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Space Security involves the use of space (in particular communication, navigation, earth observation, and electronic intelligence satellites) for military and security purposes on earth and also the maintenance of space (in particular the earth orbits) as safe and secure areas for conducting peaceful activities. The two aspects can be summarized as "space for security on earth" and “the safeguarding of space for peaceful endeavors.”

The Handbook will provide a sophisticated, cutting-edge resource on the space security policy portfolio and the associated assets, assisting fellow members of the global space community and other interested policy-making and academic audiences in keeping abreast of the current and future directions of this vital dimension of international space policy. The debate on coordinated space security measures, including relevant 'Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures,' remains at a relatively early stage of development. The book offers a comprehensive description of the various components of space security and how these challenges are being addressed today. It will also provide a number of recommendations concerning how best to advance this space policy area, given the often competing objectives of the world's major space-faring nations. The critical role to be played by the United States and Europe as an intermediary and "middle diplomat" in promoting sustainable norms of behavior for space will likewise be highlighted.

In providing a global and coherent analytical approach to space security today, the Handbook focuses on four areas that together define the entire space security area: policies, technologies, applications, and programs. This structure will assure the overall view of the subject from its political to its technical aspects. Internationally recognized experts in each of the above fields contribute, with their analytical synthesis assured by the section editors.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

International Space Security Setting

Frontmatter

1. International Space Security Setting: An Introduction

This article provides an introduction to Section One of the Handbook of Space Security by overviewing major issues and themes that frame discourse about space security. Section One contains 14 chapters that include foundational discussions about definitional, governance, theoretical, legal, and deterrence themes for space security as well as more focused discussions about responsive space, cyber security, critical infrastructure, safety, traffic management, sustainability, export controls, and transparency- and confidence-building measures. Together, these themes and issues provide a comprehensive setting for refining and advancing our dialogue about international space security.

Peter L. Hays

2. Defining Space Security

Space security relates to guaranteed access to space and the ability to freely exploit space for various purposes. Traditionally, space security was defined in military terms in relation to the strategic balance between the United States and the Soviet Union. Since the end of the Cold War, a two-dimensional model of military and environmental dimensions of space security has developed. This in turn is beginning to be superceded by a three-sector understanding which distinguishes between the uses of space for security and defense: the security of assets in space against natural and man-made threats and security from threats originating in space. Expanding the definition of space security has advantages but also carries certain risks.

Michael Sheehan

3. Obstacles to International Space Governance

International space governance is essential to realize benefits that space assets provide. The overall goal of space governance is to ensure the sustainable uses of space for security, economic, civil, and environmental ends. Concomitantly, there are obstacles to space governance that must be overcome to optimize the realization of this goal. Two key obstacles are indentified and discussed in this chapter. One obstacle relates to attaining collective action in relation to the commons of space. A second obstacle concerns that of strategic stability in the space domain and how best to advance strategic assurance for sustainable uses of space as a shared strategic goal.

Eligar Sadeh

4. Security Cooperation in Space and International Relations Theory

This chapter resorts to international relations theory to explain various patterns of security cooperation in space. There have been several attempts for security cooperation but the success was limited. While neorealism explains this lack of cooperation with the difficulties to achieve balanced gains, for neoinstitutionalism, the central hurdle is the establishment of effective rules and mechanisms to verify the compliance of states. For a constructivist/liberal account, the main problem lies in the dominant beliefs about the value of unilateral space policies. Taken together these three theoretical perspectives provide a comprehensive account of security cooperation in space.

Max M. Mutschler

5. Spacepower Theory

Spacepower theory is useful in describing, explaining, and predicting how individuals, groups, and states can best derive utility, balance investments, and reduce risks in their interactions with the cosmos. Spacepower theory should be more fully developed and become a source for critical insights as humanityhumanity wrestles with our most difficult and fundamental space challenges and guide us toward better ways to generate wealth in space, make tradeoffs between space investments and other important goals, reorder terrestrial security dynamics as space becomes increasingly militarized and potentially weaponized, and seize exploration and survival opportunities that only space can provide. This chapter briefly reviews noteworthy efforts to develop spacepower theory and then considers ways it could help to refine current US space policy and address some of the most significant challenges and issues surrounding space security, space commercialization, and environmental sustainabilityenvironmental sustainability and survival.

