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Über dieses Buch

Die inhaltlichen Schwerpunkte des Tagungsbands zur ATZlive-Veranstaltung Heavy-Duty-, On- und Off-Highway-Motoren 2017 liegen unter anderem auf Gasmotorenentwicklung, Komponenten, Ventiltrieb und Zylinderabschaltung. Die Berichte der Konferenz zeigen aktuelle und künftige Entwicklungen bei schweren Diesel- und Gasmotoren für verschiedene Anwendungen auf. Die Konferenz ist eine unverzichtbare Plattform für den internationalen Erfahrungsaustausch der Großmotoren-Experten. Die Steigerung der Effizienz bei gleichzeitiger Reduzierung der Schadstoffe und des Kraftstoffes sind weiterhin wichtige Zielsetzungen bei der Entwicklung neuer Motoren. Hierfür benötigt man einerseits neue, innovative Konzepte und Lösungen, andererseits muss aber auch das Zusammenspiel bestehender einzelner Systeme und Komponenten genau analysiert werden.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Entwicklung des MAN Diesel und Turbo Motorenportfolios und zukünftige Herausforderungen

Die letzten Jahre in der Motorenentwicklung waren geprägt von der Umstellung und Neuentwicklung von Motoren auf Gas und Dual Fuel Fähigkeiten. Das Produkt Portfolio wurde am unteren Rand (1-4 MW Klasse) um einen 5l High Speed Motor erweitert. Gleichzeitig erfolgte die Umstellung aller Motoren auf die neuen NOx Vorgaben der IMO von Tier II auf Tier III.
Christian Poensgen

Agenda 2030 – Mega-Trends im Bereich der maritimen Großmotoren

Betrachte man die Zeit bis zum Jahre 2000 im Marinegeschäft, so standen folgende Schwerpunkte bei der Entwicklung von Großmotoren im Vordergrund.
Udo Schlemmer-Kelling

Off-road engine based on a present-day 15.3 l truck engine

Especially in the off-road segment with its small number of machines, a cost-efficient development is imperative. For this reason, solutions from the on-road sector are often transferred to mobile machines. With the D3876, MAN has developed an in-line sixcylinder engine for heavy commercial vehicles, agricultural applications and construction machines.
Falko Arnold, Thomas Stamm

A high-efficiency lean-burn mono-fuel heavy-duty natural gas engine for achieving Euro VI emissions legislation and beyond

Within the EU, Heavy-DutyVehicles (HDVs) are a major contributor to on-road CO2 emissions, accounting for 30% thereof [1]. Heavy-Duty Diesel engines currently dominate the HDV sector due to their relatively high thermal efficiency and proven durability. In recent years, advances in engine thermal efficiency within the HDV sector have reduced the per vehicle CO2 emissions.
Andrew Auld, Andre Barroso, Matthew Keenan, Panagiotis Katranitsas, Rhys Pickett, Tiago Carvalho

Characterization of abnormal dual-fuel combustion

The boom in natural gas within the last decade from shale formations reduced the price of natural gas dramatically. This shift in price generated a great deal of interest in dualfuel conversion for many high-horsepower engines. These conversions are designed to replace a portion of the diesel fuel with natural gas.
Garrett Anderson

LDM Compact – an efficient methodology for the development of combustion concepts for non-natural gas

World energy demand is escalating as the global population and wealth in emerging markets continues to grow. At the time this publication is being written, the price of fossil fuels, especially oil and gas, is moderate. Nevertheless, incentives through new and proposed emission policies are pushing energy suppliers to invest into alternative fuels.
Jan Zelenka, Martin Kirsten, Eduard Schneßl, Gernot Kammel, Andreas Wimmer

