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Business Process Management (BPM) has become one of the most widely used approaches for the design of modern organizational and information systems. The conscious treatment of business processes as significant corporate assets has facilitated substantial improvements in organizational performance but is also used to ensure the conformance of corporate activities. This Handbook presents in two volumes the contemporary body of knowledge as articulated by the world's leading BPM thought leaders. This second volume focuses on the managerial and organizational challenges of BPM such as strategic and cultural alignment, governance and the education of BPM stakeholders. As such, this book provides concepts and methodologies for the integration of BPM. Each chapter has been contributed by leading international experts. Selected case studies complement their views and lead to a summary of BPM expertise that is unique in its coverage of the most critical success factors of BPM.

The second edition of this handbook has been significantly revised and extended. Each chapter has been updated to reflect the most current developments. This includes in particular new technologies such as in-memory data and process management, social media and networks. A further focus of this revised and extended edition is on the actual deployment of the proposed theoretical concepts. This volume includes a number of entire new chapters from some of the world's leading experts in the domain of BPM.



Strategic Alignment


Strategic Alignment Maturity

Strategic Alignment is one of the six core elements of BPM. In this chapter, an introduction to Strategic Alignment is given. Against the background of foundations on IT-Business Alignment, several important insights are provided for the strategic alignment in BPM. A maturity model is presented in order to assess different levels of capabilities based on key criteria to evaluate alignment maturity. Also, results from a global empirical study are presented and discussed in the light of BPM.

Jerry Luftman

Delivering Business Strategy Through Process Management

There is no shortage of planning activities in organizations today. However, the concept of a process to develop the connections between an organization’s intent and its capabilities to enable that intent is woefully weak and inconsistent in most cases. This chapter strives to outline how an organization can develop a more rigorous statement of strategic intent as the starting point for all investments in change. It delves into what is needed to ensure that the hope expressed in such strategic plans and annual reports is actionable and becomes a reality. It provides a structured and repeatable method to articulate environmental pressures, intent, stakeholder interests, strategy, business processes, and various other capabilities and the relationship among them with integrity. It provides a process for establishing the business process architecture of the organization and uses it as the alignment linchpin to provide traceability from choices made in prioritized programs of change in technology, human capability, policy, and other supporting mechanisms back to their raison d’être: the enterprise strategy.

Roger T. Burlton

Management of Process Excellence

In order to be successful, enterprises have to adapt quickly to new opportunities and threats. They have to take smart decisions and execute fast. Innovation and agility become main success factors. The Management of Process Excellence (MPE) is a key enabler. It is a value-driven approach to business process management that can result in dynamic operations of an enterprise. MPE links business strategy with people and technology based execution – at pace with certainty. Technologies such as Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), software-as-a-service (SAAS), cloud-computing or the Web 2.0 support this approach. MPE enables business outcomes through those technology architectures. Knowledge assets such as reference models increase productivity again. The resulting next generation enterprise is ready for long-term success since it can adjust to the volatile business environment. This chapter discusses MPE, an approach to achieve agility and innovation through Business Process Management. It describes the relation between process management and innovation and how next generation process automation can support that effort. Finally, an appropriate process governance approach for MPE is presented.

Mathias Kirchmer

Value-Orientation in Business Process Management

The purpose of business processes is to create value, and the purpose of business process management is to support this value creation. However, the concept of value is little understood in BPM, and a number of BPM initiatives have missed the opportunity to demonstrate value creation in practice. In fact, there is little understanding in the BPM discipline concerning how business processes become valuable and what kinds of value may arise from specific BPM initiatives. This chapter structures the value discussion in BPM by elaborating on the general notion of (economic) value and providing a frame of reference. Against this background we review extant contributions on value considerations in BPM and characterize the emerging field of value-oriented BPM. As an example, we present the Return on Process Transformation (ROPT) as a measure for evaluating the monetary effects of decisions on process (re-)design.

