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2013 | Buch

Handbook of Manufacturing Control

Fundamentals, description, configuration

verfasst von: Hermann Lödding

Verlag: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

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Über dieses Buch

This first-time English publication of one of Germany’s leading manufacturing control handbooks provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art, with detailed and easy to understand descriptions of numerous control techniques from Kanban to CONWIP to Backlog Control.

Based on the proven funnel model and written for the industry, this book clearly illustrates how companies can use manufacturing control to effectively improve on-time delivery, reduce inventories and cut down throughput times.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction
Abstract
Researchers and business managers throughout the world agree that companies which combine products that customers benefit from greatly with superior logistics are especially competitive. Such enterprises often grow more quickly than the market and net particularly high profits. Here, good logistics means consistently achieving logistic targets:
Hermann Lödding

Fundamentals of Manufacturing Control

Frontmatter
Chapter 2. Logistic Objectives
Abstract
Manufacturing control is critical due to the strategic importance of the logistic objectives it influences. Wiendahl differentiates these objectives according to how they influence the logistic performance and logistic costs (see Fig. 2.1 and [Wien-97b]).
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 3. Modeling the Logistic Objectives
Abstract
According to a well-known and perhaps already worn out saying from publications on management, one can only control what one can measure. This prerequisite holds true for the targeted control of logistic objectives, however, it alone is not enough. Due to the numerous interactions and conflicts between the logistic objectives and factors which influence them, it is also necessary to understand the intricacies of the system in order to ensure that targets are satisfactorily attained.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 4. Production Planning Tasks
Abstract
Production planning schedules the production for the next planning periods in advance. From the perspective of manufacturing control, the relevant results of the production planning process are the values planned for the input and output as well as the chosen sequence (see the manufacturing control model in Sect. 1.2). Since production planning therefore directly impacts manufacturing control, a brief overview of it is provided here.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 5. Key Manufacturing Characteristics
Abstract
In the previous chapters, the focus has primarily been on differentiating between make-to-order and make-to-stock productions. However, there are a number of additional characteristics that influence the manufacturing control. Two proven classification criteria that we will examine in this next chapter are the manufacturing principle (Sect. 5.1) and the type of manufacturing (Sect. 5.2). Moreover, a close connection to the logistic objectives allows productions to be classified according to the type of part flow (Sect. 5.3), whereas, the number of variants (Sect. 5.4), the complexity of the material flow (Sect. 5.5) as well as the fluctuations in both the customers’ demands and the required capacities (Sect. 5.6) impact the applicability of various manufacturing control methods.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 6. Supply Chain Management (SCM)
Abstract
Production enterprises are integrated into logistic networks. They obtain raw materials and components from suppliers and deliver products to customers who either further process these, sell them unchanged, or, use and/or consume them. The customer utility and the cost of the end product are dependent on the performance of the entire logistic network. Frictional losses frequently arise at the interfaces between companies in a logistic network. Accordingly, it is here that costs can be decreased and conditions for a strong logistic performance (from the end customer’s perspective) can be created.
Hermann Lödding