Pilot injection strategies for medium-speed dual fuel engines

Against the background of the ongoing intensifying discussion about the emission legislation within the maritime sector the so called dual-fuel engine concept is one possible approach to minimize the air pollutants but to keep high efficiencies at the same time. For the optimal usage of such combustion processes a far reaching understanding of the fuel injection, mixture formation and the ignition behaviour is an essential needing. For this purpose, experimental investigations of these boundary conditions of the dual-fuel combustion process had been carried out at a medium speed single cylinder research engine as a part of the project “LEDF-concepts”, which was realised at the University of Rostock.
Apart from a variation of the μ-Pilot injection timing these investigations included a multiple injection strategy combining an early μ-Pilot, placed during compression stroke, and a μ-Pilot injection positioned in the typical time-window before TDC. While best achievable values for indicated efficiency, coefficient of variation and NOx-/CH4-emissions do not differ remarkably between the tested single and multiple μ-Pilot strategy, it can be observed that these parameters behave much less sensitive against a change of the Pilot-timing for a multiple injection pattern when compared to a single injection mode. As part of the current project „LEDF-concepts 2“, the findings shall be expanded to medium engine loads.
Thereby the test bed experiments are standing in close collaboration to simulative investigations, which should deliver the theoretical fundamentals for the understanding of the ongoing combustion phenomena.
The 0/1D simulation serves as a very efficient solution approach for the forecast of starting conditions of the 3D CFD models, while the 3D CFD simulation is focusing on the investigation of the complex chemical reaction paths of the multiple fuel combustion. Therefore, the laminar combustion velocity of the reacting natural gas-air mixture is investigated in the relevant temperature and pressure range. Furthermore, the ignition delay of the diesel pilot spray within the gas-air atmosphere and the subsequently reaction of the natural gas inside the cylinder are objectives of the investigations. A special adapted reaction mechanism is made available for the 3D CFD by a subsequent tabulation procedure.
All these measures are leading to a better understanding of the complex processes within the dual-fuel combustion and are providing the opportunity for the optimization and development of this combustion process.
This paper makes selected experimental results to the subject of discussion and gives an overview about the chosen simulation approach and the development status of the combustion model computation.
Björn Henke, Karsten Schleef, Bert Buchholz, Sascha Andree, Egon Hassel, Marius Hoff, Robert Graumüller

New MTU series 4000 rail engine fulfilling most ambitious emission regulation

For services on non-electrified lines diesel locomotives are proven for great many years. Besides reliability and high operational availability, convincing arguments for diesel engines are an attractive power-to-weight ratio, excellent transient response characteristics and long-range capability. Like many other means of transport, dieselpowered rolling stock has been notably affected by increasingly stringent emission standards over the last few years.
Carsten Baumgarten, Tobias Weiß, Günter Zitzler, Christian Herkommer, Boban Maletic

The new MAN 175D high‑speed engine – synthesis of commercial and medium‑speed engine development

Packing the latest state-of-the-art technology into a minimum volume, the MAN 175D is characterized by clear-cut design: easy to commission, easy to operate, and easy to service. With 12, 16, and 20 cylinders and a power of up to 238 kW per cylinder, this high-performance marine engine is compact and modular with all auxiliaries attached.
Inheriting its genes from both our successful commercial and medium speed engine tradition, the MAN 175D is robust and reliable by nature. Through innovation, it is designed to be a very efficient engine family. It is firstly used for yacht, fast patrol vessel and commercial marine applications.
This work concerns the cutting edge development of this engine. It is focused on the synthesis of design, simulation and validation concepts from commercial and medium speed engines. Applications of this synthesis are discussed for major cranktrain parts including crankshaft and connecting rod.
Finally, the latest experiences from testbed and field are presented.
Christian Braun, Alexander Rieß, Peter Böhm, Hauke Lund, Klaus Eder

Non-visible smoke technology for extremely high-speed 4MW class 20FX diesel engine during ship transient operation

Since developing an original diesel engine for marine propulsion in 1919, Niigata Power Systems has developed and manufactured many diesel engines, gas engines, gas turbines, and Z-PELLER propulsion system. These products have contributed to society as the key hardware of power generation and cogeneration, and engines for marine propulsion. In recent years, a high efficiency hybrid propulsion system for tugboats and a low-pollution, high efficiency dual-fuel engine for marine propulsion have been developed to protect the sea environment, which are being launched into the market.
Katsuyuki Toda, Satoru Goto, Shigeki Ogura, Daichi Kawai

Layout of highly-stressed injection and motor components

Hydraulic autofrettage as a means of increasing fatigue life of components charged with internal high-pressure (for example common rails for Diesel-injection systems) is establishing itself progressively in the field of off-highway engines. During computational layout of this process step, consideration of anisotropic material behaviour is of primary importance. So far, local quite possibly directional component-strength (such as due to prior autofrettage) has not been taken into account among standards to evaluation of durability for forged components.
Jochen Heizmann, Hans-Willi Raedt, Patrice Lasne, Helmut Dannbauer