Jan vom Brocke, Christian Sonnenberg

Process Capital as Strategic Success Factor

The high importance of processes regarding a company’s success has been known for a long time. However, the level of importance of processes, especially in comparison with other success factors, has not been in focus in a consequent matter yet. The research regarding “intangible assets” now provides a new perspective. According to recent research findings, “process capital” is one of the most important assets of a company. In consequence, process capital has to be built up and managed and has to be a major focus of corporate strategy. On the one hand, the process capital can be the basis for strategy development. On the other hand, process capital is essential for strategy implementation. Process capital management (PCM) is the concept that, in addition to a “classical” process management, also focuses on developing and preserving intangible assets. This chapter gives an introduction to process capital. Then, the correlation between process capital and strategy is analyzed. Furthermore, a suggestion is made regarding the further development of process management toward PCM. Finally, the importance of process capital is illustrated by means of a real-life example from Lufthansa.

Markus Brenner, André Coners, Benjamin Matthies

Business Process Frameworks

In Business Process Management (BPM) research as well as in practice, a whole host of different Business Process Frameworks supporting various tasks connected with BPM in organizations have been introduced and further developed. However, the term Business Process Framework is ambiguous and has been used for different BPM-related systemization approaches concerning BPM methods and techniques. Against the background that so far no attempt to systemize the different meanings and understandings of the term Business Process Framework is known, this article aims at clarifying this term by analyzing and systemizing its different facets giving an overview of available understandings and usages of the term. The identified facets are investigated and several different classes of Business Process Frameworks are described and explained in more detail. In this context, one predominant class of Business Process Frameworks summarizing business process reference models is presented in more detail.

Constantin Houy, Peter Fettke, Peter Loos

A Framework for Classifying and Modeling Organizational Behavior

The consistent structuring and modeling of behavioral descriptions is a prerequisite to any successful Business Process Management (BPM) initiative. This chapter presents a simple practical framework for aligning various concepts and representations of organizational behavior, which assists identifying appropriate model types. The framework is presented as a means to improve process modeling within BPM initiatives and as a guide to the development and documentation of process architectures. A set of BPMN 2.0 based templates are described which enable the modeling of the concepts in the framework. Both health sector and investment management industry cases studies are described in which the framework is used to align descriptions of organizational behavior to produce useful integrated behavioral reference models and unified process model sets. The framework is also used to analyze model and process architecture completeness and structure.

Chris Aitken, Christine Stephenson, Ryan Brinkworth

A Taxonomy of Business Process Management Approaches

Both the design and the implementation of the Business Process Management (BPM) concept vary significantly from one organization to another. Organization-specific approaches to BPM are, among other things, influenced by organizational culture as well as by the maturity of the concept’s adoption in the respective organization. This chapter reports on findings from an empirical study and is aimed at answering the question of precisely how organizations deal with the process-oriented management concept – today and in the near future. To address this issue, 38 medium-sized and large organizations from various industries were surveyed. Out of 18 variables used to characterize individual BPM approaches, four distinct design factors of BPM are identified: the degree of process performance measurement, the overall professionalism of process management, the impact of process managers, and the utilization of established methodology and standards. Based on these design factors, four generic approaches to BPM can be differentiated. Furthermore, these results are complemented by an interpolation of this classification into the near future, leading to the differentiation of five BPM project types. This part of the analysis shows that all surveyed organizations strive to increase BPM maturity. There are however significant differences with respect to the particular design of the aspired approaches to mature BPM. The presented results are particularly useful for the engineering and/or adaptation of situational methods in the field of BPM. The chapter therefore concludes with the exemplary adaptation of the ‘process innovation’ method proposed by Davenport with respect to the identified five BPM project types. This adaptation also demonstrates the practical applicability of the presented findings.

Tobias Bucher, David Raber, Robert Winter

Process Performance Measurement

Measuring performance is a precondition for analyzing and subsequently improving business processes. However, selecting the “right” criteria for measurements remains a difficult and highly debated topic, both in theory and practice. The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview how adequate measures can be identified and implemented. For this purpose, the main terms will be defined and the procedure of process measurement will be presented. This includes a number of approaches for measuring process performance. In more detail, two methodologies, Data Envelopment Analysis and Process Mining, to measure and calculate indicators for process performance are discussed. As an example, Process Mining is applied to real case data to demonstrate its possibilities.

