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Über dieses Buch

This book draws together three overlapping relationships and knowledge domains. These are the cultural entrepreneurship/creative industries, the public and/or private philanthropic contributions that have funded artistic production and the preservation and presentation of place brands as a mechanism to revitalize local economies and communities.





In the 17th century, militiamen had the duty of maintaining law and order on Amsterdam’s streets, but by the time a group of militiamen, the Kloveniers, commissioned Rembrandt to do a collective portrait in 1642, their job had become largely ceremonial. Such paintings were typical, but usually just dull lines of faces. However, Rembrandt took this genre and produced instead, an extraordinary picture full of movement and life. The Night Watch was quickly recognized as a great achievement and became the symbol of the new Dutch nation (Bohm-Duchen, 2002).

Frank M. Go, Arja Lemmetyinen, Ulla Hakala

Place Branding: Multidisciplinary Principles


1. Place Branding and Culture: ‘The Reciprocal Relationship between Culture and Place Branding’

The identity of cities and regions is a concern of many who reflect the spatial consequences of globalization, global values, global mobility and global consumption patterns (Kunzmann, 2004). In this chapter, we review the state of knowledge about arts and culture as the main element of a place’s image and highlight tools used by urban planners and decision-makers to achieve regional development through existing resources. The goal of this chapter is to develop a conceptual framework to describe possible key features in the relationship between culture and place branding, to identify methods, including the harnessing of branding, and to leverage the cultural resources that convey meaning to places in a co-creative process by providers who have aspirations for their place brand and citizens, visitors and investors who imbue such brands with personal relevance. Thus, this chapter does not seek to create a discourse about developing a culture and infrastructure for the sake of the arts first and then communicating the same to the place-brand audience.

Marinda Scaramanga

2. Cultural Entrepreneurs as Foundations of Place Brands

Place making, as an economic development strategy, has long been used by cities and regions to attract and retain human resources, secure outside investment and compete in commerce and markets (van Ham, 2008; Kavaratzis and Ashworth, 2006). Globalization and the free flow of information via the Internet have given rise to a fiercely competitive arena in which regions strive to stand out as exceptional based on their unique characteristics, offerings or environment (Dinnie, 2004; Kotier and Gertner, 2002). Around the world, politicians, planners and developers are working to define how their community is unique and to whom their community may appeal. Notably lacking in this discussion is the role cultural entrepreneurs play in place making and could play in place branding.

Alice Loy

3. Managing the Unmanageable: Stakeholder Involvement in Creating and Managing Places and Their Brands

This discussion is driven by my disillusionment with current stakeholder theory and extant research on place branding, especially the treatment in both areas of matters relating to the manner in which locations, images and perceptions of them, and place brands are generated, (re)shaped, governed and challenged internally and externally. Through this analysis and the empirical research programme spanning a decade that it reports, I seek to bring the two lines of academic thought together in order to make sense of and theorize the difficulties with which processes of creation and recreation of high-technology locations, their images and brands are fraught, by involving and coordinating internal and external stakeholder constituencies with a stake in such place branding initiatives. The empirical research reported here demonstrates the potential for considering entrepreneurship, institutional and cultural entrepreneurship in particular, as a solution to seemingly intractable difficulties in managing multiple and frequently unmanageable stakeholder constituencies in such processes. As suggested in later sections in this chapter, such an approach may rest upon the ‘intellectual prowess’ and ‘persuasive capabilities’ of key individuals and institutions — acting as cultural entrepreneurs and collective cultural entrepreneurs — best positioned to mediate entrepreneurial and local resources for purposes of place creation and management, successful place image generation and effective place branding.

Edward Kasabov

4. The Role of Culture in Regional Development Work — Changes and Tensions

A worldwide trend in the integration of culture into regional development strategies has been taking place since the 1990s. This is a trend in which towns and cities have adopted culture-led development strategies in the hope of strengthening their competitive position (Miles and Paddison, 2005: 833–839). In China culture has even been regarded as a significant resource in village development strategies (Oakes, 2006: 13–37). The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) report Culture and Local Development (2005) recommends the strengthening of communities’ cultural capital through education and work practice, as this is believed to have a beneficial effect on local and regional development. Such developments led Radcliffe (2006: 228) to claim that a ‘cultural turn’ with its attending discourses, paradigms and actors had taken place in development work.

Karl Ilmonen

Individual Place Case Studies


5. Case A: Place Branding from the Bottom-up: Strengthening Cultural Identity through Small-Scaled Connectivity with Cultural Entrepreneurship

It is useful in conceptualizing the branding of places to identify (1) what planning approaches are adapted and how they provide connectivity, (2) how these planning approaches recognize and support existing cultural features, and (3) how they strengthen newly emergent local identities. The branding of places can be approached in various ways, including through top-down planning that demolishes larger expanses of cities or generally ignores newly emergent identities in them or through bottom-up planning that retains urban infrastructure by selectively protecting the small-scale building fabric. Bottom-up planning makes it possible for interventions as frameworks in neighbourhoods to enhance existing cultural activities by supporting sensory experience using fine-grained material and small-scaled spatial opportunities tuned to networks of pedestrian-scaled activities.

