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Über dieses Buch

This book describes for readers the protection of electronic hardware in space vehicles from the negative effects of space dust and electromagnetic irradiation. The authors explain the mechanisms of “space dust” (high velocity particles in space), the effects on the on-board electronic hardware of space vehicles, and development of protection methods from these influences on humans, equipment and microcircuits. Coverage includes hard-to-find technical information on the design of special boosters for accelerating microparticles to space velocities, techniques for conducting experiments on Earth, data processing, and practical examples. The authors also discuss fabrication technologies and composition of special, radio absorbent materials for protecting space vehicles from the electromagnetic irradiation.



Chapter 1. Problems with Obtaining Materials for the Protection of Integrated Circuits from High-Velocity Streams of Microparticles and Possible Solutions

In outer space, the radio-electronic equipment of the on-board control systems of satellites, orbital automatic and manned stations, re-entry apparatuses, various “probes,” “lunar vehicles,” and “Mars vehicles,” apart from the extreme mechanical and temperature influences of radiation, is prone to the negative influence of so-called space dust—clouds (“clots”) of microparticles, traveling at velocities from one thousand to many thousands of kilometers per second and colliding with different obstacles (body of a space vehicle, packages, chips of semiconductor microcircuits, etc.), suggesting the origin of the earlier unknown physical effects and deteriorating the reliability of the on-board control systems functioning.
Anatoly Belous, Vitali Saladukha, Siarhei Shvedau

Chapter 2. Methods and Equipment for Studying the Processes of the Interaction of High-Velocity Streams of Microparticles with Materials

This chapter is dedicated to the description of the most effective techniques and analytical test equipment required for the experimental research of interaction processes of high-velocity microparticles with various protective materials.
Anatoly Belous, Vitali Saladukha, Siarhei Shvedau

Chapter 3. Effects of Exposure to High-Velocity Streams of Microparticles

Here in detail are presented the original, previously undisclosed results of the theoretical and experimental researches of the effects influence of the high-velocity flows of microparticles on the various kinds of obstacles (metallic and multilayer). A high-velocity impact of a microparticle on the surface of an obstacle primarily results in formation of a classic crater with the molten edges with the subsequent advancing into the obstacle, manifested in the instant development of the plasma processes. We will experimentally prove here the fact that development of these plasma processes is coexistent with formation of the pulse electromagnetic and ionizing irradiations. An impact of a high-energy microparticle also causes the surface and volumetric shock waves, which alongside static charges are instrumental in development of the electric breakdown of the dielectric and semiconductor materials. Here are also perused the influence peculiarities of these particles on the mechanical and electro-physical properties of multilayer materials and metals, peculiarities of the mathematical simulation of encounter of the high-velocity flows of microparticles with the space vehicles (SVs), as well as influence of the effect of the “super-deep” penetration (SDP) of microparticles on reliability of the radio-electronic devices of the spacecraft.
Anatoly Belous, Vitali Saladukha, Siarhei Shvedau

Chapter 4. Changes in the Structure and Properties of Single- and Multilayer Materials Under the Influence of the High-Velocity Stream of Microparticles

This chapter is dedicated to the results of the theoretical and experimental researches of the alteration processes of the structure and properties of metals (steel, aluminum, titanium) and single- and multilayer protective materials under influence of microparticles. A peculiarity of the impact-wave processes in the crystal structures is a very rapid (for the time of 10−11 − 10−12s) pressure build-up as per the front of the shock wave, which creates great deformations in the surface layer of an obstacle and results in crushing grains of metals into tinier crystallites. Also, here will be analyzed in depth measurements of the volt-ampere characteristics of the “unprotected” integrated circuits (ICs) of mass production as compared with the test results of the analogous parameters of integrated circuits, structurally designed in the special packages from these composite protective materials.
Anatoly Belous, Vitali Saladukha, Siarhei Shvedau

Chapter 5. Special Aspects of the Production Technology for Multilayer Protective Materials Used in the Integrated Circuit Packages

The chapter is dedicated to the vital peculiarities of the fabrication technology of multilayer protective materials for the production of integrated circuit (IC) packages of the space and special application.
Anatoly Belous, Vitali Saladukha, Siarhei Shvedau

Chapter 6. Methods of Protection from Electromagnetic Radiation

The chapter covers investigations of methods and means for the protection of biological and technical objects from the influence of electromagnetic (EM) irradiations both of the natural and artificial (anthropogenic) origin. Detailed are the theoretical and experimental data on the physical mechanisms and consequences of influences of these irradiations on the biological objects. Under consideration are the various designs of the reflective and absorbent protective screens. Special attention is attributed to the peculiarities of formation of multilayer special purpose screens for protection from the static magnetic fields, low frequency (LF) and pulse electromagnetic irradiations, as well as quasi-stationary fields.
Anatoly Belous, Vitali Saladukha, Siarhei Shvedau

Chapter 7. Environmentally Friendly Method of Production of Nanocomposites and Nanomembranes

This ‘finishing stroke’ chapter of the book is conceived with a view of “green” applications, pertaining to the discovery in 1974 by the then rather young Belarusian scholar S. Ushirenko of the effects of super-deep permeation (SDP). One of the co-authors of this book, Professor A. Belous, in collaboration with S. Ushirenko for more than 40 years, was probing the intricacies of the SDP effect, applicable to space-purposed integrated circuits. By courtesy of S. Ushirenko and his associates, in this chapter we use the textual and graphical materials of the original article [1], published in the authoritative journal Scientific Israel – Technological Advances, with the author’s minimal corrections.
Anatoly Belous, Vitali Saladukha, Siarhei Shvedau


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