Michael Leyer, Diana Heckl, Jürgen Moormann

Business Process Analytics

Business Process Management systems (BPMS) are a rich source of events that document the execution of processes and activities within these systems. Business Process Management analytics is the family of methods and tools that can be applied to these event streams in order to support decision making in organizations. The analysis of process events can focus on the behavior of completed processes, evaluate currently running process instances, or focus on predicting the behavior of process instances in the future. This chapter provides an overview of the different methods and technologies that can be employed in each of these three areas of process analytics. We discuss the underlying format and types of process events as the common source of analytics information, present techniques for the aggregation and composition of these events, and outline methods that support backward- and forward-looking process analytics.

Michael zur Muehlen, Robert Shapiro

Managing Regulatory Compliance in Business Processes

The ever-increasing obligations of regulatory compliance are presenting a new breed of challenges for organizations across several industry sectors. Aligning control objectives that stem from regulations and legislation with business objectives devised for improved business performance is a foremost challenge. The organizational as well as IT structures for the two classes of objectives are often distinct and potentially in conflict. In this chapter, we present an overarching methodology for aligning business and control objectives. The various phases of the methodology are then used as a basis for discussing state-of-the-art in compliance management. Contributions from research and academia as well as industry solutions are discussed. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the role of BPM as a driver for regulatory compliance and a presentation of open questions and challenges.

Shazia Sadiq, Guido Governatori

Prioritizing Process Improvement: An Example from the Australian Financial Services Sector

Process improvement has become a number one business priority, and more and more project requests are raised in organizations, seeking approval and resources for process-related projects. Realistically, the total of the requested funds exceeds the allocated budget, the number of projects is higher than the available bandwidth, and only some of these (very often only few) can be supported and most never see any light. Relevant resources are scarce, and correct decisions must be made to make sure that those projects that are of best value are implemented. How can decision makers make the right decision on the following: Which project(s) are to be approved and when to commence work on them? Which projects are most aligned with corporate strategy? How can the project’s value to the business be calculated and explained? How can these decisions be made in a fair, justifiable manner that brings the best results to the company and its stakeholders? This chapter describes a business value scoring (BVS) model that was built, tested, and implemented by a leading financial institution in Australia to address these very questions. The chapter discusses the background and motivations for such an initiative and describes the tool in detail. All components and underlying concepts are explained, together with details on its application. This tool has been successfully implemented in the case organization. The chapter provides practical guidelines for organizations that wish to adopt this approach.

Wasana Bandara, Alain Guillemain, Paul Coogans



The Governance of Business Processes

Good business process governance is necessary for the success of business processes, which in turn are essential for business success. The term business process governance refers to the direction, coordination, and control of individuals, groups, or organizations that are at least to some extent autonomous, meaning that hierarchical authority alone is not sufficient to ensure effective performance. Business process governance, whether within or across organizational entities comprises a variety of mechanisms, including organizational


(roles and units for performing and coordinating process activities), allocations of decision making


, and


(e.g., review and approval processes). Governance mechanisms may be


(i.e., formalized in writing or in law) or


(e.g., not mandated). All governance mechanisms have pros and cons; some mechanisms are more effective (but also more costly) than others. The challenge is to design a cost-effective governance regime, which usually consists of designing several less costly mechanisms to work in combination. This chapter describes various governance mechanisms, identifies their advantages and disadvantages, and provides examples that show how governance mechanisms can contribute to improved business process performance.

M. Lynne Markus, Dax D. Jacobson

The Governance of Business Process Management

Most executives, if not all, are concerned about improving business performance. While this may be obvious, what is not nearly as apparent is precisely how the most successful firms are able to sustain and optimize such performance improvements. Whereas most firms are becoming increasingly adept at executing improvements to their operations in projects of small scope, many firms continue to struggle when it comes to projects of larger scope requiring broad cross-functional collaboration. More importantly, they often do not put in place the subtle, yet critical, elements of BPM governance, including the refinements to organization structure, executive roles and responsibilities, and measurement discipline that are needed to sustain and optimize operational performance improvements. This chapter examines the management practices of BPM governance that enable achieving sustainable, consistent, and flawless execution.