Philip Speranza

6. Case B: Culture-led Urban Regeneration and Brand Building in Alpine Italian Cities

In post-industrial societies the combination of knowledge (Scott, 2010), experience (Pine and Gilmore, 1999) and the digital economy (Zuboff and Maxmin, 2002) has made intangibles strategic assets for competitive advantage (Richards, 2011). The growing prevalence of immaterial and symbolic components in all forms of production meets the needs of complex individual personalities, thereby transforming consumption into patterns of experience and learning defined for, and participated in by, the user. The new Internet generation has defined a new capitalism that acts as a multiplier of these processes of dematerialization and symbolic value creation (Scott, 2000). This ‘distributed capitalism’ (Rifkin, 2011) allows organizations and individuals to interact widely and to participate in virtual communities (Funilkul and Chutimaskul, 2009) — in which interactions are not mediated solely by the market (Potts et al., 2008) — and to exchange and co-create knowledge-based resources on a global scale (Cooke and Buckley, 2008). The potential of technological infrastructure (its ubiquity and interactivity) combined with the characteristics of knowledge-based resources (non-rivalry and non-excludability) is increasingly blurring the boundaries between supply and demand in the co-creation of intangibles and multiplying the activities in which their transformation into economic and social value for the sake of individuals, enterprises and places’ growth and well-being can be experienced (Sacco, 2011; Sacco et al., 2013).

Maria Della Lucia, Mariangela Franch

7. Case C: Place Branding and Cultural Entrepreneurship: “Edinburgh — Scotland’s Inspiring Capital and World Festival City”

This case study of Edinburgh, Scotland’s capital city, is written from a practitioner perspective and sets out to illustrate and explore what differentiates Edinburgh’s approach to marketing and place branding. It aims to provide insights relevant to the themes explored in this book, and that will hopefully resonate with the experience in other destinations around the globe.

Kenneth Mcmillan Wardrop

8. Case D: The Power of Soft Infrastructure in Influencing Regional Entrepreneurship and Innovativeness

This chapter aims at framing ‘creativity, culture and taste’ as soft aspects of knowledge creation and accumulation, and as drivers of innovativeness, a ‘fertile ground’ for niche specializations for many regions (Camagni and Capello, 2013: 362). Creativity, culture and taste are, in fact, often overlooked in the discourse on innovation in Europe, despite their great potential in geographical contexts that are rich in cultural heritage and cultural diversity. There is a need to reflect on regional innovation and entrepreneurial innovativeness by considering ‘cultural inputs’ (Amin and Thrift, 2007) as impulses to economic value creation. This occurs in cultural industries that, inextricably based on cultural production and consumption, have an economic as well as a cultural presence in contemporary society (Pratt, 2008). As this chapter will show, beyond cultural industries, an enlarging set of entrepreneurs consciously appropriates and recombines cultural inputs in order to enrich and innovate their products and services. In so doing they produce cultural meanings, symbols and aesthetic values that, as we shall see below, may become part of regional cultural heritage.

Cecilia Pasquinelli, Nicola Bellini

9. Case E: Cultural Diplomacy and Entrepreneurship as a Means for Image Restoration: The Case of Israel

Public diplomacy is a key tool in promoting the public and media images of countries in the international arena. One component of public diplomacy is cultural diplomacy, whereby state marketers use various elements of culture such as cinema, television, theatre, literature, sports and dance to promote a positive image of the country and its people among foreign audiences worldwide. It is natural to expect that a country that is involved in ongoing violent conflict would make extensive use of such techniques in order to restore its image and expand it ‘beyond the conflict’. Yet few studies have dealt with this issue. Combining theoretical knowledge from the fields of image restoration and cultural diplomacy, this chapter aims to examine Israel’s efforts to expand and restore its image using entrepreneurship and cultural diplomacy.

Eli Avraham

10. Case F: The City of Ostrava — From Industrial Image to Industrial Image 2.0

The case of the Ostrava City in the Czech Republic provides unique experience of an area, which was always too remote from all the centres of political power, that is, from Vienna in Austro-Hungarian Empire era, as well as Prague in the era of Czechoslovakia. This distance may be perceived not just in its simple geographical meaning but also in its abundant psychological connotations too. The importance of the Ostrava region on the agenda of central politics was always rather marginal and focused strictly on economics. This was primarily about the utilization of Ostrava’s resources in favour of the well-being of the whole nation. The crucial attribute which turned the spotlight on Ostrava in this way was the development of coalmining and the related steelworks in the 19th century.

