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Die inhaltlichen Schwerpunkte des Tagungsbands zur ATZlive-Veranstaltung Heavy-Duty-, On- und Off-Highway-Motoren 2015 liegen unter anderem auf Antriebskomponenten im Systemansatz. Die Tagung ist eine unverzichtbare Plattform für den Wissens- und Gedankenaustausch von Forschern und Entwicklern aller Unternehmen und Institutionen, die dieses Ziel verfolgen.



MAN 175 – the new high-speed engine family from MAN Diesel & Turbo

MAN Diesel & Turbo (MDT), the world’s leading supplier of large bore diesel engines expands its engine portfolio into the High Speed segment with the latest development MAN175. The MAN175, representing the 4…5 liter/cylinder engine class, covers the power range from 1500 to 4000 kW and connects the product portfolios of MAN Truck & Bus (MTB) and MDT. MTB is well-known for reliable, powerful and compact High Speed engines. The products of MDT, based on more than 100 years of diesel engine development, are known in the market for their reliability, robustness and highest efficiency. During the development of the MAN175 it always was, and still is, one of the main principles to combine the expertise of both company units, themed “The Best of both worlds”.
This paper highlights the starting point for the development of the MAN175, its positioning within the MAN engine portfolio, chosen applications for the market entry and as well key features and key technologies of the MAN175.
Maximilian Eder, Thomas Seidl, Wolfgang Bauder

MTU engines S4000 fulfill EPA Tier 4 final without exhaust gas aftertreatment

Since market introduction in 1996, Series 4000 engines have consistently demonstrated their reliability over several million hours of operation in rail, mining, marine, power generation and oil and gas applications throughout the world. To ensure it can offer engines with even lower emissions in future, MTU has comprehensively reworked its Series 4000 units. Development of the new 12V, 16V and 20V configurations of its Model Type 05 units focused in particular on applications in the mining and oil and gas sectors.
Steffen Harscher, Hermann Braun, Stefan Höttges, Andreas Mehr

From street to field – development of the first load-bearing tractor engine with 13 liters displacement

Von der Straße aufs Feld – Entwicklung des ersten tragenden 13l-Motors für Ackerschlepper
To create an engine with a minimum 500 hp for use in a powerful standard tractor without articulated steering that complies with Tier 4 final and EU Stage IV exhaust emissions standards, the engineers at MAN based their designs on the D2676 power train for trucks, adapting this to meet the requirements of a tractor. The result is the first loadbearing engine for tractors with a displacement of 12.4-litres. The six-cylinder in-line engine features a load-bearing oil sump and load-bearing flywheel housing, which bears the entire load from the vehicle chassis on frameless tractors.
Some fundamental changes had to be made to the basic engine to meet the requirements of a tractor engine. For tractor use, the two-stage wastegate turbocharger found on onroad engines has been replaced with a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). Further design features include high ignition pressure resistance with steel pistons, a reinforced valve group, exhaust gas recirculation and a powerful starter to meet the stringent demands for cold starts with auxiliary devices (power take-offs) on the tractor side.
The exhaust gas aftertreatment (EGA) has also been specifically developed for the engine and for the tight installation space on tractors. The core components come from MAN’s modular kit for EGA and optimally fulfil the customer and legal requirements for tractors as well (Figure 1).
Sergiy Fedotov, Michael Stinzing, Hans Sauter, Ulrich Boehme, Christian Sippl

Combustion concepts for commercial gas engines with highest efficiencies

In the last years truck manufacturers worldwide brought more and more natural gas engines on the market, mainly motivated by the cost benefit of natural gas and expected limitations of CO2 emissions in future. Recently the main benefit of natural gas, the lower fuel price compared to diesel, reduced substantially or even disappeared due to significant price decline of diesel and gasoline, at least on the US-American and European market, as Figure 1 shows.
Anton Arnberger, Johannes Andersen, Karl Wieser, Heimo Schreier

Development and investigation of a gas engine for agricultural machinery

In addition to efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction potential, natural gas in terms of pollutant emissions offers significant advantages compared to diesel and gasoline fuel (Figure 1). Through the gaseous state, natural gas makes possible a very homogeneous mixing with the combustion air, resulting in a nearly soot free combustion. Also the emissions of ozone-forming nitrogen oxide emissions (NOX) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) can be reduced significantly through the use of a gas motor.
Sascha Prehn, Volker Wichmann, Horst Harndorf, Wolfgang Beberdick