Andrew Spanyi

The Process of Business Process Management

This chapter describes the process of Business Process Management (BPM), and highlights the phases of business process strategy, business process design, business process implementation and business process controlling. Innovative approaches, like business process tailoring are introduced. After that the elements needed, to establish a holistic, organization-wide BPM approach are described. An optimal organizational infrastructure for achieving a holistic BPM approach and to identify the processes, roles, and responsibilities that need to be put in place will be introduced. The chapter starts with an emphasis put on the necessity of a holistic, organization-wide BPM approach and typical misinterpretations of the meaning of BPM within that context. Based on an analysis of the process of BPM itself, the main elements of a holistic BPM approach are then identified and described in more detail. The description of the Center of Excellence for BPM, its services and responsibilities within a company, and the resulting roles needed for a company’s BPM structures build a guide for the organizational implementation of BPM.

August-Wilhelm Scheer, Michael Hoffmann

The Service Portfolio of a BPM Center of Excellence

Centers of BPM Excellence (CoE) are a popular organizational setup for the centralized provision of Business Process Management. Organizations establish a CoE (aka BPM Support Office) as their BPM maturity increases in order to ensure a consistent and cost-effective way of offering Business Process Management services. The definition of the offerings of such a Center and the allocation of roles and responsibilities play an important role within BPM Governance. In order to plan the role of such a BPM CoE, this chapter proposes the productization of BPM leading to a set of 15 distinct BPM services. A portfolio management approach is suggested to position these services. The approach allows identifying specific normative strategies for each BPM service, such as process improvement, process training or process forensics. A public sector case study provides further insights into how this approach has been used in practice. Empirical evidence from a survey with 18 organizations confirms the coverage of this set of BPM services and shows typical profiles for such BPM Centers of Excellence.

Michael Rosemann

BPM Center of Excellence: The Case of a Brazilian Company

The BPM Center of Excellence (CoE) has been widely adopted in organizations that believe in BPM’s potential as a tool to promote an organizational environment that is technically and culturally prone to innovation and change. This chapter shows the relevance of a BPM CoE in order to implement an effective BPM Governance that generates synergy, efficiency, and collaboration within all types of existent BPM initiatives inside an organization. It also discusses lessons learnt related to the implementation of a BPM CoE by presenting a real case in a Brazilian company.

Leandro Jesus, André Macieira, Daniel Karrer, Heitor Caulliraux

Business Process Standardization

Across its own functional and geographic structures, every organization has many processes with the same, or similar outputs and inputs. These processes comprise comparable activities, are constrained by similar rules, and are supported by like resources. They are common processes. They could be identical processes; multiple instances of the same process. Consider the corporate process, Purchase Goods, based on a global standard to use a single contracted supplier. At the same time, credible arguments can be made for local variations on these common processes to meet local requirements. Should a local variation of Purchase Goods be allowed in a location where the sole supplier has no office? In planning the implementation of a large software application for use in 30 countries, to what extent should local practice be allowed to customize the corporate application, potentially creating 30 different instances of the application? Is 30 too many? How about 10? 20? How many is too many? At what point does the cost-benefit balance shift away from global standardization to favor local relevance?

In this chapter, we address complex issues about process standardization. A Global BPM Framework is described that facilitates management of the conflicting demands of standardization for global efficiency versus variation for local effectiveness.

Roger Tregear

Business Process Outsourcing: Learning from Cases of a Global Offshore Outsourcing Provider

Process outsourcing industry, a multibillion dollar market, is a highly competitive area with intense competition among companies across outsourcing destinations. After the initial cost advantages, Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) clients increasingly expect innovation and improved performance, which acts as a driver for BPO providers to adopt different aspects of Business Process Management (BPM). Most of the literature on BPO and BPM focuses on the outsourcing organization’s point of view. While BPOs use Six Sigma techniques and IT for improving their performance, the adoption of BPM by a BPO has not been analyzed from a holistic perspective. In this chapter, the authors analyze the various BPM lifecycle activities and supporting elements as applied to a BPO provider-client relationship and the benefits derived using a BPM framework. This chapter uses case studies from an Indian BPO provider and is based on the considerable experience of the authors in BPM and BPM implementations in a BPO service provider.