Changing the heat treatment process as the key to success for Hatz Diesel

Hatz Diesel is a German manufacturer of industrial Diesel engines with 1 to 4 cylinders up to 56 kW, and also of systems based on these engines, e.g. pumps, gensets, smartgrid solutions as well as engine components for automotive and construction machinery customers, e.g. crankshafts and conrods. They produce about 60.000 engines per year with 1060 employees worldwide.
Tobias Winter, Andreas Heitmann

Methodology for the development of variable valve drive systems from concept to series approval with focus on heavy-duty engines

The development of combustion engines is subject to the pressures of ever more stringent limits. And different limits depending on the use spectrum between trucks and construction machinery also lead to development conflicts in the engine design. Achieving great versatility in the possible uses of engines, as well as low consumption and emissions, can only be done through highly sophisticated technology. An important role in this is played by the optimized gas cycle through variable valve drives.
This article describes the methodology for the development of sliding cam systems from the concept to the series approval. This process was established at Porsche Engineering to guarantee the high flexibility and quickness according to the demand of engine development activities.
Due to the simple and modular structure in addition to the low production complexity and nearly unchangeable base valve train, the sliding cam systems are the most commonly used variable valve drives from the category of discrete switching systems. The use in many different engines leads to several boundary conditions for the application of such a system.
Depending on the desired operating strategy, the optimal valve lift curves are developed based on gas cycle simulations. The timing and length of these valve lift curves are the input data for the iterative development process of the sliding motion design. The kinematic and dynamic simulation is passed through in an iterative sequence. The result of these calculation loops is the optimal design of the dynamically simulated shift guide. In a next step, the sliding cam system is tested on the component level. This will be done in the earliest possible stage of development. The actuator and actuator pin-shift guide element are two examples of the tested elements. The main functional check of the sliding cam system is tested on a cylinder head test bench. Therefore, the dynamic displacement travel and actuator pin force is measured and analysed under realistic engine running conditions. The durability testing and series approval complete the modular development process of sliding cam systems.
Thanks to extensive expertise, the design and simulations can be carried out at a very early stage, which is amenable to ever shorter product development cycles. However, the simulation tools, compared with measurement data, also have further potential to obviate the need for loops in the testing of functions and fatigue resistance. Porsche Engineering will continue to drive the trend toward multi-level sliding cam systems both conceptually and with regard to testing.
Andreas Eichenberg

Investigation of the cylinder cut-out for medium-speed dual-fuel engines

As one of the consequences of the climate change, more severe maritime emission regulations are globally in force or will become applicable during the next years. The tough competition put pressure on the maritime transport industry. Therefore, their demand for efficient and mostly environmental neutral propulsion systems – to meet the environmental legislations and reduce the cargo costs – is high.
Johannes Konrad, Thomas Lauer, Mathias Moser, Enrico Lockner, Jianguo Zhu

Upgrading EU Stage III B engines to achieve EU Stage IV

Despite the current public debate, there will be no substitute for all diesel applications within the coming decades. Energy density, availability and storage property of the diesel fuel are only some reasons for this. On the other hand, immission limits are often exceeded in metropolitan areas.
Dominik Lamotte, Klaus Schrewe, Ingo Zirkwa

Oil system optimization of HD diesel engines

At the present time, there is no legal regulation in Europe for the fuel consumption or CO2 emissions of diesel engines in heavy-duty commercial vehicles, unlike as for passenger cars. The European Union is now monitoring current truck CO2 emissions using the VECTO tool, however, so that data will be available as a basis for future regulations. Fuel consumption is also one of the most important features of a truck, as it largely determines the operating costs.
Simon Schneider, Holger Conrad, Geno Marinov

Rankine cycle – from thermodynamic equation to road test

The Rankine cycle is currently one of the most promising solutions when it comes to the fuel consumption reduction for long haul trucks or the improvement of Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) to more than 50%. Several publications already show proof of its fuel saving abilities, by discussing simulation or test bench results. This paper however is going to present the experimentation done by Faurecia, in collaboration with Renault Trucks (Volvo group) and Exoes, to give a first-hand impression on reachable fuel saving levels.
Thibault Fouquet, J. Roussilhe

Tagungsbericht

Der Wirkungsgrad sowie die gesetzlichen Anforderungen bezüglich Abgasemissionen sind nach wie vor die Treiber in der Heavy-Duty-Motorenindustrie. Das Motto “Effizienz und Emissionen” der 12. Internationalen MTZ-Fachtagung Heavy-Duty-, On- und Off-Highway-Motoren, die am 28. und 29. November 2017 in Augsburg stattfindet, spiegelt diese Herausforderungen wider.
Andreas Fuchs
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