Methods for Generating Orders

Frontmatter
Chapter 7. Fundamentals of Generating Orders
Abstract
The order generation process is responsible for creating manufacturing orders from customer orders, material withdrawals or production programs. It thus determines the planned input and planned output of the production as well as the planned sequence in which the orders should be completed. At the same time, it sets the planned values for the enterprises internal WIP, throughput time and utilization. Figure 7.1 depicts the role of generating orders in the manufacturing control model. The task and accompanying actuating variables are outlined in bold.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 8. Order Point System
Abstract
The Order Point System is one of the oldest and most commonly used methods in procurement and production logistics. Throughout the world it is applied to control storage levels in production and commercial enterprises. Moreover, the system’s parameters influence the service level of the controlled variants and thus of the enterprise.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 9. Kanban
Abstract
Kanban (Kanban is Japanese for card) is an important component of the Toyota Production System [Ohno-88*]. It delegates the responsibility for the stock to the production operators and establishes control loops for every variant between the production’s workstations as well as the suppliers and purchasers.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 10. Capacity Oriented Materials Management
Abstract
Capacity Oriented Materials Management (CORMA) was developed by Schönsleben especially for mixed productions in which both make-to-stock and make-to-order productions utilize the same set of resources (e.g., plants and/or equipment). It can, however, also be applied equally well in an exclusively make-to-stock production. CORMA primarily aims to constantly utilize the workstations of a production. To do so, make-to-stock orders that are routed through workstations with critical capacities are generated and released early for workstations that have available capacities.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 11. Synchro MRP
Abstract
Synchro MRP combines a centralized production planning and control with the decentralized Kanban System. The method was developed by the Japanese enterprise Yamaha with the intention of transferring the advantages of Kanban to a manufacturing environment characterized by frequently modified and changing products as well as by a large number of variants. Manufacturing environments such as these are generally more typical in many industries than that of the original Toyota production system. Synchro MRP became known primarily through publications by Hall [Hall-86*]. The method functions similarly to a Two-Card Kanban. A workstation, however, is only allowed to reproduce a variant if the planned output of that variant is not yet attained. The planned output per variant is given in the daily production program.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 12. Hybrid Kanban/CONWIP Control
Abstract
The basic idea behind a hybrid Kanban/CONWIP control is to combine the decentralized WIP control from Kanban with the centralized WIP control from CONWIP. This method for controlling production was developed and evaluated in simulation studies by Bonvik, Couch and Gershwin [Bonv-97*]. In simulation studies with comparable WIP levels the method achieved a noticeably higher output rate than Kanban and a slightly higher output rate than CONWIP.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 13. Cumulative Production Figures
Abstract
Cumulative Production Figures (abbreviated here as CPF) have been used to plan and control production in the automobile industry for decades. Developed by practitioners, Cumulative Production Figures (also known as ‘progress numbers’) synchronize the supplier’s production with the automobile assembly. One of the first and foremost contributions in the field about this method was written by Heinemeyer at the University of Hannover’s Institute of Production Systems and Logistics [Hein-88, Hein-94]. It is also discussed extensively in [Wien-97b]. Currently, the method is stimulated by the discussion around supply chain management.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 14. Base Stock
Abstract
The procedural rules of the Base Stock System were already published by Kimball in 1955 (see [Kimb-88*] for a reprint, as well as [Clar-60*, Grav-95*] as alternative sources) and is thus one of the oldest manufacturing control methods. The principle idea behind the method is to immediately convey each demand placed by an end customer to all of the workstations in a production. The corresponding demand signal authorizes the reproduction of the required variant. For each workstation a so-called ‘base stock’ is defined for each variant by which the cumulated production of the variant should exceed the cumulated customer demand. When the base stock is constant, this method prevents fluctuating demands from being amplified (bullwhip effect) and is thus suitable for coordinating supply chains. The possible WIP build-up that can occur as a result of a production backlog is, however, disadvantageous.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 15. Production Authorization Cards
Abstract
PAC (Production Authorization Cards) is a generic method for controlling production. Similar to Cumulative Production Figures (Chap. 13) depending on how the parameters are set PAC can represent different methods for generating orders. The method was developed and described by Buzacott and Shantikumar [Buza-92*] and is especially interesting for software developers and researchers. In comparison, practitioners tend to orient themselves directly on the methods which PAC can represent.
Hermann Lödding