Peter L. Hays

6. The Laws of War in Outer Space

The international regulation of outer space is “embedded” in international law. It is not an esoteric and separate paradigm. Indeed, the main United Nations Space Treaty, the Outer Space Treaty, expressly confirms that the principles of international law apply to the use and exploration of outer space. Given the development of technology, outer space is more frequently being used during the course of armed conflict, particularly through the use of sophisticated satellite technology, notwithstanding the “peaceful purposes” provisions of that Treaty. Not only does this give rise to difficult international law issues relating to the use of force, but it also requires an understanding of how and to what extent the international law principles of jus in bello – international humanitarian law – apply to the conduct of these outer space activities. The position is complicated further by the growing number of “dual use” satellites that simultaneously provide capacity to both commercial/civilian users and the military. This chapter examines a number of specific aspects of the jus in bello principles as they relate to the use of outer space, as well as more recent initiatives aimed at attempting to provide further clarity to the applicable rules. Although international humanitarian law does apply to activities in outer space, the existing principles may not be specific enough to provide appropriate regulation for the increasingly diverse ways in which outer space could be used during the course of armed conflict. There is therefore a growing need to reach a consensus on additional legal regulation directly applicable to the conduct of armed conflict that may involve the use of space technology.

Steven Freeland

7. The Role of Space in Deterrence

Whether or not weapons are actually deployed in space, the era in which satellites could operate without potential threat is over. The question therefore arises: what actions can be taken and what trends encouraged to reduce the possibility of space becoming a theater, or a catalyst, for hostilities? The answer may lie not in the actions of nation states, but in the nature of the space environment on the one hand and the leadership of commercial space operators on the other.

Roger Harrison

8. Responsive Space

The European Space Policy, while being currently largely driven by civilian considerations, faces growing security-related demands for European security and safety missions ranging from external security actions to maritime surveillance and emergency response to natural disasters. Several EU and think tank initiatives have examined how space assets can support internal and external security missions. The resulting insights into existing capabilities identified a need for instruments supporting a variety of European security and safety missions as well as more flexible and more affordable space applications. Time- and cost-related considerations form the basis of the concept “responsive space” (RS). The most well-known approach to RS is the one under development by the US Department of Defense, but countries such as Canada have also looked into developing RS. On the basis of their experience, this chapter aims to look into a European approach to RS.

Nina-Louisa Remuss

9. Space and Cyber Security

This chapter will describe how space is strongly connected and interacting with cyber security. The latter, even though there is no wide consensus about any formal definition, will be described and defined, for the sake of the argument, using concepts borrowed from both the civilian and military context.It will be shown that space system and cyber security challenges are to be faced through systems engineering concepts and methodologies and that such an approach paves the way to undertake effectively challenges in both these fields at the same time, achieving cyber secure space systems. Specialized technical issues will be mentioned when necessary but not dealt with in detail; on the other hand, specific information will be provided about tackling space system conception, development, detailed design, production, deployment, management of operations and maintenance, and exploitation from the standpoint of a correct cyber security approach.

Dario Sgobbi, Michelangelo L’Abbate, Daniele Frasca, Vittoria Piantelli, Giorgio Sciascia

10. Space as a Critical Infrastructure

For the last 20 years, critical infrastructure protection came up as an important issue to ensure the safety and security of citizens and the functioning of states. This chapter analyzes the approaches of the United States and the European Union in developing a critical infrastructure protection regarding to its involvement of space technology. After focusing on critical infrastructures in general as well as specializing on space, it concentrates on the milestones in developing a policy of critical infrastructure protection. The analysis shows that the policies refer to space only barely, nevertheless in the United States stronger than in the European Union.

Markus Hesse, Marcus Hornung

11. Space Safety

Space safety is necessary for the sustainable development of space. Space safety practices are now important in a host of different ways for space commerce, applications, science, and exploration. Space safety plays a critical role in minimizing hazards for human spaceflight. It allows for the protection of space infrastructure from orbital debris as we increasingly move from space debris minimization to active mitigation processes. Space safety is now focused to the key role of protecting the Earth’s population from reentering objects as well as protecting space assets.This chapter addresses all these aspects and more. This chapter introduces the many facets of safety that are being addressed by spacefaring nations around the world. Without improved space safety practices and standards, billions of dollars (US) of space assets, many astronaut lives, and even people here on Earth could all be increasingly in peril.Thus this chapter assesses a wide range of space safety risks. These risks include the different flight phases, from launch, to on-orbit operations, to reentry along with the important concept of Space Traffic Management. A range of human spaceflight safety considerations are also described. The chapter thus provides a broad overview of the field of space safety and its developments.

Joe Pelton, Tommaso Sgobba, Maite Trujillo

12. Space Traffic Management

This chapter gives an overview of the evolution of the near-Earth space environment since the beginning of the space age, discusses the current situation, and projects how future developments such as the growing space debris population and active debris removal will affect that environment. Just as the growth in air travel led to air traffic management, assuring that future space systems will have minimal interference to their operations requires a system to warn operators of potential collisions and other hazards. The chapter discusses components of a space traffic management system and the corresponding legal and policy framework.