Jan Suchacek, Pavel Herot

Particular Place Brand Themes


11. Coordinating Cooperative Cultural Networks: The Case of Culture Finland

The overarching aim of the book at hand is to portray the elements at play in harnessing place branding through cultural entrepreneur-ship. In the association between cultural entrepreneurship and place branding there exist discursive, political and other interdependencies that rest on complex, multifaceted relationships among multiple stakeholder relations which render coordination complicated (Kasabov, this volume). This chapter examines the coordination of cooperative cultural networks in greater detail. According to the network-based academic literature, firms and organizations do not act independently in the market (Håkansson and Snehota, 1989; Ford et al., 1998). In order to develop their activities, they have to interact with other firms and organizations (Grandori and Soda, 1995; Ritter and Gemünden, 2003). This agglomeration of interdependent organizations then forms an industrial network (Möller and Halinen, 1999; Wilkinson and Young, 2003; Batt and Purchase, 2004) or a cluster (Lorenzen and Foss, 2003; Novelli, Schmitz and Spencer, 2006), which in turn creates value as an entity (Lemmetyinen, 2010; Niu, Miles, Bach and Cinen, 2012).

Arja Lemmetyinen

12. Tracing for One Voice — The 5Cs of Communication in Place Branding

What makes a brand successful? The question has been covered extensively from the perspective of consumer goods, but do the same rules apply to place brands? One of the challenges in the branding of places is the excessive number of stakeholders and too little management control (Skinner, 2005). The aim in this chapter is, from an integrative analytical perspective, to design a strategic communications framework that will enable cultural entrepreneurs to deal effectively with the problem of maintaining two-way communication in good times and bad. It is worth pointing out here that there are various rational, social, emotional and aesthetic strategies that cultural entrepreneurs can use to build a multiplex of identities, in other words identities with many facets that engage stakeholders in different ways cognitively, emotionally and aesthetically (Rindova, 2007: 169). This is where integrated communication (IC) may be of use. As compared to the familiar concept of integrated marketing communication (IMC), IC covers all strategic organizational communications (see e.g., Niemann-Struweg, 2014). This chapter discusses five key strategic requirements for communication — consistency, continuity, commitment, coordination and content — from the perspective of place branding. The assumption is that the strategic control and integration of the branding and IC processes via the 5Cs foster synergy, one-voice benefits and profitability.

Ulla Hakala

13. E-governance-based Smart Place Branding: Challenges and Implications for Local Identity and Cultural Entrepreneurship

This chapter theorizes how the ‘conceptual spaces’ created by the emerging Web 2.0-based tourism scenarios might be leveraged for harnessing cultural entrepreneurship within an e-governance framework for the systematic construction of smart, inclusive, sustainable place branding (Go and Covers, 2012). The genealogy of place harbours diverse ideas, the most salient ones being that place represents a particular perspective, that is, a path to the sacred place, often recreating the pilgrim’s journey and its three components of preparation, separation and return on the one hand, and its built form symbolizing the rite of passage and spiritual transformation on the other.

Frank M. Go, Maria Della Lucia, Mariapina Trunfio, Angelo Presenza

14. Making Space for Cultural Entrepreneurship

To capture fully the value of cultural entrepreneurship in relation to place branding, cultural and creative activities requires an understanding of space in several senses. This volume argues that there should be appropriate space within place branding policies, but in addition to policy space, entrepreneurship itself requires both economic and physical space. Creative and cultural activity must also take place in social space in order to contribute fully to the project of place branding.

Stephen Little



‘Generals may make good leaders of armies but few generals become skilled diplomats or successful politicians. Can your business deploy skills of political diplomacy or relational governance, or is it full of soldiers deep in analysis of competitors, practicing their skills in military deployment and the stratagems of the campaign?’ (Roome, 2008) A cast of international authors investigated, in parallel to the issue which Roome addresses, ‘Innovation for Survival and Competition.’ The findings of the authors of the present book hit the core of our intellectual interest captured within the two major themes of this book — cultural entrepreneurship and place branding. The need for ‘generals’ to improve competitiveness, anchored in their internal, linear-oriented logic, and public diplomats who are capable of dealing with contradictions and tensions think and act beyond conflict (Avraham, this volume), which often flow from opposing commercial and public planning orientations. Throughout the world, the vision of places, that is, nations, urban and rural regions, is outdated, inadequate and fragmented. The authorities face an array of crises ranging from crumbling infrastructure, the threat of terrorism, and the increasing divide between the formal and the informal economy. This book features the perspectives of the key theories, cases and themes in 14 articles, authored by an array of scientists from ten countries and the Principality of Monaco.

Frank M. Go, Arja Lemmetyinen, Ulla Hakala


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