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Über dieses Buch

This book presents a new and innovative approach for the use of heat pipes and their application in a number of industrial scenarios, including space and nuclear power plants. The book opens by describing the heat pipe and its concept, including sizing, composition and binding energies. It contains mathematical models of high and low temperature pipes along with extensive design and manufacturing models, characteristics and testing programs. A detailed design and safety analysis concludes the book, emphasizing the importance of heat pipe implementation within the main cooling system and within the core of the reactor, making this book a useful resource for students, engineers, and researchers.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Why Nuclear Power Plant Energy

Abstract
The major growth in the electricity production industry in the last 30 years has centered on the expansion of natural gas power plants based on gas turbine cycles. The most popular extension of the simple Brayton gas turbine has been the combined cycle power plant with the air-Brayton cycle serving as the topping cycle and the Steam-Rankine cycle serving as the bottoming cycle for new generation of nuclear power plants that are known as GEN-IV. The air-Brayton cycle is an open-air cycle, and the Steam-Rankine cycle is a closed cycle. The air-Brayton cycle for a natural gas-driven power plant must be an open cycle, where the air is drawn in from the environment and exhausted with the products of combustion to the environment. This technique is suggested as an innovative approach to GEN-IV nuclear power plants in the form and type of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs). The hot exhaust from the air-Brayton cycle passes through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) prior to exhausting to the environment in a combined cycle. The HRSG serves the same purpose as a boiler for the conventional Steam-Rankine cycle [1, 2].
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 2. Small Modular Reactors and Innovative Efficient Enhancement Design

Abstract
The smaller-sized nuclear reactors were becoming instrumental during the pioneering days of commercial nuclear power to facilitate the development and demonstration of early reactor technologies and to establish operational experience for the fledgling nuclear power industry starting with first powered US Navy nuclear submarine. As part of innovative approach in design of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) in new era of nuclear power energy to meet the demand for electricity due to growth of population, researchers are in quest of a more efficient electrical out power by these types of reactors known as Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs) suggested as the air-Brayton cycle is an open-air cycle and the Steam-Rankine cycle is a closed cycle. The air-Brayton cycle for a natural gas-driven power plant must be an open cycle, where the air is drawn in from the environment and exhausted with the products of combustion to the environment.
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 3. Design and Analysis of Core Design for Small Modular Reactors

Abstract
The pronuclear energy and advocates are lobbying that the sustainable development of the world’s energy sector cannot be achieved without extensive use of nuclear energy and the advantages of nuclear-related technologies, including upcoming new generation of the Small Modular Reactors in near future horizon. The dawn of these SMRs requires new design and analysis no matter if they are falling into Light Water Reactor (LWR), pressurized water reactor (PWR), or even multi-application small light water reactor (MASLWR) categories, depending on the vendor involved with these new technologies and consequently safety standards and their nonproliferation requirements as well. This chapter visits these standards for core design and generally elaborated on them with understanding that readers need to refer just beyond this book and this chapter for more details.
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 4. Thermodynamic Cycles

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the turbine cycle, thermodynamics, and heat engines, where briefly are presented to remind readers about basic knowledge of these subjects. Further studies resources are provided in the reference section of this chapter [1, 2].
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 5. Modeling the Nuclear Air Brayton Combined Cycle

Abstract
Given that the combined cycle (CC) code does a good job of modeling current-generation gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) plants, it is useful to extrapolate its capabilities to Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC) power plants and Nuclear Air-Brayton Recuperated Cycle (NARC) power plants. The combined cycle plants will be dealt with in this chapter and the recuperated plants in the next chapter. In the Nuclear Air-Brayton power plants, the combustion chamber of the gas turbine system is replaced by the nuclear reactor and a heat exchanger. The nuclear reactor will heat a working fluid, and that working fluid will in turn pass through a heat exchanger to heat the air for the turbine. Because the heat transfers process for a nuclear system is in the opposite direction (solid to gas) from that in the gas turbine (gas to solid), the peak temperatures achievable in a Nuclear Air Brayton system will never be as high as those in a gas turbine system. However, the nuclear system can reheat the air multiple times and expand it across multiple turbines to increase the available power.
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 6. Basic Principles of Heat Pipes and History

Abstract
The heat pipe is one of the remarkable achievements of thermal physics and heat transfer engineering in this century because of its unique ability to transfer heat over large distances without considerable losses. The main applications of heat pipes deal with the problems of environmental protection and energy and fuel savings. Heat pipes have emerged as an effective and established thermal solution, particularly in high heat flux applications and in situations where there is any combination of nonuniform heat loading, limited airflow over the heat-generating components, and space or weight constraints. This chapter will briefly introduce heat pipe technology and then highlight its basic applications as a passive thermal control device [1].
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 7. Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

Abstract
Historically, the idea of implementing a loop known as Direct Reactor Auxiliary System (DRACS) as a passive heat removal system in a nuclear power plant for safety purpose is nothing new. The DRAC system originally was derived from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), and then it was improved in later fast reactor designs such as Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) by Westinghouse around 1970s time frame on their Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) and then later on was manufacture for French reactor known as Phoenix-II, which went into operation in France during 1978 time frame. The DRACS has been proposed for Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) as the passive decay heat removal system. The DRACS features three coupled natural circulation/convection loops relying completely on buoyancy as the driving force. In the DRACS, two heat exchangers, namely, the DRACS Heat Exchanger (DHX) and the Natural Draft Heat Exchanger (NDHX), are used to couple these natural circulation/convection loops. In addition, a fluidic diode is employed to restrict parasitic. In addition, a fluidic diode is employed to restrict parasitic flow during normal operation of the reactor and to activate the DRACS in accidents.
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 8. Application of Heat Pipes to Fissionable Nuclear Reactor

Abstract
Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests; however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors.
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 9. Design Guide and Heat Pipe Selection

Abstract
Heat pipes and its closed two-phase thermosyphons are highly efficient heat transfer devices utilizing the continuous evaporation/condensation of suitable working fluid for two-phase heat transport in a closed system. Due to a variety of advantageous features, these devices have found a number of applications in space, terrestrial, nuclear power plant, and electronics technology. The operational principles and the performance characteristics of the different types of heat pipes are described. For the heat pipe designs, which have found the widest application, versus the classical capillary-wick heat pipes and the wickless heat pipes or closed two-phase thermosyphons, mathematical schemes are given to calculate the performance and performance limits in Chap. 2. Here in this chapter we will discuss the design criteria and steps for a heat pipe depending on its application. In this chapter also, few design examples are gathered from different authors or researchers in this field to provide a better guideline and procedures to the readers. Heat pipes are being used very often in particular applications when conventional cooling methods are not suitable. Once the need for heat pipe arises, the most appropriate heat pipe needs to be selected.
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 10. Heat Pipe Manufacturing

Abstract
In this chapter, heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost-effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper and more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including envelope and wick cleaning, end closure and welding, mechanical verification, evacuation and charging, working fluid purity, and charge tube pinch-off. Review and evaluation of available manufacturer’s techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing-oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.
Bahman Zohuri

Backmatter

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