William Ailor

13. Space Sustainability

Space sustainability is a concept that has emerged within the past 10 years to refer to a set of concerns relating to outer space as an environment for carrying out space activities safely and without interference and also to concerns about ensuring continuity of the benefits derived on Earth from space activities. As such, it encompasses the concerns of both space actors and those who are not space actors but who nevertheless benefit from space activities. This chapter reviews the role of the various relevant United Nations entities in ensuring space sustainability and provides a detailed review of the Working Group on the Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities within the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of COPUOS. Finally, the chapter discusses the relationship of the work in UN COPUOS with related work being done in the Conference on Disarmament, the UN Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Outer Space Activities, and the initiative by the European Union to propose a draft international Code of Conduct for outer space activities.

Peter Martinez

14. Space Technology Export Controls

The exigencies of the Cold War era were among the driving forces behind innovation in the field of space technology. The Janus-faced nature of space technology, serving scientific interests on the one hand and strategic, defense-related objectives on the other, led logically to the imposition of controls concerning the export of such technology. This contribution not only aims to provide a thorough overview of the relevant legal instruments and mechanisms, on the international, the regional, and the national level, and to examine their respective effects on the space industry but also to shed a light on reasons underlying the developments.

Ulrike M. Bohlmann

15. Space Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures

This chapter focuses on transparency and confidence-building measures (TCBMs) as traditional tools of diplomacy and international relations that can be applied to outer space activities. Special attention is given to the multilateral dimension of TCBMs. It first reviews the increasing demand for space TCBMs. It then provides an overview of the main space TCBM-related efforts to date, including the more recent ones being undertaken in the UN framework and by the European Union (EU). The chapter concludes with an outlook on the future of space TCBMs.

Jana Robinson

Space Security Policies and Strategies of States and International Organizations

Frontmatter

16. Space Security Policies and Strategies of States and International Organization: An Introduction

This chapter provides an introduction to Section 2 of the Handbook of Space Security addressing the subject of “Space Security Policies and Strategies of States and International Organizations.” It covers expert views on space security policies of established spacefaring nations, including the United States, Russia, China, Europe, and Japan. It also reviews space security policies of three emerging space powers – India, Brazil, and Israel – to showcase different approaches to this strategic portfolio. These approaches range from strict emphasis on the peaceful uses of outer space, in the case of Brazil, to space being a crucial domain of national security, in case of Israel. A combination of these drives is the Indian space program. The section also treats the evolution of U.S.–Japan Space Security Cooperation as well as that of space security-relevant multilateral organizations, including the United Nations (UN), the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), and the International Standardization Organization (ISO).

Jana Robinson

17. U.S. Space Security Priorities: War, Policy, and Spacepower

Space capabilities undergird the United States’ military future and the national security policies for space guide development and procurement. As the future is never as clear as a planner wishes, the policies are necessarily broad and, to some, indefensibly vague or provocative. This article traces development in the American way of war and discusses several of the more contentious space policy issues that will come to the fore in the next decades. These include increasing congestion, contestation, and competition in outer space and assessments of rules-of-the-road initiatives, cooperative partnering, space situational awareness, deterrence, and planetary defense.

Everett C. Dolman

18. U.S. Space Security and Allied Outreach

As one of the two early space pioneers, the United States is acutely aware of the evolving nature of the space environment and the need to pursue space security policies that correspond to these new realities. This chapter reviews the main space security elements of the U.S. space policy, including international collaboration in this area. Special attention will be given to the U.S. outreach to Europe and Japan as case studies of American efforts to advance the international dimension of its space security objectives. The underlying rationale is that space security is directly relevant to the broader U.S. defense and strategic dialogue with these key allies. This comparative analysis hopes to illuminate U.S. priorities in its bilateral dialogues with Europe and Japan. In so doing, this chapter seeks to establish the importance of these allies to the U.S. ability to assess, prevent, and preempt various space security threat scenarios.

Jana Robinson

19. U.S. - Japan Space Security Cooperation

Japan and the United States have a long history of civil space cooperation. Space security cooperation has, however, been limited by Japanese government restrictions on military uses of space. Those restrictions have been changing in recent years in response to both domestic political changes and changes in the Asia-Pacific and global security environment. This chapter reviews recent development in Japan, the current state of US-Japan space security cooperation, and where cooperation might occur in the future.

Scott Pace

20. Space Security in Russia

The post-Soviet Russia is no longer a military space superpower and strives to adjust its military space policies to a new geopolitical environment. Since the “lost decade” of the 1990s, when Russia failed to maintain many of its military space capabilities, the country has sought to rebuild its military space power. Driven by political considerations, such as the need to regain its status as a respected global power, as well as pragmatic reasons, epitomized by an increased reliance on space assets in modern warfare, Russia launched in the 2000s ambitious military space initiatives. It strengthened its foundations by reorganizing its space industry, as well as its military institutional architecture for space and its ground infrastructure.

