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2018 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

4. Heated Debates and Cooler Heads: Think Tanks and Climate Politics in the United States

verfasst von : Alexander Ruser

Erschienen in: Climate Politics and the Impact of Think Tanks

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

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Abstract

This chapter focuses on think tanks in the United States. The chapter provides an historical overview of the evolution of think tank in the United States with a special focus on how think tanks became instrumental in serving special political interests, including climate politics. Conservative think tanks will be portrayed as key members of counter-movements such as the Cooler Heads Coalition which are providing counter-evidence for political decision-makers, conservative media, and the wider public.

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Fußnoten
1
Being a prominent climate sceptic in the USA, Fred Singer is particularly active in creating controversies on climate change and climate politics. Tracking his activities Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway found that Singer’s involvement in debates in environmental politics dates back until the late 1970s usually putting him up an environmental regulation (2010: 85–86, 205–207).
 
2
The report can be obtained free of charge on the NIPCC homepage http://​climatechangerec​onsidered.​org/
 
3
The climategate scandal has considerable influence on the international community of climate scientists itself. In 2014, for instance, climate scientists warned that ‘Climate science has become “too green” and “blind to bias”’ (Knapton 2014) criticizing the Environmental Research Letters for refusing to publish a critical article and warning that this has ‘the potential to do as much damage to climate science as the “climategate” scandal, where the University of East Anglia was accused of manipulating data and attempting to suppress critics’ (ibid.).
 
4
Aaron McCright and Riley Dunlap found that ‘[c]onservative think tanks and their allied climate change contrarians successfully exploited American news media norms—especially the “balancing norm”, or the equation of “objectivity” with presenting “both sides of the story”—to achieve a level of media visibility incommensurate with the limited scientific credibility of their claims (McCright and Dunlap 2003; Boykoff and Boykoff 2004). The effectiveness of this strategy is reflected by comparative studies showing that U.S. newspapers are more likely to portray climate science as “uncertain” than are those in other developed nations’ (McCright and Dunlap 2011: 159).
 
5
In February 2015, Republican Senator James “Jim” Inhofe (Oklahoma), author of the 2012 The Greatest Hoax: How the Global Warming Conspiracy Threatens Your Future, pulled a snowball from a plastic bag, tossing it to the senate floor in order to disprove global warming as a hoax adding: ‘In case we have forgotten, because we keep hearing that 2014 has been the warmest year on record, I ask the chair: You know what this is? It’s a snowball, that’s just from outside here. So it’s very, very cold out. Very unseasonable’ (D’Angelo 2017). However Sen. Inhofe’s “political stunt” has been widely criticized for its deliberate misunderstanding of the concept of global warming and got considerable media attention, allowing the senator to make his common sense case against global climate change.
 
6
This depiction is consistent with the findings of Michael Kimmel and Abby Ferber. In their study “White Men Are This Nation” (2000), Kimmel and Ferber explore the normative convictions of (conservative to far-right) militias in rural America. They found that ‘[c]entral to militia ideology is its antistatist position. Big government, not big capital, is eroding Americans’ constitutional right’ (Kimmel and Ferber 2000: 593).
 
7
All calculations are based on the collection of 990 forms provided by conservativetran​sparency.​org/.
 
8
The GCC founded in 1989 was mainly driven by US-based and large international corporations including economic “heavyweights” such as Ford, BP, and Dupont. While the GCC was actively lobbying for business interest in the run-up to the 1997 Kyoto summit, the front began to crumble already when main contributors (e.g. BP) defected, realizing that adapting to climate regulation might serve business interests better than simply denying human-made climate change (cf. Brown 2000).
 
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Metadaten
Titel
Heated Debates and Cooler Heads: Think Tanks and Climate Politics in the United States
verfasst von
Alexander Ruser
Copyright-Jahr
2018
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75750-6_4

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