Improved transient performance of GE’s Jenbacher type 6 gas engines

The increasing requirements on transient operation for power generation engines both in grid parallel and isolated operation mode pose a challenge for the development of large gas engines. The stability and reliability of small, isolated grids are determined by the non-stationary capabilities of the power suppliers, which are required to increase or reduce the load within a short period of time.
Several limiting factors need to be addressed for improving the transient capabilities of a large premixed gas engine with a pre-chamber combustion concept. Genset inertia, combustion stability limits, turbocharger inertia and surge limit, mixture preparation concept, control strategy and engine safe operation limits are some of the aspects to be considered when improving and extending the engine dynamic response.
Based on combining detailed system analysis, simulations and engine tests several hardware and software measures were derived and implemented for GE’s Jenbacher Type 6 engines. A fast detection and a feed-forward control strategy (actuators, ignition time, gas dosage, etc.), together with hardware modifications on the mixture preparation and pre-chamber systems enable the engine to reject up to 100% load (both in grid parallel mode and isolated operation) immediately with a frequency deviation lower than 12% and a recovery time of less than 10 seconds.
The new features provide grid stability and high flexibility, which results in a reliable and responsive power supply system for the customer; preparing the GE’s Jenbacher Type 6 engine for future requirements both in grid parallel and isolated operation modes.
Francisco Lopez Gutierrez, Mario Graus, Nikolaus Spyra, Herbert Schaumberger

Trends for injection pressure in large bore engines

Whereas characteristic large bore engine figures like piston speed, specific fuel consumption or peak combustion pressures changed slowly over the past decades, the injection pressure of Common Rail systems increased drastically from around 1200 bar in the nineties to up to 2500 bar today.
Hartmut Schneider, Michael Willmann, Ralph-Michael Schmidt

The Liebherr common rail injection system platform for heavy-duty applications – LCRP 11.5, 11.6 / LCRI S3.13

Liebherr is well known as a supplier for construction machinery and all kinds of cranes. But beside these, Liebherr is also producing a huge variety of different components in the areas of mechanical, hydraulic and electronic drive technology, among them diesel and gas engines, hydraulic pumps and motors, switchgear and electronics.
Edgar Bignion, Richard Pirkl, Thibault Kaemmerlen, Sorin Stinghe, Waldemar Hampel, Benoit Beguin

Continuous development of common rail injection technology for medium-speed 4-stroke diesel engines

The development of large bore Engines is mainly driven by two factors. First, the reduction of Fuel Oil Consumption, which basically determines the operation costs for such an engine, and second, the emission regulation, which pushes the development step by step forward, figure 1, and force the engine manufacturers to develop new solutions for their contribution for a sustainable transport industry.
Johann Wloka, Thomas Klaua, Armin Weber, Stefan Kern, André Hauschild, Wolfgang Wagner, Ludwig Maier

Investigations to reduce CO2 emissions for maritime applications

Marine operations result in only about 3.3% of the global CO2 emissions but based on current trends, the absolute CO2 contribution of worldwide shipping is expected to double by 2050. To curb this, IMO has introduced the Energy Efficiency Design Index, in which the CO2 reduction will be implemented in stages over the next years (Fig. 1).
Olaf Brüning, Henning Petry, Udo Schlemmer-Kelling, Vinod Rajamani

A new approach for combustion modeling of large dual-fuel engines

Until several years ago, large engines were primarily developed for single fuel operation, which has resulted in the availability of optimized gas and diesel combustion concepts. Today large engines are subject to new requirements that go beyond merely enhancing existing concepts. In a wide variety of areas of application, the focus is not only on attaining the highest efficiency with the lowest possible emissions but also on attaining the greatest possible flexibility in terms of fuel.
Markus Krenn, Christoph Redtenbacher, Gerhard Pirker, Andreas Wimmer