Christophe Venet

21. Space and Security in Europe

The relation between space and security has always been quite different in Europe as compared to that in other spacefaring nations. This situation has evolved in the past decade with the progress of a European security and defense policy and the new competences of the European Union over security and space matters, as well as with the growing reliance of European economy and society on space for many critical services and policies. The article gives an overview of the recent evolution of “space and security” in Europe. It highlights the political and institutional developments, describes Europe’s specific approach to security and to “space for security,” and introduces the main European space activities for security. It finally reviews Europe’s current efforts to safeguard space sustainability and to protect its space assets from man-made and natural hazards.

Geraldine Naja, Charlotte Mathieu

22. External View of Space Security in Europe

The international community has long agreed that the space environment is becoming more crowded with more actors and more objects launched into space while the space environment is very fragile and needs protection. The long sustainability of the outer space will assure a long-term utilization of space infrastructure for benefits of humankind. It is in the interest of all actors to behave responsibly as anyone’s assets can be affected by debris, space weather, and man-made threats. As a spacefaring actor, Europe is as affected by various threats and predicaments of space security nature. This chapter assesses Europe’s involvement and approach towards space security affairs.

Agnieszka Lukaszczyk

23. Space Security in Japan

Japanese perspective on space security has begun with a very unique setting. The 1969 Diet resolution has put heavy constraints on its space activities, and interpretation of “nonmilitary” approach has refrained Japan from anything related to security. However, the 1998 Taepodong launch and subsequent reform of space policy eventually created the Basic Space Law in 2008. Although the organizational culture and history still influence on the decision-making process, the changing security environment and the role of Japan in the Asia-Pacific region made Japan to be more active and committed to security both by and of space.

Kazuto Suzuki

24. An Overview of Chinese Space Policy

China has made remarkable progress in space development in recent years which has received widespread attention in the international community. Meanwhile, Chinese space policy is also drawing increasingly attention abroad. This chapter tries to give a holistic review and analysis of current Chinese space policy. Firstly, it reviews space policy research in China from three aspects such as national space policy, space S&T strategy, and commercial space policies. Secondly, it introduces the governance structure of space sector in China in general and four systems concerning policy making, academia, industry, and user in particular. Thirdly, it introduces and analyzes the current space policy system in China, focusing on Space White Papers, commercial space policies, space science and technology policies, and policies for space security and sustainability. Fourthly, it discusses five key issues in the future space policy agenda in China, namely, institutional environment, capacity building, human resource development, international cooperation, and industry development. Finally, it concludes with some recommendations for future space development.

Rongping Mu, Yonggang Fan

25. Chinese Concepts of Space Security

China views space as enhancing many aspects of comprehensive national power, including not only its military capabilities but its economic development and diplomatic outreach. In the military dimension, its space capabilities have strategic, operational, and tactical impact.

Dean Cheng

26. Space Security in India

In November 2013 India will be celebrating the Diamond Jubilee of its space program. Starting from the launch of a Nike-Apache sounding rocket on 21 November 1963, the space program has progressed at a steady pace and today has evolved into a self-reliant system of application satellites and launch vehicles to place them in the required orbit. Limited commercial exploitation of space products and services is taking place. Diversification from purely application satellites to scientific missions and deep space missions are being pursued and more are on the anvil. In the long run manned missions and development of reusable launch vehicles are planned. Being dual use technology, these applications are of use to the defense and security forces also. India does not contemplate weaponization of space. To support the space missions, the ground infrastructure in terms of manufacturing and process facilities, launch center, tracking, telemetry and command network, ground stations and industrial support have been established. The investment in space has been substantial and together with the operational space services and commercial output are worth a few tens of billions of dollars. Security of these space assets and space services is very important to India. India would like space essentially to be an enduring and sustaining system to be used for the socioeconomic well-being and security of its citizens.

Rajaram Nagappa

27. Brazilian Perspective on Space Security

This chapter aims at highlighting and commenting on the views and positions assumed, directly or indirectly, by the Brazilian government authorities and representatives, as well as by Brazilian and foreign researchers, concerning the most relevant contemporary questions related to outer space security, the sustainability and stability of space activities, and the peaceful use of outer space. The following crucial issues are discussed: the definition of outer space security, the outer space weaponization, the Code of Conduct for space activities proposed by the European Union, the right of self-defense in outer space, and transparency and confidence-building measures (TCBMs) in space activities.

Jose Monserrat Filho

28. Israeli Perspective on Space Security

Israel has a 30-year tradition of space activity developing, operating, and launching satellites into space. As a small country, Israel enhances its power through space in ways otherwise not possible. This opportunity is accompanied by significant challenges, especially in maintaining the qualitative gap and preserving Israel’s position at the forefront of technology, as well as securing the space environment. The significance of space in Israel’s strategic conception shapes Israel’s perspective on space security. This chapter provides a short overview of the Israeli space program, outlines Israel’s strategic conception focusing on the role of its space program, analyzes Israel’s approach to space security, and outlines current challenges and opportunities space presents for Israel.