Jyoti M. Bhat, Jude Fernandez, Manish Kumar, Sukriti Goel

Toward a Global Process Management System: The ThyssenKrupp Presta Case

This case provides experiences from ThyssenKrupp Presta, an automotive supplier company that provides steering systems for carmakers worldwide. Process orientation has been a focus for years and has had influence on the organizational structure already about 15 years ago. In 2005, the formation of a BPM organization was targeted to realize process harmonization in post-merger projects, canalize the application of IT systems for process automation and take process orientation to a higher grade of maturity using state-of-the art process modeling systems. This chapter presents a summary of experiences out of the work of this BPM organization, which leads process harmonization and process improvement projects worldwide within Presta. Our experiences show that process management needs a good organizational, structural and technical (BPM-tool) foundation, and also relies on the involvement of the affected people and a process organization that consists of the key players in the operation devices of the company. At Presta, a sustainable process definition, process implementation, and continuous improvement had to be supported and governed by the corporate BPM organization. Presta considers the most important role to be the process owner who – across all locations – releases a process and decides on the necessity and size of changes and improvements.

Stefan Novotny, Nicholas Rohmann

Business Process Maturity in Public Administrations

Business Process Management (BPM) increasingly provides an important contribution to public administration modernization. Besides providing the potentials for the improvement of efficiency and effectiveness of public administration, BPM approaches also enable the improvement of service orientation. One building block of service orientation is the response time of public authorities between the application of a public service and the provision of service result. Based on specifics of the public administration domain, in this chapter, a domain-specific BPM maturity model for the fulfillment of a 48-h-service promise is proposed. Using the maturity model, a BPM for government processes can be established realizing a response time of 48 h for public authorities. The model is based on and adapts existing BPM maturity models. The chapter outlines the features and describes the evaluation of the model.

Peter Fettke, Jörg Zwicker, Peter Loos

People and Culture


Expertise in Business Process Management

Business Process Management (BPM) is evolving and organizations are becoming more process oriented. Hence, the need for expertise in BPM amongst practitioners has increased. Existing role descriptions are revised and entire new business process-related roles emerge. Proactively managing Expertise in BPM is essential to unlock the potential of BPM as a management paradigm and competitive advantage. Whilst great attention is being paid by the BPM community to the technological aspect of Business Process Management (BPM), relatively little work has been done concerning the people factor of BPM and the specification of expertise in the context of BPM. To close this gap, this chapter presents a comprehensive model of expertise in the context of BPM, which consolidates existing theories and related work. This model describes the key attributes characterizing “expertise in the illustrative context of BPM” and outlines their structure, dynamics, and interrelationships. Understanding expertise in the context of BPM expertise is a predecessor to being able to develop and apply expertise in BPM effectively. This is the cornerstone of leadership, human capital management, and human resource development in BPM.

Alexandra Kokkonen, Wasana Bandara

Business Process Management Curriculum

As organizations continue to focus on improving and managing business processes, the ability to acquire and cultivate the appropriate skilled workforce has remained a challenge. While Business Process Management (BPM) was once defined in terms of tools and technologies, it has emerged as a discipline encompassing a broad spectrum of organizational practices. As a result, the skill- sets for BPM endeavors of today’s organizations have gone beyond the automation of processes to encompass a wide variety of strategic, technical, and people skills that are difficult to find in today’s professionals. Many organizations have assigned the process transformation leadership to existing business analysts who find that they require additional training and education. This chapter reviews the role of a business analyst within the context of BPM practice and suggests a curriculum designed to cultivate skills for the emerging business process (BP) analyst.

Yvonne Lederer Antonucci

Dealing with Human-Driven Processes

Current BPM deployments focus on routine work and low level knowledge work, lacking integration with higher level knowledge work such as research and development, marketing, complex sales, services delivery, complex problem resolution, organizational change, new initiatives and other strategic management activities. To gain full benefit from operational improvement via a process approach, higher level knowledge work must also be brought under process control and integrated with lower level operations (For a report on the evolution of BPM also see Harmon (2014) in the first volume of this Handbook). However, this requires a new approach to process management – one that not only has the right balance of structure and flexibility, but that also allows collaboration across internal and external organizational boundaries. As a solution, this paper presents a means of describing adaptive, collaborative human-driven processes, and supporting them with software, that streamlines interactions between colleagues to reduce costs, focuses on goals to be more effective, and improves organizational memory by tracking work, keeping the knowledge and re-using best practices. The approach is based on the theory of Human Interaction Management (HIM), which facilitates the management of teams, communication, knowledge, time, and plans. HIM also shows how to automate processes involving human collaboration across organizational boundaries of any kind. HIM can be introduced into the enterprise, and integrated with both organizational strategy and mainstream BPM, via supporting Human Interaction Management System (HIMS) technology and an associated change management methodology, Goal-Oriented Organization Design (GOOD).