Methods for Releasing Orders

Frontmatter
Chapter 16. Fundamentals of Order Release
Abstract
The order release determines the point in time after which a production is allowed to process an order. Usually, it also immediately triggers the provision of the required materials. The material is thus specifically allocated to an order and is generally no longer available for other orders. The order release influences the WIP and the WIP dependent utilization of the production as well as the throughput time of the orders.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 17. Due Date Based Order Release
Abstract
Due Date Based Order Release is the standard approach in the large majority of PPC systems and MRP II, accordingly, the method is very common. Currently, a clear majority of all make-to-order productions still conduct a Due Date Based Order Release that is admittedly frequently overridden by manual interventions.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 18. Constant Work in Process
Abstract
Since the 1990s, CONWIP has increasingly gained attention in the area of manufacturing control methods. Spearman and Hopp who coined the catchy name (CONWIP = Constant Work in Process) have played a considerable role in spreading the method and developing an understanding of its advantages [Hopp-96*, Spea-89*, Spea-90*, Spea-92*]. For further information on this release method, though with somewhat different language see e.g., [Bake-84*, Raga-88*, Wein-88*] and the bibliographies provided there. CONWIP is generally associated with controlling production lines. It can, however, also be applied with more complex material flows (see also [Lödd-01]). The basic idea behind the method is to maintain the WIP in a production or production line at a constant level.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 19. Bottleneck Control
Abstract
Bottleneck Control is the simplest way to convert the bottleneck principle into a manufacturing control method: Every time a bottleneck workstation completes an order, a Bottleneck Control releases an order for production. Bottleneck Control sub-divides the production into a WIP controlled section up until and including the bottleneck workstation and a not WIP controlled section after the bottleneck workstation. In the following we will discuss this based on the example of a production line.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 20. Workload Control
Abstract
Workload Control is a simple technique for controlling production which balances the load of the workstations within a manufacturing system. This technique was published by Jendralski [Jend-78] at the Leibniz University of Hannover’s Institute of Production Systems and Logistics as well as other (groups of) authors independently of one another and with slightly different procedural rules (Bertrand and Wortmann [Bert-81*], Hendry, Kingsman, Tatsiopoulos [Hend-91*, King-89*, Tats-93*] as well as Chang and Yih [Chan-94*]). Up until now, a standard term for this method has not yet been established, however, based on Bertrand and Wortmann’s terminology we will be referring to it here as ‘Workload Control’.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 21. Load Oriented Order Release
Abstract
Among all of the manufacturing control methods there are, probably only a few have triggered as much scholarly debate as the Load Oriented Order Release (LOOR). Since it was introduced by Bechte in his dissertation at the Leibniz Universität Hannover’s Institute of Production Systems and Logistics in 1980 [Bert-81* (reprint)], the discussion surrounding this method has not stopped. LOOR is the subject of numerous publications both in German language journals as well as international ones. In German speaking countries it is also taught at many universities and polytechnics. Due to the scholarly debate about supposed and actual strengths and weaknesses (see for example [Knol-91*]) it can be easily forgotten that LOOR has proven itself in industrial applications [Wien-91].
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 22. Order Release with Linear Programming
Abstract
Releasing orders with linear programming was introduced by Irastorza and Deane in 1974 [Iras-74*] and is thus one of the oldest methods for releasing orders. Nonetheless, it combines not only essential aspects of methods developed later, but also contains further elements such as weighting logistic target criteria. However, this method receives little attention in publications about production control, perhaps because Irastorza and Deane themselves wrote few publications about the method. Moreover, the method requires a module that can solve linear equation systems. These requirements were still a substantial hurdle for many manufacturers in the 1970s.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 23. POLCA Control
Abstract
POLCA was developed by Suri in the 1990s and positioned as an alternative to both the MRP II concept and Kanban [Suri-98*]. The method is a component of the comprehensive Quick Response concept aimed in particular at organizing production into manufacturing cells. In the ideal case (but not inevitably), the manufacturing cells operate according to the one-piece-flow principle. POLCA stands for Paired-Cell Overlapping Loops of Cards with Authorization. The abbreviation thus describes the localized WIP control loops between manufacturing cells in a production.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 24. Decentralized WIP Oriented Manufacturing Control
Abstract
Decentralized WIP Oriented Manufacturing Control (DEWIP) is based on decentralized WIP control loops between the production’s workstations. It thus allows the production’s workforce being integrated in the responsibility of attaining logistic targets. The method was developed by Lödding at the Leibniz University of Hanover’s Institute of Production Systems and Logistics in a project sponsored by the German Research Foundation [Lödd-01, Wien-01].
Hermann Lödding

Sequencing

Frontmatter
Chapter 25. Sequencing
Abstract
The job of sequencing is simple to describe: It determines which order in a workstation’s queue should be processed next. In order to do so it allocates every order a priority level based on defined criteria. The order with the greatest priority is the most urgent and is – when the operator at the workstation maintains the sequence – processed first. The primary task of sequencing is to adjust the actual sequence in which the orders are completed to the planned sequence in order to ensure a high schedule reliability and service level (Fig. 25.1).
Hermann Lödding

Controlling Capacities

Frontmatter
Chapter 26. Fundamentals of Capacity Control
Abstract
Whereas capacity planning determines in advance the capacities required to implement a production program, capacity control determines the actual capacities implemented shortly beforehand. The capacity control generally decides about the work hours and about which workstation cross-trained operators are allocated to. In particular it thus determines when overtime, shortened work hours and special measures related to the capacity flexibility are implemented.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 27. Backlog Control
Abstract
The basic idea of backlog control is to temporarily adjust the capacities so that the production attains the planned output despite disruptions. The most important goal is ensuring high schedule reliability.
Hermann Lödding
Chapter 28. Further Methods for Controlling Capacity
Abstract
In addition to Backlog Control there are other methods for controlling capacity. These methods can be used as an alternative to Backlog Control but also can almost always be implemented as a supplement to the Backlog Control.
Hermann Lödding

Configuring the Manufacturing Control

Frontmatter
Chapter 29. Configuring the Manufacturing Control
Abstract
In order for an enterprise to attain its logistic goals it is not enough to achieve outstanding results in a specific section of the manufacturing control. Instead, all of the aspects of the manufacturing control need to be coordinated with one another. Furthermore, they should take into consideration targets from the production planning as well as the structure of the product and production. Selecting suitable manufacturing control methods for a specific application case is not only difficult for practitioners; configuring the manufacturing control is also an underdeveloped field of research.
Hermann Lödding
Backmatter
Metadaten
Titel
Handbook of Manufacturing Control
verfasst von
Hermann Lödding
Copyright-Jahr
2013
Verlag
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Electronic ISBN
978-3-642-24458-2
Print ISBN
978-3-642-24457-5
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-24458-2

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