Deganit Paikowsky, Isaac Ben-Israel, Tal Azoulay

29. Space Security-Relevant International Organizations: UN, ITU, and ISO*

The rapidly expanding use of space comes with growing challenges to ensuring the safety and security of space assets. As recognition of the many challenges has spread, there is increasing interest by nation states in the development of multilateral approaches. At the same time, there is not any one international organization that is fully mandated to address the risks and threats to space assets – be they commercial, civilian or military or a combination. Instead, the effort to develop multilateral governance regimes for outer space is complicated by the plethora of bodies with individual remits, bureaucracies and political histories. Thus, while there is now momentum for progress in developing multilateral approaches to space security, the actual achievement of progress faces not only competing state interests but also potentially competing bureaucratic interests that may prove difficult to overcome.

Theresa Hitchens

Space Applications and Supporting Services for Security and Defense

Frontmatter

30. Space Applications and Supporting Services for Security and Defense: An Introduction

Use of space started with the Cold War, and even today the links between space technologies and military ones are still close. However, it has also contributed to peace. With time, space activities have become more and more oriented towards civil applications, while the ones dealing with military ones were enhanced. In this section of the handbook, the applications directly or indirectly connected to security and defense are exposed by specialists of each field.

Denis J. P. Moura, Jacques Blamont

31. Earth Observation for Defense

Regardless of specific defense applications, one of the most important features requested to a spaceborne Earth observation system for defense is to perform with high flexibility in order to assure the satisfaction of defense exigencies whenever and wherever they arise.Further, in a military contest, it is of fundamental importance that the data availability, once requested to the system, is assured with a probability close to 100 %.Last but not least, important aspect in the frame of defense application is the assurance of the confidentiality and integrity of the information; it is in fact of vital importance to be sure that only those who have requested the data can be able to use it and in addition that the data have not to be alterable by external entities.All the above mentioned aspects involve system design features that have to be taken into account in order to answer to military exigencies.

Dario Sgobbi, Michelangelo L’Abbate, Daniele Frasca, Vittoria Piantelli, Giorgio Sciascia, Ignazio Rana

32. Earth Observation for Security and Dual Use

After a recall of the genesis of Earth observation from space, the article deals with the issues linked with dual use of space imagery. After an attempt to define duality, some examples of dual-use systems are exposed. The objectives, benefits, but also blocking issues are then addressed through some study cases and analyses.

Pierre-Alain Bosc

33. Telecommunications for Defense

Telecommunications evolutions have always influenced battlefields, and the rhythm has recently accelerated. Between 1853 and 1856, during the Crimea War, telegraphy allowed armies to coordinate their movements and inform the political power. In 1905, admiral Togo is informed of every movement of the Russian fleet and wins a decisive victory in the Tsushima straits. In 1940, the tank and plane tandem communicate and coordinate themselves, thus providing an advantage to German troops and panzer divisions. Those three examples illustrate the fact that telecommunications have always given an advantage, from the tactic to the strategic level, to the party that could use it better or earlier than the opposite force.

Louis Tillier

34. Telecommunications for Security and Dual Use

The military establishment is planning for an increase in need for satellite communications bandwidth and services. The lessons learned from most recent operations demonstrate that commercial satellite operators can efficiently provide the capacity and services needed. A new balance between military and commercial satellite output is coming, which will be considered by all key decision-makers in the United States and Europe, including defense and security organizations like NATO and the EU Common Defense and Security Policy.

Jean François Bureau

35. Positioning, Navigation, and Timing for Security and Defense

Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) allow users to compute their position, velocity, and time anywhere in the world, anytime, and with a high accuracy. The best known, most popular GNSS, is the US Global Positioning System (GPS), although the Russian GLONASS system is regaining strength. In addition, other powerful nations in the world are developing their own systems: the European Union, China, Japan, and India.These GNSS mainly offer two types of services: an open service, available to anyone, and an authorized service, available only to authorized users and which provides better performance. The authorized services already support defense military operations of the USA and Russia, while the open services have become instrumental in civil security operations of any state for police and civil protection for instance.Open services from the current and future GNSS can be combined in order to deliver better performance to users. This is called the “interoperability” concept. On the contrary, the authorized services cannot be combined except if security and specific cooperation agreements are in place. In this case, the combined use of authorized services could also bring improved performance for defense applications.This chapter addresses these aspects on the use of the GNSS for defense and security applications.

Jean-Christophe Martin, Frédéric Bastide

36. Eavesdropping

The rationale for intercepting radio signals to and from satellites and of using satellites to monitor terrestrial radio signals is described in this chapter. A distinction is made between voice, data, and radar information and between military and civilian information. Issues of privacy are briefly discussed. Major breaches in the security of these systems during the Cold War are outlined to illustrate some of their weaknesses and the consequences of security failures.

