuen Denkweise führt die additive Fertigung jedoch zu höherer Wirtschaftlichkeit und Vorteilen im Wettbewerb, wie Kegelmann Technik in diesem Beitrag beschreibt.
Jetzt gratis downloaden!