Keith Harrison-Broninski

Subject-Oriented Business Process Management

Business is increasingly characterized by interactions among responsive stakeholders rather than the functional decomposition of work. The subject-oriented approach to BPM (S-BPM) is considering this requirement by sending and receiving messages enveloping functional task accomplishment. Subjects represent the information processing entities in a business process. They communicate with each other in order to coordinate their work by exchanging information which is contained in so called business objects.

Subjects are embedded into some organizational and technical environment. Agents assigned to subjects (people or technical equipment) execute the actions defined in the subject specification. Business objects can be implemented as information containers or any tangible goods which are transported between agents. This separation of logical model and its implementation increases the flexibility of business processes management, as revealed by several academic and industrial S-BPM projects. Finally, the structuring of processes models as interacting entities facilitates coordinating business process management activities.

Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary

Knowledge Engineering in Business Process Management

Business Process Management (BPM) has become a commodity nowadays. It has undergone an evolution from the initial business process re-engineering in the 1980s to a well-established management approach, which is extensively discussed in this book (See introduction chapter of Harmon on the Scope and Evolution of Business Process Management). This chapter deals with the increasingly important domain of knowledge-sensitive BPM as a current challenge imposed from semantic web, the cloud, social networks or Web 2.0 not only to provide new technologies for BPM but also trigger a cultural change of people involved. Three aspects of knowledge sensitiveness in BPM are proposed. First, BPM can be seen as a domain itself focusing on BP-frameworks identifying basic concepts such as business model, domain, regulation, or model processing (See introduction chapters by Rosemann and vom Brocke on the Six Core Elements of BPM). Second, BPM needs to be applied using a management method such as the BPMS methodology. Third, BPM needs to be executed within an environment; hence, it is deployed. BPM can be seen as a basic concept for corporate knowledge leading to knowledge-sensitive BPM. Studying the knowledge-sensitiveness two forms of interpretation are distinguished: (1) knowledge engineering (KE) focusing on machine interpretable knowledge and (2) knowledge management (KM) relating to human interpretation of knowledge. In the following, the focus lies upon KE distinguishing three viewpoints: (a) KE is established in BP-frameworks as a realization within the used meta models for those frameworks; (b) knowledge-intensive actions within the BP method – which is typically performed by business process (BP) analysts – is supported by KE techniques; (c) deployment of BPM within a typical execution environment is likely including knowledge-based applications, hence those knowledge concepts need to be reflected. KE techniques are proposed for the areas above and empirical experiences as results of research projects are described. As a conclusion an outlook on the conceptual and technical integration summarizes the chapter.

Dimitris Karagiannis, Robert Woitsch

Culture in Business Process Management: How Cultural Values Determine BPM Success

There is consensus among practitioners and academics that culture is a critical factor that is able to determine success or failure of BPM initiatives. Yet, culture is a topic that seems difficult to grasp and manage. This may be the reason for the overall lack of guidance on how to address this topic in practice. We have conducted in-depth research for more than three years to examine why and how culture is relevant to BPM. In this chapter, we introduce a framework that explains the role of culture in BPM. We also present the relevant cultural values that compose a BPM culture, and we introduce a tool to examine the supportiveness of organizational cultures for BPM. Our research results provide the basis for further empirical analyses on the topic and support practitioners in the management of culture as an important factor in BPM initiatives.

