Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-019-09562-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
What will motivate citizens to support efforts to help those in need? Charitable organizations seeking support for their cause will often use the story of a specific individual to illustrate the problem and generate support. We explore the effectiveness of this strategy using the issue of homelessness. Specifically, we examine the role that the race of beneficiaries featured in a message, and the inclusion of deservingness cues highlighting external attributions for an individual’s homelessness have on willingness to donate to the homeless and support government efforts to address homelessness. Utilizing two experiments with a nationally representative probability sample and an online opt-in quota sample, we find significant effects of deservingness information on expressions of sympathy, and on support for government efforts to address homelessness when viewing individuals from one’s own racial group. Direct effects on charitable giving are inconsistent across studies, with modest evidence that deservingness cues are associated with donation behavior in one. We also uncover interesting heterogeneity in how individuals react to a message about the homeless based on their predispositions. We discuss the implications for those utilizing this messaging strategy.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 3500 kb)11109_2019_9562_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Aaroe, L. (2011). Investigating frame strength: The case of episodic and thematic frames. Political Communication, 28, 207–226.
Aaroe, L., & Peterson, M. B. (2014). Crowding out culture: Scandinavians and Americans agree on social welfare in the face of deservingness cues. Journal of Politics, 76(3), 684–697.
Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The empathy quotient: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(2), 163–175.
Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Hill, J., Raste, Y., & Plumb, I. (2001). The ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ test revised version: A study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(2), 241–251.
Batson, C., Chang, J., Orr, R., & Rowland, J. (2002). Empathy, attitudes, and action: Can feeling for a member of a stigmatized group motivate one to help the group? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(12), 1656–1666.
Bendapudi, N., Singh, S., & Bendapudi, V. (1996). Enhancing helping behavior: An integrative framework for promotion planning. Journal of Marketing, 60, 33–49.
Berkowitz, L. (1972). Social norms, feelings, and other factors affecting helping and altruism. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 6, 63–108.
Brader, T., Valentino, N. A., & Suhay, E. (2008). What triggers public opposition to immigration? Anxiety, group cues, and immigration threat. American Journal of Political Science, 52(4), 959–978.
Brañas-Garza, P. (2006). Poverty in dictator games: Awakening solidarity. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 60(3), 306–320.
Brewer, P. (2001). Value words and lizard brains: Do citizens deliberate about appeals to their core values? Political Psychology, 22(1), 45–64.
Broockman, D., & Kalla, J. (2016). Durably reducing transphobia: A field experiment on door-to-door canvassing. Science, 352(6282), 220–224.
Cherry, T. L., & Shogren, J. F. (2008). Self-interest, sympathy and the origin of endowments. Economics Letters, 101(1), 69–72.
Clifford, S., & Piston, S. (2017). Explaining public support for counterproductive homelessness policy: The role of disgust. Political Behavior, 39(2), 503–525.
Conover, P. J. (1988). The role of social groups in political thinking. British Journal of Political Science, 18, 51–76.
Converse, P. E. (1964). The nature of belief systems in mass publics. In D. E. Apter (Ed.), Ideology and discontent. New York: Free Press.
De Waal, F. (2008). Putting the altruism back into altruism: The evolution of empathy. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 279–300.
Devereux, E. (2015). Thinking outside the charity box: Media coverage of homelessness. European Journal of Homelessness, 9(2).
Eckel, C. C., & Grossman, P. J. (1996). Altruism in anonymous dictator games. Games and Economic Behavior, 16(2), 181–191.
Feldman, S., Huddy, L., Wronski, J. & Lown, P. (Forthcoming). The interplay of empathy and individualism in support for social welfare policies. Political Psychology.
Feldman, S., & Steenbergen, M. R. (2001). The humanitarian foundation of public support for social welfare. American Journal of Political Science, 45(3), 658–677.
Fershtman, C., & Gneezy, U. (2001). Discrimination in a segmented society: An experimental approach. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(1), 351–377.
Fong, C., & Luttmer, E. (2009). What determines giving to Hurricane Katrina victims? Experimental evidence on racial group loyalty. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1(2), 64–87.
Fong, C., & Luttmer, E. (2011). Do fairness and race matter in generosity? Evidence from a nationally representative charity experiment. Journal of Public Economics, 95, 372–394.
Forsythe, R., Horowitz, J. L., Savin, N. E., & Sefton, M. (1994). Fairness in simple bargaining experiments. Games and Economic Behavior, 6(3), 347–369.