Transient simulation of nitrogen oxide emissions on diesel engines

In recent years the laws concerning engine emissions have become ever stricter. For the development of new engines it is therefore more important than ever to achieve predictions of the emissions via simulation which are as accurate as possible. Due to stricter legislation with lower emission limits and more transient driving cycles or even Real Driving Emissions, transient emissions are becoming a relevant aspect of this need for accurate predictions via simulation. This report presents a guideline for transient simulation of nitric oxide emissions on diesel engines.
Simulation of transient nitric oxide emissions requires more than just a transient capable emissions model. For true transient simulations of the emissions the whole process chain has to be transient capable. This typically starts with a transient capable flow model which provides not only the gas dynamics but, as a very important input factor, the response characteristics of the turbo charger as well. The next very important step in the process chain is the burn rate model. Only a transient capable model can predict the burn rate for all of the continuous intermediate steps of dynamic operations correctly. In this paper a quasi-dimensional model, which calculates the burn rate based on the injection rate, was used. Accordingly, the injection rate has to be simulated by a transient capable injection model to deliver a usable basis for the burn rate model.
This transient capable process chain delivers the necessary boundary conditions for the emissions model to simulate the transient nitric oxide emissions. Since the preceding models are transient capable many transient influences on the nitric oxide emissions, such as transient boost pressure, EGR rate, cylinder charge, charge air temperature, rail pressure etc., are already allowed for. However, during analyses of measured transient nitric oxide emissions further direct influences have been found, which have to be integrated directly into the emissions model.
A direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperatures on the nitric oxide emissions can be shown based on measured load steps, as well as additional stationary measurements. Load steps to and from, as well as stationary measurements at low global combustion air ratios were used to examine the behavior of nitric oxide formation under these operating conditions. These two principal points are particularly important for the simulation of transient emissions but also contribute to improving forecasting at stationary operating points and to enabling forecasting to occur at all in the case of low global combustion air ratios.
With all of those factors considered the simulation of transient emissions on diesel engines witch adequate precision becomes possible.
Benjamin Kaal, Michael Grill, Michael Bargende

Waste Heat Recovery - Marktsicht zur Technologieführerschaft

Die aktuelle Fahrzeug- und Motorenentwicklung im Heavy Duty Segment ist stark von Effizienz– und Emissionszielen getrieben. Durch die hohe Bedeutung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs im Bereich der Nutzfahrzeuge und die damit verbundenen Total Costs of Ownership (TCO) sind diese Entwicklungen nicht nur von Seite der Legislative getrieben.
Waste Heat Recovery Systeme sind hierfür in aller Munde. Verschiedene Technologien, wie z.B. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) oder Thermoelektrischer Generator (TEG), werden derzeit von allen Marktteilnehmern diskutiert. Zunächst werden ORC Technologien in den Markt kommen. Doch auch hier gibt es noch verschiedene Stellschrauben und Möglichkeiten die Effizienz zu erhöhen: Welches Medium wird benutzt? Wasser, Ethanol oder sonstige Kühlmittel? Basiert die Energieumwandlung auf einer Kolbenmaschine oder Turbine? Wie erfolgt die Nutzung der Energie? Welche Hitzequellen werden zu Grunde gelegt?
Allerdings ist Waste Heat Recovery eine Technologie, deren Einsatz oder Effizienz deutlich von der Gesamtkonfiguration abhängt. Welche Aufladungs- oder Abgasnachbehandlungsstrategie wird verfolgt? Zurzeit sieht es danach aus, dass SCR-only Konfigurationen die Wahrscheinlichkeit des Einsatzes von Waste Heat Recovery minimieren.
Waste Heat Recovery bietet den OEM viel Spielraum für Effizienz und für Differenzierung gegenüber der Konkurrenz.
Schlegel und Partner beleuchtet die aktuellen Markttrends, führt Expertendiskussionen und beleuchtet das Thema Waste Heat Recovery aus der Sicht verschiedener Marktteilnehmer wie OEM, Zulieferer und sonstiger Innovationstreiber. Dabei steht sowohl die Technologie sowie deren Entwicklung zur Marktreife als auch die Einbindung in das Gesamtsystem und die Wirtschaftlichkeit im Mittelpunkt der Analyse.
Daniel Kennel, Melanie Raimer

Analyzing the efficiency potential of HD powertrains in relation to emission concept and waste heat recovery

Motivated by forthcoming CO2 regulations for commercial vehicles, much work has focused in the recent past on exploring and advancing systems for recovering waste heat. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is particularly promising in this regard. Current prototypes and simulation reveal potential cuts in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of 3-5%. These high reductions make the ORC attractive for systems that could soon be introduced into volume production.
Oliver Dingel, Tobias Töpfer, Jörn Seebode


Der Druck auf die Hersteller von Großmotoren und deren Komponenten hat in den letzten Jahren stetig zugenommen. So müssen sie immer höhere Leistungsanforderungen erfüllen, dabei aber gleichzeitig den Kraftstoffverbrauch und die Schadstoffe reduzieren. Dies ging aus vielen Vorträgen bei der 10. Internationalen MTZ-Konferenz Heavy-Duty, On- und Off-Highway-Motoren hervor, die am 24. und 25. November 2015 in Speyer stattfand. Führende Experten gaben den circa 220 Teilnehmern Einblick in den aktuellen Stand ihrer Entwicklungen und neuesten Forschungsergebnisse.
Andreas Fuchs
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