Theresa Schmiedel, Jan vom Brocke, Jan Recker

Cultural Change in Process Management

Organizational change management is an important task in the context of Business Process Management (BPM). Organizational change covers a broad range of topics, from strategy to corporate culture and performance management. BPM is at the center of change initiatives as the main lever for implementing change through process engineering. Yet, especially the cultural aspects of organizational change have not been systematically integrated into the principles of BPM. Since organizational change is mainly driven by projects, an integrated change method would be helpful to support the business process manager to achieve the goals of change. Existing methods, however, are often rather inflexible and do not cater to the situational needs of a change project. Moreover, they tend to focus on specific topics of change, for example, either strategy or processes or culture. This leads to a disregard of the interrelation of the relevant topics, and with this, the complexity of organizational change. As a consequence, an approach is required, which first of all supports the holistic analysis of an organizational change project, and secondly provides a method construction process which allows for a situational design of the change method integrating the relevant dimensions of organizational change as well as the involved “hard” and “soft” factors. This chapter introduces a corresponding approach.

Ulrike Baumöl

How Organizational Culture Facilitates a Global BPM Project: The Case of Hilti

The role of culture in business processes is often underestimated. Especially the success of Business Process Change depends to a large extent on the employees’ willingness to adapt to a new work environment and eventually accept short-term losses for long-term benefits. We, therefore, engage with the Hilti Corporation analyzing the role of culture in a specific change project. After introducing the Hilti business model, we take a closer look at the measures taken at Hilti to actively manage a global culture by means of the Culture Journey. Against this background, we examine the impact culture may have on Business Process Change. The IT-driven change project Global Processes and Data (GPD) at Hilti serves as an example for exploring the way in which culture affects process change. We conclude deriving some lessons learnt from the Hilti Case on the role of culture in BPM.

Jan vom Brocke, Martin Petry, Theresa Schmiedel, Christian Sonnenberg

Creativity-Aware Business Process Management: What We Can Learn from Film and Visual Effects Production

Creativity is of considerable importance to many organizations and is a core competitive factor in a variety of contemporary industries. Consequently, process managers increasingly ask: How can I successfully manage an organization without crushing creativity? In this chapter, we describe an approach to creativity-aware process management that is based on the understanding that many value-creating processes comprise both well-structured, transactional parts and often highly creative parts. We explain how the creative parts (“pockets of creativity”) can be identified and described in those processes that highly rely on creativity (“creativity-intensive processes”). Our explanations are grounded in studies in film and visual effects production (VFX), but we argue that ‘conventional’ industries can learn much from their management practices. We propose a set of guidelines that can support process managers in successfully managing creativity in business processes without systematically crushing it. We use the case of a leading Australian VFX company in order to illustrate our explanations.

Stefan Seidel, Katherine Shortland, David Court, Didier Elzinga

An Organizational Approach to BPM: The Experience of an Australian Transport Provider

When discussing Business Process Management (BPM), there is an obvious lack of clarity in the use of the term. A consequence of these varying interpretations is confusion among practitioners and an inability to compare and contrast experiences in a meaningful way. To date, there has been no clear articulation of the distinction between these interpretations and how this distinction is reflected in practice. The chapter provides a clear explanation of three interpretations and details how a large Australian transport provider has applied a BPM Capability Framework to guide its BPM Initiative that aims at being an approach to managing the organization.

Tonia de Bruin, Gaby Doebeli

Business Process Management in International Humanitarian Aid

International humanitarian aid provides assistance such as food, shelter, and health or counseling services across national boundaries to communities in need. Universally, international humanitarian aid organizations play a critical role, by supporting the survival and recovery of communities affected by crises such as natural disasters, conflicts or disease epidemics. In most instances the technological, human and financial resources of diverse countries are put together to support communities facing crises. These events, often require immediate action and long term support to sustain the community needs and are highly sensitive to the contexts in which the crisis incidents occur. Large amounts of funds and resources are received each year to support such initiatives and successfully distributing humanitarian aid is a complex operation. Given the size of the funds involved, the sheer complexity and criticality for fast, efficient and effective action in these initiatives, it is somewhat surprising that there is not much evidence of a business process focus by the humanitarian community. This chapter describes the core business of International Non Government Organizations (INGOs), depicts how the main aspects of Business Process Management manifest within INGO’s and points out the values and challenges of process centric approaches within international humanitarian aid organizations. The latter part of the chapter vividly illustrates these aspects using two example cases within the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

Hugh Peterken, Wasana Bandara


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