Gilens, M. (1995). Racial attitudes and opposition to welfare. The Journal of Politics, 57, 994–1014.
Gilens, M. (1999). Why Americans hate welfare: Race, media, and the politics of antipoverty policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gross, K. (2008). Framing persuasive appeals: Episodic and thematic framing, emotional response and policy opinion. Political Psychology, 29(2), 169–192.
Hannah, G., & Cafferty, T. P. (2006). Attribute and responsibility framing effects in television news coverage of poverty. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(12), 2993–3014.
Harris, L. T., & Fiske, S. T. (2006). Dehumanizing the lowest of the low: Neuroimaging responses to extreme outgroups. Psychological Science, 17, 847–853.
Harrison, B. F., & Michelson, M. R. (2012). Not that there is anything wrong with that: The effect of personalized appeals on marriage equality campaigns. Political Behavior, 34(2), 325–344.
Hungerman, D. M. (2008). Race and charitable church activity. Economic Inquiry, 46(3), 380–400.
Iyengar, S. (1994). Is anyone responsible? How television frames political issues. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kinder, D. R., & Sanders, L. M. (1996). Divided by color: Racial politics and democratic ideals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kluegel, J. R., & Smith, E. R. (1986). Beliefs about inequality: Americans’ views of what is and what ought to be. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Lausten, L., Aaroe, L., Hendry, D., Hibbing, J., Smith, K. & Petersen, M. B. (2017). The deservingness heuristic in political communication: A comprehensive test of the strength of bias-congruent frames and how to counter them. Paper presented at American Political Science Association Annual Meeting & Exhibition, San Francisco, CA.
Margolis, M. F., & Sances, M. W. (2017). Partisan differences in nonpartisan activity: The case of charitable giving. Political Behavior, 39(4), 839–864.
Nabi, R. L. (1999). A cognitive-functional model for the effects of discrete negative emotions on information processing, attitude change, and recall. Communication Theory, 9, 292–320.
Nabi, R. L. (2003). The framing effects of emotion: Can discrete emotions influence information recall and policy preference? Communication Research, 30, 224–247.
Nelson, T. E., & Kinder, D. R. (1996). Issue frames and group-centrism in American public opinion. Journal of Politics, 58(4), 1055–1078.
Newman, B. J., Hartman, T. K., Lown, P. L., & Feldman, S. (2015). Easing the heavy hand: Humanitarian concern, empathy, and opinion on immigration. British Journal of Political Science, 45(3), 583–607.
Petersen, M. B., Slothuus, R., Stubager, R., & Togeby, L. (2011). Deservingness versus values in public opinion on welfare: The automaticity of the deservingness heuristic. European Journal of Political Research, 50(1), 24–52.
Petersen, M. B., Sznycer, D., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (2012). Who deserves help? Evolutionary psychology, social emotions, and public opinion about welfare. Political Psychology, 33(3), 395–418.
Peterson, M. B. (2012). Social welfare as small-scale help: Evolutionary psychology and the deservingness heuristic. American Journal of Political Science, 56(1), 1–16.
Pettigrew, T. F. (1979). The ultimate attribution error: Extending Allport’s cognitive analysis of prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 5(4), 461–476.
Sands, M. L. (2017). Exposure to inequality affects support for redistribution. Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(4), 663–668.
Shields, T. G. (2001). Network news construction of homelessness: 1980–1993. The Communication Review, 4(2), 193–218.
Skitka, L. J., & Tetlock, P. E. (1993). Providing public assistance: Cognitive and motivational processes underlying liberal and conservative policy preferences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(6), 1205–1223.
Slothuus, R. (2007). Framing deservingness to win support for welfare state retrenchment. Scandinavian Political Studies, 30(3), 323–344.
Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., & Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
Weiner, B. (1980). A cognitive (attribution)-emotion-action model of motivated behavior: An analysis of judgements of help-giving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(2), 186–200.
Whitt, S., & Wilson, R. K. (2007). The dictator game, fairness and ethnicity in postwar Bosnia. American Journal of Political Science, 51(3), 655–668.
Zak, P. J., Stanton, A. A., & Ahmadi, S. (2007). Oxytocin increases generosity in humans. PLoS ONE, 2(11), e1128.
- Helping the Homeless: The Role of Empathy, Race and Deservingness in Motivating Policy Support and Charitable Giving
- Springer US
Print ISSN: 0190-9320
Elektronische ISSN: 1573-6687
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta