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2024 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

14. Hawtrey’s Philosophy: Thought and Things

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Abstract

Hawtrey (1879–1975) is well-known as an economist who developed a monetary theory of economic fluctuations in, e.g., Good and Bad Trade [Hawtrey 1913] and Trade and Credit [Hawtrey 1928] as well as an advocate for the so-called Treasury View—in contrast with Keynes. Furthermore, he was severely critical of Keynes as the author of the Treatise from his own theoretical stance.

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Fußnoten
1
Economic Destiny is explained in several footnotes of Chap. 15.
 
2
For this, see Hirai (JHET, 34-2, 2012a).
 
3
In Google Scholar and EBSCO we were able to find neither papers discussing Hawtrey’s philosophy nor documents concerning Thought and Things.
 
4
In the philosophical world, “the theory of aspect” is used for the argument in Part II of Philosophical Investigations by Wittgenstein. See Shoroeder [2010] and Arahata [2013].
 
5
The theory of aspect examined so far is similar to Husserl’s phenomenology as a study of “conscious experience as experienced from a point of subjective view” (“intentionality, that is, directness of experience towards things in the world”. In that this experience includes “sense, thought, memory, imagination, feeling, volition, will”, there is a similarity.
However, in Thought and Things, there is no reference to phenomenology. That said, this idea in phenomenology itself emerged, deeply influenced by Kant. And evidently, Hawtrey himself was directly influenced by Kant. Hawtrey’s answer to Hume was that the orderliness of sense experience dwells not in things in themselves but in the constitution of the observing mind. “Form is not to be looked for in the object in itself [thing-in-itself], but in the subject [the field of consciousness] to which the object appears” (p.288. [ ] is the author’s).
 
6
Armstrong (1968) is mentioned. See Thought and Things, pp.253b–253c, p.310.
 
7
See the theory of sense-data developed in Russell (1912). There it is argued as a relation between “appearance” and “reality”.
 
8
See Fig. 14.1 and see p.209.
 
9
See p.150.
 
10
See p.143
 
11
See p.135.
 
12
See p.144. “Familiarity” by Hawtrey is analogous to “Acquaintance” by Russell.
 
13
See pp.151, 199.
 
14
See p.154.
 
15
See p.145.
 
16
See p.163.
 
17
Primordial existence in the sense of Herakuleitos. Hawtrey expresses it as “designliness”.
 
18
It means the situation which is sufficiently free from “intrinsic doubtfulness” (Russell’s coined word).
 
19
For frequent references, the following are mentioned: Russell (pp.13,18,20,28,43,132a,132b, 139,140,159,160,161,165,166, 166a, 184, 185, 186,189, 195, 197, 198, 204, 209,257, 285, 286), Moore (pp.6–7, 96,100–102,130,131,132,132a,132b,182b), Keynes (pp.156,157, 158,159, 160, 161).
 
20
See Chap. 10 of the present book.
 
21
There is no reference to pragmatism in Thought and Things.
 
22
See Sect. 3 of Chap. 10 of the present book.
 
23
For this, see Kurz (2009).
 
24
See Sect. 4 of Chap. 10 of the present book.
 
25
Itoh (1999, p.58) argues thus: Accepting Ramsey’s criticism, Keynes came to relinquish “a logicism interpretation of probability” in A Treatise on Probability and sought the “connection between uncertainty and rationality” in “the world of transcendent propositions”, which is evident in the General Theory.
 
26
In “Probability” (pp.155a–161) in Thought and Things, three main themes in Keynes’s Treatise on Probability—probability in the field of immeasurability, the definition of probability, and “induction and analogy”—are examined. Among other things, the second and the third points are examined, taking Russell’s argument in Human Knowledge [Russell 1948] (esp. “intrinsic doubtfulness”) into consideration.
 
27
See Takiura [1983] p.159.
 
28
There are two kinds of aspects in Wittgenstein—“aspect of changes” and “continuous aspects”. Though there is a divergence of view as to which Wittgenstein attached more weight to, the latter appears to be closer to Hawtrey’s aspects.
 
29
See Jastrow’s famous “Duck-Rabbit Picture”.
 
30
On aspects, there are references to Philosophical Investigations (Wittgenstein 1963) in Thought and Things (pp.11, 12,109, 110,131). However, Hawtrey has nothing to say about the difference between the two. Incidentally, reference to “theory of language game” is found on p.194, while reference to the Tractus Logico-Philosophicus (Wittgenstein 1922) is found on pp.163, 164, 165.
 
31
See Thougt and Things (pp.234, 244).
 
32
See Fig. 14.1.
 
Literatur
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Zurück zum Zitat Russell, B., The Problems of Philosophy, Williams and Norgate, 1912. Russell, B., The Problems of Philosophy, Williams and Norgate, 1912.
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Zurück zum Zitat Shoroeder, S., “A Tale of Two Problems: Wittgenstein’s Discussion of Aspect Perception” (in Cottingham, J. and Hacker P.M.S. (eds.), Mind, Method, and Morality: Essays in Honour of Anthony Kenny, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010). Shoroeder, S., “A Tale of Two Problems: Wittgenstein’s Discussion of Aspect Perception” (in Cottingham, J. and Hacker P.M.S. (eds.), Mind, Method, and Morality: Essays in Honour of Anthony Kenny, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).
Zurück zum Zitat Wittgenstein, L., Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1922. Wittgenstein, L., Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1922.
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Zurück zum Zitat Takiura, S., Wittgenstein, Tokyo: Iwanami, 1983. Takiura, S., Wittgenstein, Tokyo: Iwanami, 1983.
Metadaten
Titel
Hawtrey’s Philosophy: Thought and Things
verfasst von
Toshiaki Hirai
Copyright-Jahr
2024
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-40135-0_14