Pat Norris

37. Integrated Space Related Applications for Security and Defense

This chapter makes an overview of space integrated applications for security and defense. In the context of ever-increasing globalization, security and defense issues become inextricably linked. Global threats come up. The conceptual meaning of risk has changed from a physical enemy to be fought with weapons to an insecurity permanent feeling impacting the daily life of citizens. The scenario is characterized by new challenges: a boost in the number of crisis, their diversified nature (technological accidents, natural disasters, complex man-made crisis), their unpredictability, and their locations all over the world. Moreover, new domains such as energy, transportation, and mobility are concerned by security issues.This evolution entails an integrated approach involving different actors from military and civilian contexts. Integration and interoperability are also considered for the development of adequate capabilities. Space systems have always been playing an essential role in the security and defense domain, at strategic, tactical, and operational level. When different technologies are integrated, a wider spectrum of applications can be generated and space technologies provide services otherwise unobtainable, such as the generation of added value for reliable information, the provision of autonomous surveillance of remote areas, the creation of cost-effective innovative solutions for new users, and the increase of crisis response efficiency. Thanks to their intrinsic capabilities to provide services across borders and nations, satellites are a good ground to experiment and push forwards concepts such as interoperability, sharing, and dual use.Far from being exhaustive, the chapter gives an overview of the different applications domains and the current developments and trends. To deliver concrete examples, emphasis is paid to European context, projects, and programs.

Alessandra Fiumara

38. Various Threats of Space Systems

For roughly two decades, orbital systems, beyond their traditional strategic value, have gained a pivotal role in modern conventional security and defense activities. As a consequence, they have been considered as possible new targets in military confrontations, and the recent years have indeed demonstrated a renewed activity in the field of antisatellite researches and tests. This piece attempts to put these efforts in perspective and detail their different forms. It appears that besides the traditional kinetic destruction of satellites, leading to uncontrolled long-lived debris, other threats may have equally destructive consequences with more limited side effects. Directed energy weapons in orbit or even cyber attacks may become weapons of choice in the new space landscape. These likely perspectives must lead the international community to rethink the reality of threats related to space systems.

Xavier Pasco

39. The Issue of Space Debris

Since 1957, human space activities have placed a great deal of objects in orbit around Earth. Debris represents a growing risk for operational satellites, in case of collision, and on the ground when it reenters the atmosphere. This situation calls for action, namely, in the following four areas: obtaining accurate knowledge of the situation, protecting satellites and populations, reducing as far as possible the creation of new debris, and cleaning up in space by removing the largest objects. The prevention measures mainly consist in post-mission management for satellites and launchers. Measures have been developed, and have met with broad consensus. However, to ensure more systematic application, legal mechanisms are also being established, States being liable in the event of an incident. Protection actions are also needed, but offer only partial solutions: these actions involve setting up services for preventing the risk of collision and predicting atmospheric reentries. However, due to collisions between debris objects, these actions alone will not be enough to stabilize the debris population: cleanup actions will eventually be necessary.

Fernand Alby

40. Space Situational Awareness and Recognized Picture

Space surveillance is an old story that is linked with the “Cold War” period and the first Sputnik launch in 1954. For 20 years, this activity was performed in the USA and USSR with little European involvement.Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, there has been a renewal of interest in space surveillance capability for two different communities.The defense community interest is mainly linked with the proliferation of space-capable states that implies a new risk of space militarization.The commercial community interest is mainly linked with the degradation of space environment including space debris, radio electric interference, and space weather consequences.The two communities try to find a cooperative way to establish a common space surveillance reference.

Louis Leveque

Space Security Programs Worldwide

Frontmatter

41. Space Security Programs Worldwide: An Introduction

The following chapter provides an introduction to Part 4 of the Handbook concerning articles by specialist in the field of space security programs worldwide. It covers expert view on the launch and satellite programs of the space-faring nations and those that have recently emerged. Additionally it covers space situational awareness and space weapons concepts.

Christina Giannopapa

42. United States Space Launch Programs

The United States has an extensive array of launch options. This chapter addresses US space launch programs from two perspectives. The first is via policy: the various means, from executive branch policy documents to legislation, that the US government shapes the goals and direction of both government and commercial launch services. The second is via technology: an examination of the major orbital and suborbital launch vehicles in service today or under development by both government agencies and private companies and how well these vehicles meet the goals laid out in national policy.

Jeff Foust

43. Satellite Programs in the United States

The space programs of the US military and intelligence organizations are described. The services provided by these programs include telecommunications, surveillance, missile early warning, meteorology, positioning/timing, radio interception, nuclear detonation detection, and data relay. Both unclassified and classified programs are described, with less detail and more speculative information for the latter. Recent trends that indicate the focus of future programs are discussed.

Pat Norris

44. Russian Space Launch Programs

The Russian launch program can be considered today as the most complete launch program. This chapter provides a historical overview on the Russian launch program. An overview of the current Russian launcher development program follows. It provides information on the various launchers and launch sites. The chapter continues with providing information on the expected evolution of Russia’s launcher development program until 2030 and beyond.

Igor Ivanovich Kuznetsov

45. European Space Launch Capabilities and Prospects

This chapter provides an overview of European access to space capabilities – Ariane 5, Vega, and Soyuz. In first place, it recalls the security reasons and the events that led European space fairing nations to join efforts in developing a common launch system. In second, European access to space is described in terms of launch program organization and development as well as of technical aspects and exploitation of launchers. Finally, a look at evolutions of current capabilities and new-generation launchers offers the perspective on European space transportation, along with some concluding remarks.

Anna Clementina Veclani, Jean-Pierre Darnis

46. European Institutional Satellite Programs

European supranational actors are getting increasingly involved in space programs for security applications: ESA, with its activities in the development of space capabilities with dual-use applications; EUMETSAT with its three main meteorological missions; and more recently the EU with Copernicus (former GMES) and Galileo programs. These programs are civil and under civil control, while purely military programs are not developed yet at European level and remain in national hands. The multiple uses of space technologies, the enlarged definition of security, and the dual-use approach have allowed the inclusion of security-related applications in civil programs. European supranational actors are therefore “security providers” for the benefit of European institutions, countries, and citizens. This chapter aims at providing an overview of these programs and their applications and highlights some considerations about the “European way” to ensure security at supranational level through space assets and applications.

Lucia Marta

47. European Member States Satellite Programs

This chapter provides an overview of European Member States’ satellite programs. It covers the different types of sensors that can be used in satellites. Earth-observation satellite missions are introduced. The countries presented are Germany, France, Italy, United Kingdom, and Spain.

Martin Hellmann, Wolfgang Rathgeber

48. European Multinational Satellite Programs

Multilateral cooperation is an established approach for European countries to develop and acquire high-quality space systems, based on collective needs, pooling of resources, and cost sharing. This applies equally to the defense and security domain, where comprehensive earth observation competences are operationally required. In this context, the cooperation under MUSIS will be detailed as a characteristic paradigm. The acronym stands for “Multinational Space-based Imagery System” and represents the initiative of 7 + 1 defense ministers of European Union members (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden in the joining) to produce surveillance, reconnaissance, and observation capabilities, as required in the time horizon of 2015–2030. MUSIS started out ambitiously as an idea for a European Earth Observation System for defense and security, with multinational-produced space components and a commonly defined and developed user ground segment. However, from conception to deployment, MUSIS has been proven a complicated endeavor and time-consuming process so far. MUSIS has received skepticism for not being able to evolve into a tangible space program yet, with finalized and validated framework for its operational deliverables, participation requirements, and resource allocation. The reasons are nested in the requirements for multinational coordination among its participants, the formalities of national and collective decision making, and the individual political, operational, and industrial imperatives at national level. MUSIS remains an open intergovernmental project with a certain political guidance, but the lack of legally binding programmatic provisions so far plus the ongoing financial crisis leaves room for ambiguity in participants’ intentions and further commitments regarding MUSIS. This chapter addresses the background upon which MUSIS is based, the satellite program description and its development, the space components architecture, and the MUSIS foreseen operation and reaches some conclusions regarding the program and its future prospects.

Alexander Kolovos, Kostas Pilaftsis

49. The Chinese Space Launch Program

China’s development of launch vehicles is sticking to the “self-reliance and independent innovation” path. With more than 40 years experience, China has successfully developed more than 10 models of launch vehicles and experienced the transition from research test to flight application, and from flight application to the industrialization. This chapter provides an overview of China’s space launch plan. This chapter mainly presents the development history of China’s launch vehicles, launch vehicles in service, and the new generation of launch vehicles under development and describes the efforts made by China in the field of space security.

Lehao Long, Dan Li

50. Chinese Satellite Programs: An Internal View

Over more than half a century, China’s space industry has created a unique program tailored to China’s conditions, achieved successful human spaceflight and lunar exploration projects, established a complete and necessary system for research, design, production, and testing, substantially upgraded its overall level of space technology, enhanced the economic and social benefits of space applications, and obtained numerous innovative results in space science. This chapter briefly introduces the development of China’s satellite programs. It covers the beginning and evolution of Chinese satellite programs and provides an overview of the different satellite programs: Earth observation, communication and broadcasting, navigation and positioning, and scientific and technological test satellites. The chapter also addresses the future of the Chinese satellite programs and China’s international space exchanges and cooperation.

Shenyuan Hou, Hao Liu

51. The Japanese Space Launch Program

This chapter provides the fundamental information of Japanese launch program. The Japanese solid and liquid launch systems have been developed step by step and attained the world class in technology and reliability. These several years, the Basic Space Law was enacted and the Basic Plan for Space Policy was established at a policy level, placing greater importance on national security and industrial promotion. This is drastically changing the situation around the development and operation of space transportation systems in Japan including determination of developing the next-generation flagship launch vehicle by the 2020s in order to ensure autonomous access to space in the future. This chapter provides, firstly, the historical overview of solid and liquid launch vehicles as background. Secondly, the administrative and management structures of launch program are described referring to some political documents and technology management processes. Thirdly, launch program development, which has been promoted by the government, JAXA, academia and industry, is described. Fourthly, the outline, performance, and vehicle configuration of current launch vehicles are described in detail. In addition, authors present the privatization through technology transfer and the support subprogram as launch vehicle exploitation. Finally, the future prospects are discussed.

Mamoru Endo

52. The Indian Space Launch Program

Dr. Vikram A. Sarabhai initiated the Space Program in India in the 1960s, to utilise the potential of space technology and its applications for national development. With the launch of sounding rocket from the shore of Thumba located in the city of Thiruvananthapuram on November 21, 1963 India entered into the space arena. Since then in the last four and half decades, India has made considerable progress in the development of Space Launch Vehicles. The first development of Satellite Launch Vehicle-3 (SLV-3) was initiated in the early 1970s, and in the span of 10 years, it was successfully flown in July 1980 by placing a 40 kg satellite into orbit. This effort helped to understand the intricacies of launch vehicle technologies. Further technology developments in the areas of strap-on booster, bulbous payload fairing, canted nozzles, closed-loop guidance, and overall mission management were mastered in the next development vehicle, Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) with payload capability of 150 kg. Parallely efforts were on to develop Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching of operational remote sensing satellites into Sun Synchronous Polar Orbit (SSPO). PSLV provided a quantum jump in the development of several critical technologies like large solid motor, earth-storable liquid engines, composite motor case, strapdown navigation system, etc. This vehicle has multi-mission capability with missions such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Sun Synchronous Polar Orbit (SSPO), and Geo Transfer Orbit (GTO).and also has provision to carry multiple satellites. During the same period ISRO initiated the development of Geosynchronous Launch Vehicle (GSLV) with three stages, employing solid, liquid, and cryogenic propulsion modules for launching 2t class of operational communication satellites into GTO. Initially a procured cryogenic stage from Russia was used for the upper stage. At the same time, the technology developments needed for cryo-engine and stage systems were undertaken. The engine was successfully qualified through a series of ground tests, short and long duration at different levels. The cryo-stage is flight tested successfully in January 2014. For launching 4 t class of communication spacecraft the development of GSLV Mk-3 was initiated. It is a three-stage vehicle consisting of a large solid propellant booster, liquid stage with clustered engines, a high thrust cryo-engine operating in gas generator cycle, and lightweight composite structures. One of the important missions accomplished in the recent past is the launch and recovery of a Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE). This mission enabled to master the re-entry technologies and recovery procedures required for the design of future.

Byrana Nagappa Suresh

53. Space Launch Programs in Emerging Countries: Brazil

Brazil started making its first steps into the space arena in the early 1960s and since then has made significant progresses. This chapter provides an overview of the Brazilian Space Launch Programs from sounding rockets to the current developments and future perspectives.

Francisco Carlos Melo Pantoja, Joana Ribeiro

54. Space Weapons’ Concepts and their International Security Implications

The term space weapons is often used without further definitions, making discussions complicated and often misleading. This chapter tries to define the term space weapons in the three categories Earth-to-space, space-to-space, and space-to-Earth weapons and lay out some operational aspects of weapons in space together with a short history of space weapons. The three military space missions where space weapons could add value are described briefly, and seven different space weapon concepts are described as to their operational advantages and limitations along with some prerequisites for developing weapons in space.

Lars Hostbeck

55. SSA Concepts Worldwide

Satellites in orbit around the Earth face a number of threats. A key enabler for detecting and protecting against these threats is space situational awareness (SSA). This chapter will briefly summarize the history of SSA and provide a description of major SSA programs and their development around the world. It concludes with a discussion of the major issues and challenges with improving SSA in the future and improving space security.

Brian Weeden

56. The Space Sector Economy and Space Programmes World Wide

In the following chapter, an overview of the space-related budgets is presented. This should provide a quantitative perspective of the overall market value and financial performance of the space activities over the past 24 months. Accurate estimation of global space activities is complicated, due to nontransparent government space budgets in particular on defense-related programs and the lack of a standardized approach for measuring them. A forecast for government space budgets and programs is also provided.

Christina Giannopapa

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